4 alpha glucosidase glucan 1


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.

Top Publications

  1. Li Y, Shi G, Wang W, Wang Z. A newly isolated Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis capable to secrete amyloltic enzymes with raw-starch-digesting activity. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:383-90 pubmed
    ..These results signified that amyloltic enzymes secreted by strain of Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis CICIM-CU F0088 were kinds of thermostable amyloltic enzymes and able to digest raw corn starch. ..
  2. Lee S, Park M, Heo S, Kang S, Ko S, Han J, et al. Dieckol isolated from Ecklonia cava inhibits alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase in vitro and alleviates postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2633-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these result indicated that dieckol might be a potent inhibitor for ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase. ..
  3. Yang K, Xu N, Su W. Co-immobilized enzymes in magnetic chitosan beads for improved hydrolysis of macromolecular substrates under a time-varying magnetic field. J Biotechnol. 2010;148:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of multi-enzyme co-immobilization in magnetic anisotropic chitosan beads may be extended to other practical applications that involve coordinated enzymatic reactions of macromolecular substrates. ..
  4. Yamakawa S, Yamada R, Tanaka T, Ogino C, Kondo A. Repeated batch fermentation from raw starch using a maltose transporter and amylase expressing diploid yeast strain. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..26 U/ml during repeated fermentation. The highest ethanol productivity was 2.22 g/l/h at the fourth batch, and after ten cycles, ethanol productivity of more than 1.43 g/l/h was retained, as was alpha-amylase activity at 6.43 U/ml. ..
  5. Macchi B, Minutolo A, Grelli S, Cardona F, Cordero F, Mastino A, et al. The novel proapoptotic activity of nonnatural enantiomer of Lentiginosine. Glycobiology. 2010;20:500-6 pubmed publisher
  6. Koike Y, An M, Tang Y, Syo T, Osaka N, Morimura S, et al. Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process. J Biosci Bioeng. 2009;108:508-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process. ..
  7. Yamada R, Tanaka T, Ogino C, Fukuda H, Kondo A. Novel strategy for yeast construction using delta-integration and cell fusion to efficiently produce ethanol from raw starch. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our strategy for constructing yeasts resulted in the simultaneous overexpression of genes integrated into the genome and improvements in the practical potential of yeasts. ..
  8. Deka J, Paul A, Chattopadhyay A. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles. Nanoscale. 2010;2:1405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration. ..
  9. Kilonzo P, Margaritis A, Bergougnou M. Repeated-batch production of glucoamylase using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;37:773-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The repeated batch using immobilized cell of recombinant S. cerevisiae in the ALALFBB system thus provides a feasible method for stable, long-term and high-level production of glucoamylase. ..

