gliclazide

Summary

Summary: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.

Top Publications

  1. Satoh J, Takahashi K, Takizawa Y, Ishihara H, Hirai M, Katagiri H, et al. Secondary sulfonylurea failure: comparison of period until insulin treatment between diabetic patients treated with gliclazide and glibenclamide. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;70:291-7 pubmed
    ..a possible difference in periods until start of insulin treatment between type 2 diabetic patients treated with gliclazide (GCZ) and glibenclamide (GBC), because GCZ might be protective for beta cells than GBC...
  2. Foley J, Sreenan S. Efficacy and safety comparison between the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin and the sulfonylurea gliclazide after two years of monotherapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:905-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study designed to compare the efficacy and safety of two years of monotherapy with vildagliptin 50 mg bid and gliclazide up to 320 mg/day in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes are reported...
  3. Zhang H, Liu X, Kuang H, Yi R, Xing H. Association of sulfonylurea receptor 1 genotype with therapeutic response to gliclazide in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;77:58-61 pubmed
    ..the effects of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) exon 33 (TCC-->GCC, S1369A) polymorphism on responsiveness to gliclazide. About 115 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with gliclazide for 8 weeks...
  4. Saravanan G, Ponmurugan P. Beneficial effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC) on blood glucose and pancreatic antioxidant system in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of SAC was compared with glyclazide, a well-known hypoglycemic drug. These findings suggest that SAC treatment exerts a therapeutic protective nature in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress. ..
  5. Pal D, Nayak A. Development, optimization, and anti-diabetic activity of gliclazide-loaded alginate-methyl cellulose mucoadhesive microcapsules. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011;12:1431-41 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize gliclazide-loaded alginate-methyl cellulose mucoadhesive microcapsules by ionotropic gelation using central composite design...
  6. Ceriello A. Effects of gliclazide beyond metabolic control. Metabolism. 2006;55:S10-5 pubmed
    ..b>Gliclazide is an oral hypoglycemic agent that belongs to the class of sulfonylureas: basic and clinical evidences suggest ..
  7. Monami M, Balzi D, Lamanna C, Barchielli A, Masotti G, Buiatti E, et al. Are sulphonylureas all the same? A cohort study on cardiovascular and cancer-related mortality. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007;23:479-84 pubmed
    ..and non-cardiovascular mortality, and cardiac morbidity, between patients treated with glibenclamide and gliclazide. A retrospective observational cohort study was performed on a consecutive series of 568 outpatients (282 women, ..
  8. Monami M, Lamanna C, Balzi D, Marchionni N, Mannucci E. Sulphonylureas and cancer: a case-control study. Acta Diabetol. 2009;46:279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..After adjusting for concomitant therapies, exposure to metformin and gliclazide for more than 36 months was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cancer (adj...
  9. Xu H, Williams K, Liauw W, Murray M, Day R, McLachlan A. Effects of St John's wort and CYP2C9 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gliclazide. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153:1579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..was to assess potential pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions between St John's wort and gliclazide in healthy subjects with different cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) genotypes...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Del Guerra S, Grupillo M, Masini M, Lupi R, Bugliani M, Torri S, et al. Gliclazide protects human islet beta-cells from apoptosis induced by intermittent high glucose. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007;23:234-8 pubmed
    ..levels (alternating every 24 h), with or without the addition of therapeutical concentration (10 micromol L) of gliclazide or glibenclamide...
  2. Papanas N, Tziakas D, Chalikias G, Floros D, Trypsianis G, Papadopoulou E, et al. Gliclazide treatment lowers serum ICAM-1 levels in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab. 2006;32:344-9 pubmed
    To investigate the potential effect of gliclazide on serum ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) levels in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients...
  3. Al Salami H, Butt G, Tucker I, Mikov M. Influence of the semisynthetic bile acid MKC on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in vitro in healthy and diabetic rats treated with probiotics. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2008;30:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of sodium 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-12-keto-5beta-cholanate (MKC) on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in healthy and diabetic rats treated with probiotics...
