chondroitin

Summary

Summary: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Fan H, Hu Y, Zhang C, Li X, Lv R, Qin L, et al. Cartilage regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and a PLGA-gelatin/chondroitin/hyaluronate hybrid scaffold. Biomaterials. 2006;27:4573-80 pubmed
    The study was to produce a novel hybrid poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-gelatin/chondroitin/hyaluronate (PLGA-GCH) scaffold and evaluate its potentials in cartilage repair...
  2. Mathuru A, Kibat C, Cheong W, Shui G, Wenk M, Friedrich R, et al. Chondroitin fragments are odorants that trigger fear behavior in fish. Curr Biol. 2012;22:538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the alarm substance is a mixture that includes the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chondroitin. Purified chondroitins trigger fear responses...
  3. Orkin R, Pratt R, Martin G. Undersulfated chondroitin sulfate in the cartilage matrix of brachymorphic mice. Dev Biol. 1976;50:82-94 pubmed
  4. Cuellar K, Chuong H, Hubbell S, Hinsdale M. Biosynthesis of chondroitin and heparan sulfate in chinese hamster ovary cells depends on xylosyltransferase II. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5195-200 pubmed
    ..Transfection of this cell line with a murine Xylt2 minigene results in the production of recombinant chondroitin sulfate-modified biglycan core protein and restoration of fibroblast growth factor binding to cell surface-..
  5. Messier S, Mihalko S, Loeser R, Legault C, Jolla J, Pfruender J, et al. Glucosamine/chondroitin combined with exercise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:1256-66 pubmed
    This preliminary study sought to determine whether using 1500/1200mg of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate (GH/CS) is effective, both separately and combined with exercise, compared to a placebo plus exercise program in ..
  6. Izumikawa T, Koike T, Shiozawa S, Sugahara K, Tamura J, Kitagawa H. Identification of chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase as chondroitin synthase-3 involved in chondroitin polymerization: chondroitin polymerization is achieved by multiple enzyme complexes consisting of chondroitin synthase family members. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11396-406 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we demonstrated that chondroitin polymerization is achieved by any two combinations of human chondroitin synthase-1 (ChSy-1), ChSy-2 (chondroitin sulfate synthase 3, CSS3), and chondroitin-polymerizing factor (ChPF)...
  7. Scroggie D, Albright A, Harris M. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:1587-90 pubmed
    ..days, patients received either placebo or a combination of 1500 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride with 1200 mg of chondroitin sulfate (Cosamin DS; Nutramax Laboratories Inc, Edgewood, Md)...
  8. Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, Cucherat M, Henrotin Y, Reginster J. Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:1514-22 pubmed
    To assess the structural and symptomatic efficacy of oral glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in knee osteoarthritis through independent meta-analyses of their effects on joint space narrowing, Lequesne Index, Western Ontario ..
  9. Sobhany M, Kakuta Y, Sugiura N, Kimata K, Negishi M. The structural basis for a coordinated reaction catalyzed by a bifunctional glycosyltransferase in chondroitin biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36022-8 pubmed publisher
    Bifunctional chondroitin synthase K4CP catalyzes glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine transfer activities and polymerizes a chondroitin chain...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kalathas D, Triantaphyllidou I, Mastronikolis N, Goumas P, Papadas T, Tsiropoulos G, et al. The chondroitin/dermatan sulfate synthesizing and modifying enzymes in laryngeal cancer: expressional and epigenetic studies. Head Neck Oncol. 2010;2:27 pubmed publisher
    ..The most characteristics are in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fine structure and proportion, which might be due to differential expression of the enzymes ..
  2. Gotoh M, Sato T, Akashima T, Iwasaki H, Kameyama A, Mochizuki H, et al. Enzymatic synthesis of chondroitin with a novel chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylgalactosamine to glucuronic acid in initiation and elongation of chondroitin sulfate synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38189-96 pubmed
    ..The N-acetylgalactosamine-glucuronic acid linkage has been identified only in chondroitin sulfate; therefore, we examined its chondroitin elongation and initiation activities...
  3. Adamczyk P, Zenkert C, Balasubramanian P, Yamada S, Murakoshi S, Sugahara K, et al. A non-sulfated chondroitin stabilizes membrane tubulation in cnidarian organelles. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a non-sulfated chondroitin appears as a scaffold in early morphogenesis of all nematocyst types in Hydra and Nematostella...
