glucose 6 phosphate


Summary: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Hampel K, Tinsley M. Evidence for preorganization of the glmS ribozyme ligand binding pocket. Biochemistry. 2006;45:7861-71 pubmed
    ..This mode of action is different from that observed for other riboswitches characterized to date, which act by inducing secondary and tertiary structure changes. ..
  2. Hutny J, Wilson J. Further studies on the role of phospholipids in determining the characteristics of mitochondrial binding sites for type I hexokinase. Acta Biochim Pol. 2000;47:1045-60 pubmed
  3. Gould M, Maclean C, Kuschner W, Rydzak C, Owens D. Accuracy of positron emission tomography for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and mass lesions: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2001;285:914-24 pubmed
    ..In current practice, FDG-PET has high sensitivity and intermediate specificity for malignancy. ..
  4. Weise S, Schrader S, Kleinbeck K, Sharkey T. Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:879-86 pubmed
    ..The redox status of the chloroplasts was found to be oxidized under conditions favoring starch degradation. ..
  5. Krebs M, Krssak M, Nowotny P, Weghuber D, Gruber S, Mlynarik V, et al. Free fatty acids inhibit the glucose-stimulated increase of intramuscular glucose-6-phosphate concentration in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:2153-60 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the lack of an increase in muscular G6P along with reduction of whole body glucose clearance indicates that FFA might directly inhibit glucose transport/phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. ..
  6. Morita T, El Kazzaz W, Tanaka Y, Inada T, Aiba H. Accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate or fructose 6-phosphate is responsible for destabilization of glucose transporter mRNA in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15608-14 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the RNase E-dependent destabilization of ptsG mRNA occurs in response to accumulation of glucose-6-P or fructose-6-P. ..
  7. da Silva W, Gomez Puyou A, de Gomez Puyou M, Moreno Sanchez R, De Felice F, de Meis L, et al. Mitochondrial bound hexokinase activity as a preventive antioxidant defense: steady-state ADP formation as a regulatory mechanism of membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39846-55 pubmed
  8. Winkler W, Nahvi A, Roth A, Collins J, Breaker R. Control of gene expression by a natural metabolite-responsive ribozyme. Nature. 2004;428:281-6 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that ribozyme switches may have functioned as metabolite sensors in primitive organisms, and further suggest that modern cells retain some of these ancient genetic control systems. ..
  9. Kalamorz F, Reichenbach B, März W, Rak B, Görke B. Feedback control of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase GlmS expression depends on the small RNA GlmZ and involves the novel protein YhbJ in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:1518-33 pubmed
    ..As in yhbJ mutants GlcN-6-P has no effect, YhbJ is essential for sensing this metabolite. ..

More Information


  1. Lytovchenko A, Bieberich K, Willmitzer L, Fernie A. Carbon assimilation and metabolism in potato leaves deficient in plastidial phosphoglucomutase. Planta. 2002;215:802-11 pubmed
  2. Szendroedi J, Schmid A, Chmelik M, Toth C, Brehm A, Krssak M, et al. Muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis and glucose transport/phosphorylation in type 2 diabetes. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e154 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that alterations in insulin action and mitochondrial function should be present even in nonobese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  3. Brehm A, Krssak M, Schmid A, Nowotny P, Waldhausl W, Roden M. Increased lipid availability impairs insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2006;55:136-40 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 0.9 vs. CON 14.6 +/- 1.2 micromol . g muscle(-1) . min(-1), P < 0.05). Physiologically increased plasma FFA concentrations reduce insulin-stimulated muscle ATP synthase flux in parallel with induction of insulin resistance. ..
  4. Wagner G, Kovacs J, Low P, Orosz F, Ovadi J. Tubulin and microtubule are potential targets for brain hexokinase binding. FEBS Lett. 2001;509:81-4 pubmed
    ..This activation was also observed in brain, but not in muscle cell-free extract. The possible physiological relevance of the multiple heteroassociation of brain hexokinase is discussed. ..