  4. Prajapati S, Tripathi P, Ubaidulla U, Anand V. Design and development of gliclazide mucoadhesive microcapsules: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9:224-30 pubmed publisher
    In this study an attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive microcapsules of gliclazide using various mucoadhesive polymers designed for oral controlled release...
  5. Attia H, Al Rasheed N, Al Rasheed N, Maklad Y, Ahmed A, Kenawy S. Protective effects of combined therapy of gliclazide with curcumin in experimental diabetic neuropathy in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2012;23:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of curcumin against neuropathy in gliclazide-treated diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg)...
  6. Sena C, Louro T, Matafome P, Nunes E, Monteiro P, Seica R. Antioxidant and vascular effects of gliclazide in type 2 diabetic rats fed high-fat diet. Physiol Res. 2009;58:203-9 pubmed
    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by oxidative stress, which in turn determines endothelial dysfunction. Gliclazide is a sulphonylurea antidiabetic drug with antioxidant effects due to its azabicyclo-octyl ring...
  7. Al Salami H, Butt G, Tucker I, Mikov M. Influence of the semisynthetic bile acid (MKC) on the ileal permeation of gliclazide in healthy and diabetic rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2008;60:532-41 pubmed
    ..also known as 12-monoketocholic acid (MKC) influences the ileal permeation of the antidiabetic drug gliclazide in healthy and diabetic rats...
  8. Abdelmoneim A, Hasenbank S, Seubert J, Brocks D, Light P, Simpson S. Variations in tissue selectivity amongst insulin secretagogues: a systematic review. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to identify insulin secretagogues that selectively bind to SUR1 when given at therapeutic doses...
  9. Kimoto K, Suzuki K, Kizaki T, Hitomi Y, Ishida H, Katsuta H, et al. Gliclazide protects pancreatic beta-cells from damage by hydrogen peroxide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:112-9 pubmed
    ..A hypoglycemic sulfonylurea, gliclazide, is known to be a general free radical scavenger and its beneficial effects on diabetic complications have been ..
  10. Alp H, Varol S, Celik M, Altas M, Evliyaoglu O, Tokgöz O, et al. Protective effects of beta glucan and gliclazide on brain tissue and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats induced by streptozosin. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:230342 pubmed publisher
    There have not been yet enough studies about effects of beta glucan and gliclazide on oxidative stress created by streptozotocin in the brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats...
  11. Sliwinska A, Blasiak J, Kasznicki J, Drzewoski J. In vitro effect of gliclazide on DNA damage and repair in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Chem Biol Interact. 2008;173:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that gliclazide, an oral hypoglycemic drug with antioxidant properties, diminished DNA damage induced by free radicals...
  12. Awasthi R, Kulkarni G. Development of novel gastroretentive floating particulate drug delivery system of gliclazide. Curr Drug Deliv. 2012;9:437-51 pubmed
    The objective of present project was to improve the dissolution profile of gliclazide by developing floating alginate beads using various biodegradable polymers like gelatin, pectin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)...
  13. Corgnali M, Piconi L, Ihnat M, Ceriello A. Evaluation of gliclazide ability to attenuate the hyperglycaemic 'memory' induced by high glucose in isolated human endothelial cells. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008;24:301-9 pubmed
    ..in isolated endothelial cells, even when switched back to normal glucose, and to investigate the ability of gliclazide to attenuate this phenomenon...
  14. Feng Y, Mao G, Ren X, Xing H, Tang G, Li Q, et al. Ser1369Ala variant in sulfonylurea receptor gene ABCC8 is associated with antidiabetic efficacy of gliclazide in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1939-44 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic variants could influence the antidiabetic efficacy of gliclazide in type 2 diabetic patients.
  15. Alper G, Irer S, Duman E, Caglayan O, Yilmaz C. Effect of I-deprenyl and gliclazide on oxidant stress/antioxidant status and dna damage in a diabetic rat model. Endocr Res. 2005;31:199-212 pubmed
    ..effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), selegyline (l-deprenyl), in combination with oral antidiabetic-gliclazide (OAD), in preventing oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes model in male Swiss Albino rats by ..
  16. El Enany N. Spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination of gliclazide in pharmaceuticals by derivatization with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole. J AOAC Int. 2003;86:209-14 pubmed
    ..sensitive, and simple spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of gliclazide in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids...