  4. Teng Y, Tan P, Chia S, Zam N, Lau W, Cheng C, et al. Increased expression of non-sulfated chondroitin correlates with adverse clinicopathological parameters in prostate cancer. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:893-901 pubmed publisher
    b>Chondroitin sulfate is a structurally diverse glycosaminoglycan, which contains a variable degree of sulfation that helps to determine its biological function...
  5. Le Jan S, Hayashi M, Kasza Z, Eriksson I, Bishop J, Weibrecht I, et al. Functional overlap between chondroitin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans during VEGF-induced sprouting angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..study was undertaken to investigate if there is a functional overlap between heparan sulfate proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans during sprouting angiogenesis...
  6. Klüppel M, Samavarchi Tehrani P, Liu K, Wrana J, Hinek A. C4ST-1/CHST11-controlled chondroitin sulfation interferes with oncogenic HRAS signaling in Costello syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20:870-7 pubmed publisher
    ..observation that heart tissue from patients with Costello syndrome showed a loss of the glycosaminoglycan chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) inspired our present study aimed to explore a functional involvement of the chondroitin sulfate ..
  7. Sato M, Grant B, Harada A, Sato K. Rab11 is required for synchronous secretion of chondroitin proteoglycans after fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that these vesicles are indeed cortical granules, delivering essential chondroitin proteoglycans and mucin-like glycoproteins to the early embryonic extracellular matrices (ECMs)...
  8. Sakko A, Butler M, Byers S, Reinboth B, Stahl J, Kench J, et al. Immunohistochemical level of unsulfated chondroitin disaccharides in the cancer stroma is an independent predictor of prostate cancer relapse. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:2488-97 pubmed publisher
    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is significantly increased in the peritumoral stroma of prostate tumors compared with normal stroma and is an independent predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse following radical ..
  9. Avnur Z, Geiger B. Immunocytochemical localization of native chondroitin-sulfate in tissues and cultured cells using specific monoclonal antibody. Cell. 1984;38:811-22 pubmed
    b>Chondroitin-sulfate containing proteoglycan (CSPG) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) was visualized in chick tissues and cell cultures with a monoclonal antibody, CS-56...
  10. Rainer G, Menapace R, Schmid K, Sacu S, Kiss B, Heinze G, et al. Natural course of intraocular pressure after cataract surgery with sodium chondroitin sulfate 4%-sodium hyaluronate 3% (Viscoat). Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1714-8 pubmed
    ..the natural course of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its peak after small-incision cataract surgery with chondroitin sulfate 4%-sodium hyaluronate 3% (Viscoat, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). Observational case series...
  11. Murai T, Sougawa N, Kawashima H, Yamaguchi K, Miyasaka M. CD44-chondroitin sulfate interactions mediate leukocyte rolling under physiological flow conditions. Immunol Lett. 2004;93:163-70 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that the recombinant CD44 protein binds to other GAGs, including chondroitin sulfates (CS), although the physiological significance of this interaction has remained unclear...
  12. Meyer Puttlitz B, Milev P, Junker E, Zimmer I, Margolis R, Margolis R. Chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycans of nervous tissue: developmental changes of neurocan and phosphacan. J Neurochem. 1995;65:2327-37 pubmed
    ..and concentration of the hyaluronic acid-binding proteoglycan, neurocan, and of phosphacan, another major chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of nervous tissue that represents the extracellular domain of a receptor-type protein ..
  13. Matsuno H, Nakamura H, Katayama K, Hayashi S, Kano S, Yudoh K, et al. Effects of an oral administration of glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside on the synovial fluid properties in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:288-92 pubmed
    The effects of an orally administered combination of a glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside (GCQG) supplement on the synovial fluid properties of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were investigated ..
  14. Sarrazin S, Lyon M, Deakin J, Guerrini M, Lassalle P, Delehedde M, et al. Characterization and binding activity of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain from Endocan, a soluble endothelial proteoglycan. Glycobiology. 2010;20:1380-8 pubmed publisher
    Endocan is a recently identified soluble chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycan...
  15. Fan H, Tao H, Wu Y, Hu Y, Yan Y, Luo Z. TGF-?3 immobilized PLGA-gelatin/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid hybrid scaffold for cartilage regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;95:982-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is to evaluate the potentials of TGF-?3 immobilized poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-gelatin/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid (PLGA-GCH) hybrid scaffold for cartilage regeneration...
  16. Asimakopoulou A, Theocharis A, Tzanakakis G, Karamanos N. The biological role of chondroitin sulfate in cancer and chondroitin-based anticancer agents. In Vivo. 2008;22:385-9 pubmed
    b>Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) such as versican accumulate in tumor stroma and play a key role in tumor growth and invasion...