More Information


  1. Kim J, Kim H, Lim M, Ko H, Chin J, Lee H, et al. Construction of a direct starch-fermenting industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing glucoamylase, alpha-amylase and debranching enzyme. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The new strain produced 8% (v/v) ethanol (62.8 g l(-1)) from 20% (w/v) soluble starch after 2 days, fermentation. ..
  2. Driouch H, Sommer B, Wittmann C. Morphology engineering of Aspergillus niger for improved enzyme production. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;105:1058-68 pubmed publisher
  3. Kilonzo P, Margaritis A, Bergougnou M. Plasmid stability and kinetics of continuous production of glucoamylase by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an airlift bioreactor. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:1157-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the growth rate had no significant effect on plasmid instability. The proposed kinetics was consistent with experimental results, and the model simulated the experimental data well. ..
  4. Lee J, Seo E, Kweon D, Park K, Jin Y. Fermentation of rice bran and defatted rice bran for butanol 5 production using clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:482-90 pubmed
    ..The highest butanol production (12.24 g/l) was observed from the hydrolyzate of DRB with acid and enzyme treatment after supplementation of P2 solution...
  5. Masuda S, Kikuchi K, Matsumoto Y, Sugimoto T, Shoji H, Tanabe M. Analysis of enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae using whole barley. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:2190-5 pubmed
  6. Dona A, Pages G, Gilbert R, Gaborieau M, Kuchel P. Kinetics of in vitro digestion of starches monitored by time-resolved (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:638-44 pubmed publisher
    ..6 +/- 0.2) x 10(-2) mmol L(-1) s(-1) for the first stage of digestion, and (9.0 +/- 1.0) x 10(-3) and (4.7 +/- 1.4) x 10(-3) mmol L(-1) s(-1) for the second stage, giving a ratio of the two V(max) values of 2.1 and 3.4, respectively. ..
  7. Trovati J, Giordano R, Giordano R. Improving the performance of a continuous process for the production of ethanol from starch. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;156:76-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Productivity reached 11.7 g L(-1) h(-1), with 97.0% of TRS conversion and 92.0% of the ethanol theoretical yield. The reactor was operated during 275 h without any indication of destabilization. ..
  8. Melzer G, Esfandabadi M, Franco Lara E, Wittmann C. Flux Design: In silico design of cell factories based on correlation of pathway fluxes to desired properties. BMC Syst Biol. 2009;3:120 pubmed publisher
  9. Bai Y, Li Y, Lei L. Synthesis of a mesoporous functional copolymer bead carrier and its properties for glucoamylase immobilization. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;83:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity recovery of the three series of immobilized Glus could reach 76%, 79%, and 86%, respectively. The immobilized Glus exhibit excellent stability and reusability than that of the free ones. ..
  10. Rebros M, Rosenberg M, Grosová Z, Kristofíková L, Paluch M, Sipocz M. Ethanol production from starch hydrolyzates using Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase entrapped in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;158:561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These two systems were stable in both glucoamylase activity and microorganism productivity. ..
  11. Sugimoto H, Nakaura M, Nishimura S, Karita S, Miyake H, Tanaka A. Kinetically trapped metastable intermediate of a disulfide-deficient mutant of the starch-binding domain of glucoamylase. Protein Sci. 2009;18:1715-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the intermediate could be an off-pathway type, possibly a misfolded state, that has to undergo unfolding on its way to the native state. ..
  12. Park J, Seyama T, Shiroma R, Ike M, Srichuwong S, Nagata K, et al. Efficient recovery of glucose and fructose via enzymatic saccharification of rice straw with soft carbohydrates. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:1072-7 pubmed
    ..5% in cv. Habataki and 34.1% in cv. Leafstar. Thus, rice straw with soft carbohydrates can be regarded as a novel feedstock for economically feasible production of readily-fermentable glucose and fructose for bioethanol. ..
  13. Wei A, Zhang X, Wei D, Chen G, Wu Q, Yang S. Effects of cassava starch hydrolysate on cell growth and lipid accumulation of the heterotrophic microalgae Chlorella protothecoides. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:1383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..8 and 4.19 g/L, representing increases of 42.3 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to using glucose as the organic carbon source. This suggests that CSH is a better carbon source than glucose for heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. ..
  14. Cang Rong J, Pastorin G. The influence of carbon nanotubes on enzyme activity and structure: investigation of different immobilization procedures through enzyme kinetics and circular dichroism studies. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:255102 pubmed publisher
    ..This paves the way for future design of efficient CNT-enzyme nanostructure bioreactors. ..
  15. Negi S, Banerjee R. Study of conformational changes in glucoamylase of Aspergillus awamori nakazawa in presence of denaturants through CD-spectroscopy. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:7577-80 pubmed publisher
    ..0-11.0) and maximum activity was observed at pH 4.5. Activity of glucoamylase does not vary too much between pH 5.5 and 9.0. Conformational changes during wide range of pH were supported with its activity coincided. ..
  16. Kumar P, Satyanarayana T. Microbial glucoamylases: characteristics and applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2009;29:225-55 pubmed publisher
  17. Ledder R, Madhwani T, Sreenivasan P, De Vizio W, McBain A. An in vitro evaluation of hydrolytic enzymes as dental plaque control agents. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:482-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, enzyme exposure increased aggregation within extant plaques. ..
  18. Kristensen J, Olsen S, Laursen B, Kragh K, Poulsen C, Besenbacher F, et al. Enzymatic generation of hydrogen peroxide shows promising antifouling effect. Biofouling. 2010;26:141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme system had a performance similar to a copper-based commercial coating and thus appears to have potential as a non-persistent AF agent. ..
  19. Wang J, Wang Z, Liu X, Guo X, He X, Wensel P, et al. Construction of an industrial brewing yeast strain to manufacture beer with low caloric content and improved flavor. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:767-74 pubmed
    ..No heterologous DNA sequences or drug-resistance genes were introduced into TQ1. So, the gene manipulations in this work properly solved the addressed problems in commercial beer manufacture. ..