  5. de Cerqueira Cesar M, Wilson J. Functional characteristics of hexokinase bound to the type a and type B sites of bovine brain mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;397:106-12 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that mechanisms for regulation of mitochondrial hexokinase activity, and thereby cerebral glycolytic metabolism, may depend on the ratio of Type A:Type B sites, which varies in different species. ..
  6. McCarthy T, Plog M, Floy S, Jansen J, Soukup J, Soukup G. Ligand requirements for glmS ribozyme self-cleavage. Chem Biol. 2005;12:1221-6 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that ligand is integral to catalysis, consistent with a coenzyme role for GlcN6P and illustrating an expanded capacity for biological RNA catalysis. ..
  7. Roden M, Krssak M, Stingl H, Gruber S, Hofer A, Fürnsinn C, et al. Rapid impairment of skeletal muscle glucose transport/phosphorylation by free fatty acids in humans. Diabetes. 1999;48:358-64 pubmed
  8. Hogema B, Arents J, Bader R, Eijkemans K, Yoshida H, Takahashi H, et al. Inducer exclusion in Escherichia coli by non-PTS substrates: the role of the PEP to pyruvate ratio in determining the phosphorylation state of enzyme IIAGlc. Mol Microbiol. 1998;30:487-98 pubmed
    ..The implications of these new findings for our view on catabolite repression and inducer exclusion are discussed. ..
  9. Ventura F, Tavares de Almeida I, Wanders R. Inhibition of adenine nucleotide transport in rat liver mitochondria by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A beta-oxidation intermediates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:873-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data strongly suggest that the inhibition of ADP-induced respiration with l-glutamate as substrate by LCAC is primarily due to inhibition of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier. ..
  10. Knowles J. Chemistry. Seeing is believing. Science. 2003;299:2002-3 pubmed
  11. Hirayama T, Kudo F, Huang Z, Eguchi T. Role of glutamate 243 in the active site of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase from Bacillus circulans. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:418-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this characteristic glutamate residue of DOI synthase is a key determinant to distinguish the reaction mechanism between DOI synthase and DHQ synthase as well as primary sequence. ..
  12. Klein D, Ferré D Amaré A. Structural basis of glmS ribozyme activation by glucosamine-6-phosphate. Science. 2006;313:1752-6 pubmed
    ..Our structures suggest that the amine group of the glmS ribozyme-bound coenzyme performs general acid-base and electrostatic catalysis. ..
  13. Hanashiro I, Roach P. Mutations of muscle glycogen synthase that disable activation by glucose 6-phosphate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;397:286-92 pubmed
    ..However, the role must differ subtly between the mammalian and the yeast enzymes...
  14. Berrisford J, Akerboom J, Turnbull A, de Geus D, Sedelnikova S, Staton I, et al. Crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus phosphoglucose isomerase. Implications for substrate binding and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33290-7 pubmed
  15. Sener K, Shen Z, Newburg D, Jarroll E. Amino sugar phosphate levels in Giardia change during cyst wall formation. Microbiology. 2004;150:1225-30 pubmed
    ..The enzymes involved in synthesis of UDP-GalNAc and its conversion to cyst wall might be potential targets for therapeutic inhibitors of Giardia infection. ..
  16. Fujimoto Y, Donahue E, Shiota M. Defect in glucokinase translocation in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E414-23 pubmed
    ..The unresponsiveness of hepatic glucose flux to the rise in plasma glucose and insulin seen in prediabetic ZDF rats was associated with impaired GK translocation. ..
  17. Gomis R, Favre C, Garcia Rocha M, Fernández Novell J, Ferrer J, Guinovart J. Glucose 6-phosphate produced by gluconeogenesis and by glucokinase is equally effective in activating hepatic glycogen synthase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9740-6 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that Glc-6-P has a major role in glycogen metabolism not only by determining the activation state of GS but also by controlling its subcellular distribution in the hepatocyte. ..
  18. El Rammouz R, Babile R, Fernandez X. Effect of ultimate pH on the physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of turkey breast muscle showing normal rate of postmortem pH fall. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1750-7 pubmed
    ..The present data also indicate that the level of glycogen at time of slaughter poorly explains the variability in pH(u). Thus, further research is needed to identify the mechanisms explaining pH(u) variation in poultry muscle. ..