  17. Volpi N, Zhang Z, Linhardt R. Mass spectrometry for the characterization of unsulfated chondroitin oligosaccharides from 2-mers to 16-mers. Comparison with hyaluronic acid oligomers. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:3526-30 pubmed publisher
    ..and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses performed in negative ion mode of saturated unsulfated chondroitin oligosaccharides up to 16-mers and comparison with hyaluronic acid (HA) oligomers differing only in the nature ..
  18. Yamada S, Morimoto H, Fujisawa T, Sugahara K. Glycosaminoglycans in Hydra magnipapillata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): demonstration of chondroitin in the developing nematocyst, the sting organelle, and structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans. Glycobiology. 2007;17:886-94 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterized GAGs of Hydra magnipapillata. Immunostaining using anti-GAG antibodies showed chondroitin or chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the developing nematocyst, which is a sting organelle specific to cnidarians...
  19. Filipek Gorniok B, Holmborn K, Haitina T, Habicher J, Oliveira M, Hellgren C, et al. Expression of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosyltransferases during early zebrafish development. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:964-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix have important structural and regulatory functions. Six human genes have previously been shown to catalyze CS/DS polymerization...
  20. Suzuki N, Toyoda H, Sano M, Nishiwaki K. Chondroitin acts in the guidance of gonadal distal tip cells in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2006;300:635-46 pubmed
    ..Here we report that two proteins, SQV-5 (chondroitin synthase) and its cofactor MIG-22 (chondroitin polymerizing factor), are required for chondroitin biosynthesis ..
  21. Oshika T, Okamoto F, Kaji Y, Hiraoka T, Kiuchi T, Sato M, et al. Retention and removal of a new viscous dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device during cataract surgery in animal eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:485-7 pubmed
    ..These features of DisCoVisc should be highly advantageous when considering covering the entire cataract surgery procedure with a single OVD. ..
  22. Barnhill J, Fye C, Williams D, Reda D, Harris C, Clegg D. Chondroitin product selection for the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2006;46:14-24 pubmed
    To select a high-quality chondroitin dosage form and/or an appropriate source of sodium chondroitin for the National Institutes of Health's Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT). Controlled experimental trials...
  23. Chang C, Kuo T, Lin C, Chou C, Chen K, Lin F, et al. Tissue engineering-based cartilage repair with allogenous chondrocytes and gelatin-chondroitin-hyaluronan tri-copolymer scaffold: a porcine model assessed at 18, 24, and 36 weeks. Biomaterials. 2006;27:1876-88 pubmed
    ..With OC defects, the subchondral bone plate was not restored by cartilage tissue engineering. These results show that tri-copolymer can be used in in vivo cartilage tissue engineering for the treatment of FT articular defects. ..
  24. Nakagawa H, Hama Y, Sumi T, Li S, Maskos K, Kalayanamitra K, et al. Occurrence of a nonsulfated chondroitin proteoglycan in the dried saliva of Collocalia swiftlets (edible bird's-nest). Glycobiology. 2007;17:157-64 pubmed
    ..the dried forms of regurgitated saliva of male Collocalia swiftlets) were rich in a PG containing nonsulfated chondroitin glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)...
  25. Guerardel Y, Balanzino L, Maes E, Leroy Y, Coddeville B, Oriol R, et al. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes unusual O-linked glycans: identification of glucose-substituted mucin-type O-glycans and short chondroitin-like oligosaccharides. Biochem J. 2001;357:167-82 pubmed
    ..In particular, the data confirmed that C. elegans synthesizes the ubiquitous linker sequence GlcA(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Xyl. ..
  26. Rigden D, Jedrzejas M. Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase in complex with chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate disaccharides. Insights into specificity and mechanism of action. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:50596-606 pubmed
    ..The enzyme degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin/chondroitin sulfates by cleaving the beta1,4-glycosidic linkage between the glycan units of these polymeric ..
  27. Izumikawa T, Okuura Y, Koike T, Sakoda N, Kitagawa H. Chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 regulates the chain length of chondroitin sulfate in co-operation with chondroitin N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2. Biochem J. 2011;434:321-31 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we demonstrated that sog9 cells, a murine L cell mutant, are deficient in the expression of C4ST (chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase)-1 and that they synthesize fewer and shorter CS (chondroitin sulfate) chains...