  17. Konya H, Hasegawa Y, Hamaguchi T, Satani K, Umehara A, Katsuno T, et al. Effects of gliclazide on platelet aggregation and the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2010;59:1294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro studies have revealed that gliclazide has antiplatelet activities...
  18. Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, Woodward M, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560-72 pubmed publisher
    ..type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control, defined as the use of gliclazide (modified release) plus other drugs as required to achieve a glycated hemoglobin value of 6.5% or less...
  19. Onozato M, Tojo A, Goto A, Fujita T. Radical scavenging effect of gliclazide in diabetic rats fed with a high cholesterol diet. Kidney Int. 2004;65:951-60 pubmed
    b>Gliclazide is a sulphonylurea antidiabetic drug with anti-oxidant effect due to its azabicyclo-octyl ring. We hypothesized that gliclazide may have a beneficial effect on diabetic nephropathy via radical scavenging...
  20. Chen L, Yu F, Zeng T, Liao Y, Li Y, Ding H. Effects of gliclazide on endothelial function in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;659:296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gliclazide, a second generation sulfonylurea, contains an azabicyclo-octyl ring, which has been described to have ..
  21. Barakat N, Almurshedi A. Design and development of gliclazide-loaded chitosan microparticles for oral sustained drug delivery: in-vitro/in-vivo evaluation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:169-78 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to prepare gliclazide-chitosan microparticles with tripolyphosphate by ionic crosslinking. Chitosan microparticles were produced by emulsification and ionotropic gelation...
  22. Gier B, Krippeit Drews P, Sheiko T, Aguilar Bryan L, Bryan J, Dufer M, et al. Suppression of KATP channel activity protects murine pancreatic beta cells against oxidative stress. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3246-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of Sur1-/- cells to H2O2-induced apoptosis were mimicked by treatment with the sulfonylureas tolbutamide and gliclazide. Enzyme upregulation and protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis were abrogated by agents lowering [Ca2+]c...
  23. Li L, Renier G. The oral anti-diabetic agent, gliclazide, inhibits oxidized LDL-mediated LOX-1 expression, metalloproteinase-9 secretion and apoptosis in human aortic endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined the effect of gliclazide, a second generation sulfonylurea with antioxidant properties, on LOX-1 expression and LOX-1-mediated MMP-9 ..
  24. Charbonnel B, Matthews D, Schernthaner G, Hanefeld M, Brunetti P. A long-term comparison of pioglitazone and gliclazide in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group comparison trial. Diabet Med. 2005;22:399-405 pubmed
    This study compared the effects of pioglitazone and gliclazide on metabolic control in drug-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  25. Fava D, Cassone Faldetta M, Laurenti O, De Luca O, Ghiselli A, De Mattia G. Gliclazide improves anti-oxidant status and nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2002;19:752-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of gliclazide on oxidative status and vascular response to systemic administration of L-arginine, the natural precursor of nitric oxide (NO), in Type 2 diabetic patients...
  26. . Study rationale and design of ADVANCE: action in diabetes and vascular disease--preterax and diamicron MR controlled evaluation. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1118-20 pubmed
    ..eligible patients are randomised to continued perindopril-indapamide or matching placebo, and to an intensive gliclazide MR-based glucose control regimen or usual guidelines-based therapy...
  27. Belcher G, Lambert C, Goh K, Edwards G, Valbuena M. Cardiovascular effects of treatment of type 2 diabetes with pioglitazone, metformin and gliclazide. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58:833-7 pubmed
    ..with type 2 diabetes randomised to either a thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, metformin or a sulphonylurea, gliclazide treatment have been combined...
  28. Kinoshita N, Kakehashi A, Inoda S, Itou Y, Kuroki M, Yasu T, et al. Effective and selective prevention of retinal leukostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide. Diabetologia. 2002;45:735-9 pubmed
    ..b>Gliclazide, a sulphonylurea, was reported to reduce leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in hyperglycaemia in vitro, ..