  19. Marom E, Bruzzi J, Truong M. Extrathoracic PET/CT findings in thoracic malignancies. J Thorac Imaging. 2006;21:154-66 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of these findings is important for correct staging and identification of second primaries. ..
  20. Wiskur S, Ait Haddou H, Lavigne J, Anslyn E. Teaching old indicators new tricks. Acc Chem Res. 2001;34:963-72 pubmed
    ..We include previous examples, the strategies involved in our development, and the advantages as well as disadvantages of this method. Finally, our latest research in this field is briefly presented. ..
  21. Jensen J, Jebens E, Brennesvik E, Ruzzin J, Soos M, Engebretsen E, et al. Muscle glycogen inharmoniously regulates glycogen synthase activity, glucose uptake, and proximal insulin signaling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E154-E162 pubmed
    ..quot;Insulin resistance" is observed at the level of glycogen synthase, and the reduced glycogen synthesis leads to increased levels of glucose 6-phosphate, glycolytic flux, and accumulation of nonphosphorylated 2-deoxyglucose. ..
  22. Raja G, Mills S, Palmer T, Fournier P. Lactate availability is not the major factor limiting muscle glycogen repletion during recovery from an intense sprint in previously active fasted rats. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:4615-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings suggest that the amount of glycogen deposited during recovery from high intensity exercise in fasted animals is not limited by the amount of accumulated lactate. ..
  23. Krebs M, Krssak M, Bernroider E, Anderwald C, Brehm A, Meyerspeer M, et al. Mechanism of amino acid-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance in humans. Diabetes. 2002;51:599-605 pubmed
    ..05). In conclusion, plasma amino acid elevation induces skeletal muscle insulin resistance in humans by inhibition of glucose transport/phosphorylation, resulting in marked reduction of glycogen synthesis. ..
  24. Gonzalez Gay M, Miranda Filloy J. "Silent" giant cell arteritis. South Med J. 2006;99:1204-5 pubmed
  25. Puchkaev A, Vlasov A, Metelitsa D. [Stability of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase complexed with its substrate and/or cofactor in aqueous and micellar environment]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002;38:44-52 pubmed
    ..In addition, this approach demonstrated that G6PDH undergoes destabilization in AOT micelles. ..
  26. Raczynska J, Olchowy J, Konariev P, Svergun D, Milewski S, Rypniewski W. The crystal and solution studies of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Candida albicans. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:672-88 pubmed
    ..This study of Gfa1p focuses on the features that distinguish it from the prokaryotic homologue in terms of quaternary structure, control of the enzymatic activity and details of the isomerase active site. ..
  27. Vizan P, Alcarraz Vizán G, Díaz Moralli S, Rodríguez Prados J, Zanuy M, Centelles J, et al. Quantification of intracellular phosphorylated carbohydrates in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2007;79:5000-5 pubmed
  28. Taylor E, Ellingson W, Lamb J, Chesser D, Compton C, Winder W. Evidence against regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and LKB1/STRAD/MO25 activity by creatine phosphate. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E661-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that creatine phosphate is not a direct regulator of LKB1 or AMPK activity. Creatine phosphate may indirectly modulate AMPK activity by replenishing ATP at the onset of muscle contraction...
  29. Datta P, Kallur L, Abraham E. Reversal of chaperone activity loss of glycated alphaA-crystallin by a crosslink breaker. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;315:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..DMPTB is expected to regain alpha-crystallin chaperone activity and provide structural stability to other eye lens proteins that are in aggregation mode which emphasizes the clinical importance of the present finding. ..
  30. Fortpied J, Maliekal P, Vertommen D, van Schaftingen E. Magnesium-dependent phosphatase-1 is a protein-fructosamine-6-phosphatase potentially involved in glycation repair. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18378-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, lysozyme glycated with Glu-6-P was converted by MDP-1 to a substrate for FN3K. We conclude that MDP-1 may act physiologically in conjunction with FN3K to free proteins from the glycation products derived from Glu-6-P. ..