  28. Cimini D, De Rosa M, Viggiani A, Restaino O, Carlino E, Schiraldi C. Improved fructosylated chondroitin production by kfoC overexpression in E. coli K4. J Biotechnol. 2010;150:324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we provide evidence that homologous overexpression of the chondroitin polymerase, encoded by the kfoC gene, acts on a potential bottleneck for production of capsular polysaccharide, ..
  29. Hwang H, Olson S, Esko J, Horvitz H. Caenorhabditis elegans early embryogenesis and vulval morphogenesis require chondroitin biosynthesis. Nature. 2003;423:439-43 pubmed
    ..Seven of the eight sqv genes have been shown to control the biosynthesis of the glycosaminoglycans chondroitin and heparan sulphate...
  30. Kaur G, Rana V, Jain S, Tiwary A. Colon delivery of budesonide: evaluation of chitosan-chondroitin sulfate interpolymer complex. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2010;11:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..as binder were coated to a weight gain of 10% w/w employing aqueous mixtures containing chitosan (CH) and chondroitin sulfate (CS)...
  31. Rodríguez Carvajal M, Imberty A, Perez S. Conformational behavior of chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate in relation to their physical properties as inferred by molecular modeling. Biopolymers. 2003;69:15-28 pubmed
    b>Chondroitin and chondroitin sulfates belong to the family of glycosaminoglycans. They are most widely distributed in animal tissues, where they are involved in structural functions and in cell-cell communication...
  32. Schwenn O, Dick H, Krummenauer F, Christmann S, Vogel A, Pfeiffer N. Healon5 versus Viscoat during cataract surgery: intraocular pressure, laser flare and corneal changes. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000;238:861-7 pubmed
    ..However, the IOP in the early postoperative period was higher in the Viscoat group than in the Healon5 group. ..
  33. Wandel S, Juni P, Tendal B, Nüesch E, Villiger P, Welton N, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c4675 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effect of glucosamine, chondroitin, or the two in combination on joint pain and on radiological progression of disease in osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Design Network meta-analysis...
  34. Sattelle B, Shakeri J, Roberts I, Almond A. A 3D-structural model of unsulfated chondroitin from high-field NMR: 4-sulfation has little effect on backbone conformation. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:291-302 pubmed publisher
    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is essential in human health and disease but exactly how sulfation dictates its 3D-structure at the atomic level is unclear...
  35. Maculotti K, Tira E, Sonaggere M, Perugini P, Conti B, Modena T, et al. In vitro evaluation of chondroitin sulphate-chitosan microspheres as carrier for the delivery of proteins. J Microencapsul. 2009;26:535-43 pubmed publisher
    A novel formulation based on chondroitin sulphate/chitosan microspheres (CS/CH) has been investigated for oral delivery of macromolecules using ovalbumin as the model protein (OVA)...
  36. Smetsers T, van de Westerlo E, ten Dam G, Clarijs R, Versteeg E, van Geloof W, et al. Localization and characterization of melanoma-associated glycosaminoglycans: differential expression of chondroitin and heparan sulfate epitopes in melanoma. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2965-70 pubmed
    ..Antibodies EW4E1 and EW4G2 identified a melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate/heparan sulfate epitope, whereas antibody EW4B7 recognized a melanoma-associated heparan sulfate ..
  37. Grindrod K, Marra C, Colley L, Cibere J, Tsuyuki R, Esdaile J, et al. After patients are diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis, what do they do?. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To learn more about the health services and products that patients use after receiving a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as well as the trajectory of their health-related quality of life (HRQOL)...
  38. Kuo T, Huang A, Chang H, Lin F, Chen S, Chen R, et al. Regeneration of dentin-pulp complex with cementum and periodontal ligament formation using dental bud cells in gelatin-chondroitin-hyaluronan tri-copolymer scaffold in swine. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;86:1062-8 pubmed
    ..After evaluation, no regenerated tooth was found in the transplantation site of the control group. The current results using DBSs/GCHT scaffold autotransplantation suggest a technical breakthrough for tooth regeneration. ..
  39. Tiedemann K, Olander B, Eklund E, Todorova L, Bengtsson M, Maccarana M, et al. Regulation of the chondroitin/dermatan fine structure by transforming growth factor-beta1 through effects on polymer-modifying enzymes. Glycobiology. 2005;15:1277-85 pubmed
    The chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (CS/DSPGs), biglycan, decorin, and versican play several important roles in extracellular matrix influencing matrix organization, cell proliferation, and recruitment...
  40. Kitagawa H, Uyama T, Sugahara K. Molecular cloning and expression of a human chondroitin synthase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38721-6 pubmed
    We have identified a human chondroitin synthase from the HUGE (human unidentified gene-encoded large proteins) protein data base by screening with two keywords: "one transmembrane domain" and "galactosyltransferase family...