  29. Mamputu J, Renier G. Advanced glycation end products increase, through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway, vascular endothelial growth factor expression in retinal endothelial cells. Inhibitory effect of gliclazide. J Diabetes Complications. 2002;16:284-93 pubmed
    ..were inhibited by the pan-specific PKC inhibitor, calphostin C, and by the antioxidant drug and compounds, gliclazide, N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin E...
  30. Sawada F, Inoguchi T, Tsubouchi H, Sasaki S, Fujii M, Maeda Y, et al. Differential effect of sulfonylureas on production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in cultured pancreatic beta-cell line, MIN6. Metabolism. 2008;57:1038-45 pubmed publisher
    ..cultured MIN6 cells were exposed to various concentrations of sulfonylureas (glibenclamide, glimepiride, and gliclazide) or nateglinide, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by staining with 2',7'-..
  31. Hassanein M, Hanif W, Malik W, Kamal A, Geransar P, Lister N, et al. Comparison of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin and the sulphonylurea gliclazide in combination with metformin, in Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus fasting during Ramadan: results of the VECTOR study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..When extrapolated to the global Muslim population with a similar clinical background, these findings could have considerable public health and clinical implications. ..
  32. Pearson E, Starkey B, Powell R, Gribble F, Clark P, Hattersley A. Genetic cause of hyperglycaemia and response to treatment in diabetes. Lancet. 2003;362:1275-81 pubmed
    ..We aimed to see whether the glycaemic response to the sulphonylurea gliclazide and the biguanide metformin differed in HNF-1alpha diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and to investigate the ..
  33. Delibas N, Kilinc I, Yonden Z, Sutcu R, Gultekin F, Koylu H. NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B decrease and lipid peroxidation increase in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-diabetic rats: effects of insulin and gliclazide treatments. Int J Neurosci. 2004;114:391-401 pubmed
    ..This study examined the effects of streptozotocin-diabetes and insulin or gliclazide treatment on the hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit 2A and 2B (NR2A and NR2B) concentrations...
  34. Matsumoto K, Sera Y, Abe Y, Tominaga T, Yeki Y, Miyake S. Metformin attenuates progression of carotid arterial wall thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;64:225-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, metformin attenuates the progression of CCA-IMT. This anti-atherogenic effect is not mediated through changes in classical cardiovascular risk factors. ..
  35. Wu Y, Shi L, Wu Y, Xu W, Wang L, Ren M. Protective effect of gliclazide on diabetic peripheral neuropathy through Drp-1 mediated-oxidative stress and apoptosis. Neurosci Lett. 2012;523:45-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the protective effect of gliclazide and the role of dynamin-related protein l (Drp-1)-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN)...
  36. Scott N, Jennings P, Brown J, Belch J. Gliclazide: a general free radical scavenger. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991;208:175-7 pubmed
    ..Agents that scavenge free radicals may be beneficial. We assessed the scavenging ability of two sulphonylureas, gliclazide and glibenclamide, in vitro...
  37. Filozof C, Gautier J. A comparison of efficacy and safety of vildagliptin and gliclazide in combination with metformin in patients with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone: a 52-week, randomized study. Diabet Med. 2010;27:318-26 pubmed publisher
    To demonstrate non-inferiority of vildagliptin compared with gliclazide, as an add-on therapy, in patients with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin in a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study...
  38. Harrower A. Efficacy of gliclazide in comparison with other sulphonylureas in the treatment of NIDDM. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991;14 Suppl 2:S65-7 pubmed
    ..In the first study, 224 patients inadequately controlled by diet alone or with oral hypoglycaemics received gliclazide in addition to diet or in place of existing drugs for three months...
  39. Farouque H, Meredith I. Effects of inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium channels on metabolic vasodilation in the human forearm. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003;104:39-46 pubmed
    ..infusion of the K(ATP) channel inhibitors glibenclamide (at two different doses: 15 and 100 microg/min) and gliclazide (at 300 microg/min)...
  40. Pal D, Nayak A. Novel tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres for oral gliclazide delivery: in vitro-in vivo evaluation. Drug Deliv. 2012;19:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..78 ± 3.43% w/w. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies indicated that there were no reactions between gliclazide, and polymers (TSP, and sodium alginate) used...