  31. Graham T, Battram D, Dela F, El Sohemy A, Thong F. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33:1311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals may, however, respond differently to the effects of caffeine, and there is growing evidence that this could be explained by common genetic variations. ..
  32. Cosgrove M, Gover S, Naylor C, Vandeputte Rutten L, Adams M, Levy H. An examination of the role of asp-177 in the His-Asp catalytic dyad of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: X-ray structure and pH dependence of kinetic parameters of the D177N mutant enzyme. Biochemistry. 2000;39:15002-11 pubmed
    ..Glucose 6-phosphate binding orders and orients His-178 in the D177N-glucose 6-phosphate-NADPH ternary complex and appears to be necessary to form this water-binding site. ..
  33. Blount K, Puskarz I, Penchovsky R, Breaker R. Development and application of a high-throughput assay for glmS riboswitch activators. RNA Biol. 2006;3:77-81 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that modern high-throughput screening techniques can be applied to the discovery of riboswitch-targeted drug compounds. ..
  34. Currie J, Fortier S, Sina A, Galipeau J, Cao J, Annabi B. MT1-MMP down-regulates the glucose 6-phosphate transporter expression in marrow stromal cells: a molecular link between pro-MMP-2 activation, chemotaxis, and cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8142-9 pubmed
    ..This may lead to optimized clinical applications that use BMSC as a platform for the systemic delivery of therapeutic or anti-cancer recombinant proteins in vivo. ..
  35. Zancan P, Rosas A, Marcondes M, Marinho Carvalho M, Sola Penna M. Clotrimazole inhibits and modulates heterologous association of the key glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:1520-7 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our data support a hitherto unrecognized action of clotrimazole as a negative modulator of glycolytic flux through direct inhibition of the key enzyme PFK...
  36. Marshall S, Nadeau O, Yamasaki K. Dynamic actions of glucose and glucosamine on hexosamine biosynthesis in isolated adipocytes: differential effects on glucosamine 6-phosphate, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and ATP levels. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35313-9 pubmed
    ..These studies on the dynamic actions of glucose and GlcN on hexosamine levels should be useful in exploring the functional role of the HBP and in avoiding the potential pitfalls in the pharmacological use of GlcN. ..
  37. Friehs I, Cao Danh H, Stamm C, Cowan D, McGowan F, del Nido P. Postnatal increase in insulin-sensitive glucose transporter expression is associated with improved recovery of postischemic myocardial function. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:263-71 pubmed
    ..Interventions to accelerate postnatal GLUT-4 expression may improve ischemic tolerance in the neonatal heart. ..
  38. Tokes Fuzesi M, Bedwell D, Repa I, Sipos K, Sumegi B, Rab A, et al. Hexose phosphorylation and the putative calcium channel component Mid1p are required for the hexose-induced transient elevation of cytosolic calcium response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:1299-308 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that this transient increase in plasma membrane calcium permeability may be linked to the accumulation of Glc-1-P (or a related glucose metabolite) in yeast. ..
  39. Cusso R, Lerner L, Cadefau J, Gil M, Prats C, Gasparotto M, et al. Differences between glycogen biogenesis in fast- and slow-twitch rabbit muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1620:65-71 pubmed
    ..The enzymes involved in de novo synthesis of glycogen in fast-twitch muscle were strongly stimulated by Glc-6-P, but those in slow-twitch muscle were not. ..
  40. Ramnanan C, Storey K. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase regulation during hypometabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;339:7-16 pubmed
    ..Estivation-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH may enhance relative carbon flow through the pentose phosphate cycle, compared with glycolysis, to help maintain NADPH production for use in antioxidant defense. ..
  41. Rigout S, Lemosquet S, Bach A, Blum J, Rulquin H. Duodenal infusion of glucose decreases milk fat production in grass silage-fed dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:2541-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, changes in exogenous glucose supply, in cows fed a grass silage-based diet, decreased milk fat production and modified milk fatty acid composition. ..