  41. Schiraldi C, Carcarino I, Alfano A, Restaino O, Panariello A, De Rosa M. Purification of chondroitin precursor from Escherichia coli K4 fermentation broth using membrane processing. Biotechnol J. 2011;6:410-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently the possibility of producing the capsular polysaccharide K4, a fructosylated chondroitin, in fed-batch experiments was assessed...
  42. Nawa K, Sakano K, Fujiwara H, Sato Y, Sugiyama N, Teruuchi T, et al. Presence and function of chondroitin-4-sulfate on recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;171:729-37 pubmed
    ..Purified rsTM beta contained bound chondroitin-4-sulfate as judged by HPLC detection of the chondroitinase ABC and AC I digestion product, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-..
  43. Kantor E, Lampe J, Peters U, Shen D, Vaughan T, White E. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    Glucosamine and chondroitin are non-vitamin, non-mineral supplements which have anti-inflammatory properties...
  44. Mace K, Saxod R, Feuerstein C, Sadoul R, Hemming F. Chondroitin and keratan sulfates have opposing effects on attachment and outgrowth of ventral mesencephalic explants in culture. J Neurosci Res. 2002;70:46-56 pubmed
    ..Western blotting experiments confirmed quantitative and qualitative changes in chondroitin sulfate (neurocan, phosphacan) and keratan sulfate (KS) containing PGs in these substrates and enzymatic ..
  45. Izumikawa T, Kitagawa H, Mizuguchi S, Nomura K, Nomura K, Tamura J, et al. Nematode chondroitin polymerizing factor showing cell-/organ-specific expression is indispensable for chondroitin synthesis and embryonic cell division. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53755-61 pubmed
    b>Chondroitin polymerization was first demonstrated in vitro when human chondroitin synthase (ChSy) was coexpressed with human chondroitin polymerizing factor (ChPF), which is homologous to ChSy but has little glycosyltransferase activity...
  46. Bell G, Kantor E, Lampe J, Shen D, White E. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in relation to mortality. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012;27:593-603 pubmed publisher
    Glucosamine and chondroitin are products commonly used by older adults in the US and Europe. There is limited evidence that they have anti-inflammatory properties, which could provide risk reduction of several diseases...
  47. Matalon R, Arbogast B, Justice P, Brandt I, Dorfman A. Morquio's syndrome: deficiency of a chondroitin sulfate N-acetylhexosamine sulfate sulfatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1974;61:759-65 pubmed
  48. DeAngelis P, Gunay N, Toida T, Mao W, Linhardt R. Identification of the capsular polysaccharides of Type D and F Pasteurella multocida as unmodified heparin and chondroitin, respectively. Carbohydr Res. 2002;337:1547-52 pubmed
    ..repeating unit and the Type F polymer is an unmodified chondroitin with a -->4)-beta-D-Glcp-UA-(1-->3)-beta-D-Galp-NAc-(1--> repeating unit...
  49. Schiraldi C, Cimini D, De Rosa M. Production of chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:1209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we present an overview of the diverse applications and production methods of chondroitin reported so far in literature with a specific focus on novel microbial biotechnological approaches.
  50. Restaino O, Cimini D, Catapano A, De Rosa M, Schiraldi C. High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli K4 in a microfiltration bioreactor: a step towards improvement of chondroitin precursor production. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS) whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain...
  51. Huskisson E. Glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis. J Int Med Res. 2008;36:1161-79 pubmed
    ..Glucosamine and chondroitin, classed as over-the-counter supplements or nutraceuticals, are regularly self-administered by patients with OA...
  52. Schiraldi C, Alfano A, Cimini D, Panariello A, Restaino O, Rosa M. Application of a 22L scale membrane bioreactor and cross-flow ultrafiltration to obtain purified chondroitin. Biotechnol Prog. 2012;28:1012-8 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the possibility of producing fructosylated chondroitin from the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O5:K4:H4, in fed-batch and microfiltration experiments was assessed on a 2 L bioreactor...
  53. Greenlee H, Crew K, Shao T, Kranwinkel G, Kalinsky K, Maurer M, et al. Phase II study of glucosamine with chondroitin on aromatase inhibitor-associated joint symptoms in women with breast cancer. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:1077-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a single-arm, open-label, phase II study evaluating glucosamine-sulfate (1,500 mg/day)?+?chondroitin-sulfate (1,200 mg/day) for 24 weeks to treat joint pain/stiffness in postmenopausal women with early stage ..