  41. Sato R, Watanabe H, Genma R, Takeuchi M, Maekawa M, Nakamura H. ABCC8 polymorphism (Ser1369Ala): influence on severe hypoglycemia due to sulfonylureas. Pharmacogenomics. 2010;11:1743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..a subunit of the K(ATP) channel complex has been demonstrated to be associated with the hypoglycemic effect of gliclazide, which binds to the A site...
  42. BrahmaNaidu P, Uddandrao V, Sasikumar V, Naik R, Pothani S, Begum M, et al. Reversal of endothelial dysfunction in aorta of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type-2 diabetic rats by S-Allylcysteine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;432:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..SAC (150 mg/kg b.w) showed its therapeutic effects similar to gliclazide in decreasing glucose, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation, and increasing body weight; insulin, antioxidant ..
  43. Hayes A, Arima H, Woodward M, Chalmers J, Poulter N, Hamet P, et al. Changes in Quality of Life Associated with Complications of Diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE Study. Value Health. 2016;19:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention of complications is critical to reduce the progressive burden of declining quality of life for people with diabetes. ..
  44. Lawrence C, Proks P, Rodrigo G, Jones P, Hayabuchi Y, Standen N, et al. Gliclazide produces high-affinity block of KATP channels in mouse isolated pancreatic beta cells but not rat heart or arterial smooth muscle cells. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1019-25 pubmed
    ..The sulphonylurea gliclazide blocks recombinant beta-cell KATP channels (Kir6.2/SUR1) but not heart (Kir6.2/SUR2A) or smooth muscle (Kir6...
  45. Saharan V, Choudhury P. Dissolution rate enhancement of gliclazide by ordered mixing. Acta Pharm. 2011;61:323-34 pubmed publisher
    The poorly water soluble antidiabetic drug gliclazide was selected to study the effect of excipients on dissolution rate enhancement...
  46. Ristic S, Collober Maugeais C, Cressier F, Tang P, Pecher E. Nateglinide or gliclazide in combination with metformin for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on maximum doses of metformin alone: 1-year trial results. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007;9:506-11 pubmed
    To compare long-term efficacy and safety of nateglinide plus metformin with those of gliclazide plus metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes not adequately controlled with metformin monotherapy...
  47. Kumar N, Dey C. Gliclazide increases insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation but not p38 phosphorylation in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:3739-46 pubmed
    ..The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that gliclazide, a second-generation sulfonylurea, could enhance insulin signaling in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells...
  48. Rojanasthien N, Sugunta C, Rungapinan S, Kumsorn B, Sangdee C. Bioequivalence study of generic gliclazide and Diamicron formulations in healthy Thai male volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;41:323-30 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to compare the bioequivalence of 80 mg gliclazide in healthy Thai males...
  49. Whitelaw D. Management of diabetes during Ramadan. Diabet Med. 2005;22 Suppl 4:21-3 pubmed
  50. Ma J. A case of mistaken identity. Hong Kong Med J. 2006;12:491 pubmed
  51. Ionescu Tirgoviste C, Gavrila L, Brădescu O, Guja C. NIDDM: new once-daily intervention for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Diaprel MR. Rom J Intern Med. 2004;42:431-40 pubmed
    ..b>Gliclazide is a sulfonylurea compound oral hypoglycemic drug that has a unique feature of restoring the first-phase insulin ..
  52. Betteridge D, Verges B. Long-term effects on lipids and lipoproteins of pioglitazone versus gliclazide addition to metformin and pioglitazone versus metformin addition to sulphonylurea in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2005;48:2477-81 pubmed
    ..the first trial, patients currently receiving metformin were randomised to pioglitazone (15-45 mg/day, n=317) or gliclazide (80-320 mg/day, n=313) add-on therapy...
  53. Xu W, Mu Y, Zhao J, Zhu D, Ji Q, Zhou Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of metformin and sitagliptin based triple antihyperglycemic therapy (STRATEGY): a multicenter, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial. Sci China Life Sci. 2017;60:225-238 pubmed publisher
    ..who did not reach the glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goal were then further randomized into glimepiride, gliclazide, repaglinide, or acarbose group for an additional 24-week triple therapy. A mean HbA1c reduction of 0...