  20. Sun H, Zhao P, Ge X, Xia Y, Hao Z, Liu J, et al. Recent advances in microbial raw starch degrading enzymes. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:988-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews the recent development in the production, purification, properties, and application of microbial RSDE. This is the first review on microbial RSDE to date. ..
  21. Luo W, Wilson A, Miller J. Characterization of a 52 kDa exoantigen of Penicillium chrysogenum and monoclonal antibodies suitable for its detection. Mycopathologia. 2010;169:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, it had not been reported as an allergen. The monoclonal antibodies developed have the potential for use in assays of P. chrysogenum antigens in spores and spore/mycelial fragments in dust. ..
  22. Christiansen C, Hachem M, Glaring M, Viksø Nielsen A, Sigurskjold B, Svensson B, et al. A CBM20 low-affinity starch-binding domain from glucan, water dikinase. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1159-63 pubmed publisher
  23. Wang X, Wang Q, Liu Y, Ma H. On-site production of crude glucoamylase for kitchen waste hydrolysis. Waste Manag Res. 2010;28:539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimum enzyme dose 8% (crude enzyme/kichen waste, w/w) was not too big, and was sufficient to hydrolyse 10% (dry basis) sKW slurry to produce a maximum amount of reducing sugar of 55.4 g L(-1). ..
  24. van Diggelen O, Oemardien L, Van der Beek N, Kroos M, Wind H, Voznyi Y, et al. Enzyme analysis for Pompe disease in leukocytes; superior results with natural substrate compared with artificial substrates. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2009;32:416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..271G>A (p.D91N or GAA2; homozygosity in approximately 1:1000 caucasians), a second assay employing MU-alphaGlc substrate plus acarbose or DNA analysis is required. ..
  25. Paciello L, Romano F, de Alteriis E, Parascandola P, Romano V. Glucoamylase by recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis cells: production and modelling of a fed batch bioreactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2010;33:525-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The theoretical and experimental approach permitted to catch sight of possible physiological changes in the producer strain and set up a suitable fed-batch run to achieve a higher cell density. ..
  26. Kilonzo P, Margaritis A, Bergougnou M. Airlift-driven fibrous-bed bioreactor for continuous production of glucoamylase using immobilized recombinant yeast cells. J Biotechnol. 2009;143:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This was in part due to the high viability (approximately 80%) in the immobilized cell system and the selective immobilization of the plasmid-carrying cells in the fibrous bed, and perhaps increased plasmid copy number. ..
  27. Nishibata T, Tashiro K, Kanahori S, Hashizume C, Kitagawa M, Okuma K, et al. Comprehensive measurement of total nondigestible carbohydrates in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, we confirmed a single measurement of LC can determine all NDO in foods, and total NDC in foods can be determined by unifying existing AOAC Official Methods. ..
  28. Nadeau O, Liu W, Boulatnikov I, Sage J, Peters J, Carlson G. The glucoamylase inhibitor acarbose is a direct activator of phosphorylase kinase. Biochemistry. 2010;49:6505-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the first experimental evidence of such a domain in PhK by demonstrating that the glucoamylase inhibitor acarbose binds PhK, perturbs its structure, and stimulates its kinase activity. ..
  29. Konwarh R, Kalita D, Mahanta C, Mandal M, Karak N. Magnetically recyclable, antimicrobial, and catalytically enhanced polymer-assisted "green" nanosystem-immobilized Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:1983-92 pubmed publisher
  30. Tam T, Pita M, Ornatska M, Katz E. Biofuel cell controlled by enzyme logic network--approaching physiologically regulated devices. Bioelectrochemistry. 2009;76:4-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such devices will provide a new dimension in bioelectronics and biocomputing benefiting from the integration of both concepts. ..
  31. McCleary B, DeVries J, Rader J, Cohen G, Prosky L, Mugford D, et al. Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:221-33 pubmed
    ..41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action. ..
  32. Zheng Y, Xue Y, Zhang Y, Zhou C, Schwaneberg U, Ma Y. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable glucoamylase from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;87:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The cations Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, and reducing agent DTT showed no obvious effects on the action of TtcGA. In contrast, the enzyme was inactivated by Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and EDTA...
  33. Qiu J, Wei M, Zhang W, Shi H. [Clinical and molecular genetic study on two patients of the juvenile form of Pompe disease in China]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2007;45:760-4 pubmed
    ..Two novel missense mutations Thr711Arg, Val723Met were found on the other patients. Three mutations identified in the patient were new missense mutations causing late onset GSD II, which had not been reported elsewhere before. ..
  34. da Silva T, Maller A, Damásio A, Michelin M, Ward R, Hirata I, et al. Properties of a purified thermostable glucoamylase from Aspergillus niveus. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;36:1439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..ficcum, A. terreus, A. awamori and A. shirousami. We conclude that the reported properties, such as solvent, pH and temperature stabilities, make A. niveus glucoamylase a potentially attractive enzyme for biotechnological applications. ..
  35. Kumar P, Islam A, Ahmad F, Satyanarayana T. Characterization of a neutral and thermostable glucoamylase from the thermophilic mold Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae: activity, stability, and structural correlation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:879-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The only product of TGA action on starch was glucose, and it did not exhibit transglycosylation activity even at 40% glucose that can also be considered as an advantage during starch saccharification. ..
  36. Liu X, Wang Z, Wang J, Lu Y, He X, Zhang B. Expression of GAI gene and disruption of PEP4 gene in an industrial brewer's yeast strain. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant strain (Ts-10) had better foam performance and mouthfeel in addition to low-calories values. It was free of heterologous DNA sequences and drug-resistance genes and could be safely used in beer production. ..
  37. Kumar P, Satyanarayana T. Overproduction of glucoamylase by a deregulated mutant of a thermophilic mould Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;158:113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved productivity and higher specific growth rate make T. indicae-seudaticae CR19 a useful strain for glucoamylase production. ..