  42. Vital W, Rezende G, Abreu L, Moraes J, Lemos F, Vaz I, et al. Germ band retraction as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results also suggest a role for GSK3 in glycogen balance/distribution during morphological modifications. ..
  43. Cochrane J, Lipchock S, Smith K, Strobel S. Structural and chemical basis for glucosamine 6-phosphate binding and activation of the glmS ribozyme. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3239-46 pubmed publisher
  44. Gustafson L, Neeft M, Reijngoud D, Kuipers F, Sauerwein H, Romijn J, et al. Fatty acid and amino acid modulation of glucose cycling in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochem J. 2001;358:665-71 pubmed
    ..Variation in glucose 6-phosphate does not always result in activity changes of GSa. Activation of glucose 6-phosphatase flux by fatty acids may contribute to the increased hepatic glucose production as seen in Type 2 diabetes. ..
  45. Minigh J, Valentovic M. Characterization of myoglobin toxicity in renal cortical slices from Fischer 344 rats. Toxicology. 2003;184:113-23 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment with glutathione provided complete protection and was mediated by intracellular events. ..
  46. Engelmann S, Bläsing O, Gowik U, Svensson P, Westhoff P. Molecular evolution of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the genus Flaveria--a gradual increase from C3 to C4 characteristics. Planta. 2003;217:717-25 pubmed
    ..The activation had a positive effect on malate tolerance of the F. pubescens (C3-C4) PEPC while the ppcA PEPC of F. brownii (C4-like) was almost unaffected. ..
  47. de Haan J, Klomp D, Tack C, Heerschap A. Optimized detection of changes in glucose-6-phosphate levels in human skeletal muscle by 31P MR spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 2003;50:1302-6 pubmed
    ..The result, in five healthy subjects, demonstrated that the combination of sensitivity optimization with automated drift correction enabled a robust detection of G6P changes in time series experiments down to a resolution of 10 min. ..
  48. Hui T, Sheth S, Diffley J, Potter D, Lusis A, Attie A, et al. Mice lacking thioredoxin-interacting protein provide evidence linking cellular redox state to appropriate response to nutritional signals. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:24387-93 pubmed
    ..Our findings implicate Txnip-modulated sulfhydryl redox as a central regulator of insulin secretion in beta-cells and regulation of many of the branch-points of gluconeogenesis/glycolysis/lipogenesis. ..
  49. Reihl O, Rothenbacher T, Lederer M, Schwack W. Carbohydrate carbonyl mobility--the key process in the formation of alpha-dicarbonyl intermediates. Carbohydr Res. 2004;339:1609-18 pubmed
    ..Additionally, dicarbonyl compounds derived from D-erythrose, D-glycero-D-mannoheptose, and D-gluco-L-talooctose were synthesized and structurally characterized. ..
  50. Green H, Duhamel T, Holloway G, Moule J, Ouyang J, Ranney D, et al. Muscle metabolic responses during 16 hours of intermittent heavy exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;85:634-45 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that repetitive heavy exercise results in less of a disturbance in phosphorylation potential, possibly as a result of increased mitochondrial respiration during the rest-to-work non-steady-state transition. ..
  51. Yamamoto N, Kawasaki K, Sato T, Hirose Y, Muroyama K. A nonradioisotope, enzymatic microplate assay for in vivo evaluation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in muscle tissue. Anal Biochem. 2008;375:397-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this assay system, glucose and 2DG in blood and DG6P-accumulation in muscle were easily determined. Therefore, this assay may be useful for measuring in vivo glucose uptake without the use of radioisotopes. ..
  52. Quettier A, Shaw E, Eastmond P. SUGAR-DEPENDENT6 encodes a mitochondrial flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glycerol-3-p dehydrogenase, which is required for glycerol catabolism and post germinative seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:519-28 pubmed publisher
  53. Wu G, Haynes T, Yan W, Meininger C. Presence of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase for glucosamine-6-phosphate synthesis in endothelial cells: effects of hyperglycaemia and glutamine. Diabetologia. 2001;44:196-202 pubmed
    ..As glucosamine inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, these findings could have important implications for impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation and vascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. ..