Summary: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.

Top Publications

  1. Tillich U, Wolter N, Schulze K, Kramer D, Brödel O, Frohme M. High-throughput cultivation and screening platform for unicellular phototrophs. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:239 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods however, have not been generally established for phototrophic organisms such as microalgae or cyanobacteria...
  2. Chiranjeevi P, Venkata Mohan S. Diverse acidogenic effluents as feedstock for microalgae cultivation: Dual phase metabolic transition on biomass growth and lipid synthesis. Bioresour Technol. 2017;242:191-196 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a biorefinery process integrating dark fermentation with microalgae cultivation (dual phase metabolic transition) was demonstrated with real-field wastewater...
  3. Loukas C, McQuillan J, Laouenan F, Tsaloglou M, Ruano López J, Mowlem M. Detection and quantification of the toxic microalgae Karenia brevis using lab on a chip mRNA sequence-based amplification. J Microbiol Methods. 2017;139:189-195 pubmed publisher
    ..brevis from cell extracts containing between 50 and 5000 cells. This is the first demonstration of quantitation of K. brevis using IC-NASBA on a Lab Card. ..
  4. Dao L, Beardall J, Heraud P. Characterisation of Pb-induced changes and prediction of Pb exposure in microalgae using infrared spectroscopy. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;188:33-42 pubmed publisher
  5. Kim G, Heo J, Kim H, Han J. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency. Bioresour Technol. 2017;237:72-77 pubmed publisher
    ..as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system...
  6. Srivastava G, Nishchal -, Goud V. Salinity induced lipid production in microalgae and cluster analysis (ICCB 16-BR_047). Bioresour Technol. 2017;242:244-252 pubmed publisher
    This work aimed to gain mechanistic insights into the salt stress mediated enhanced lipid accumulation in microalgae. Two freshwater microalgae were isolated from North Guwahati Assam, and were identified as Chlorella sorokiniana CG12(..
  7. Jouhet J, Lupette J, Clerc O, Magneschi L, Bedhomme M, Collin S, et al. LC-MS/MS versus TLC plus GC methods: Consistency of glycerolipid and fatty acid profiles in microalgae and higher plant cells and effect of a nitrogen starvation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182423 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined and compared glycerolipid distributions from three different types of cells, two microalgae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana) and one higher plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), using either ..
  8. Guldhe A, Kumari S, Ramanna L, Ramsundar P, Singh P, Rawat I, et al. Prospects, recent advancements and challenges of different wastewater streams for microalgal cultivation. J Environ Manage. 2017;203:299-315 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae are recognized as one of the most powerful biotechnology platforms for many value added products including biofuels, bioactive compounds, animal and aquaculture feed etc...
  9. Sørensen M, Gong Y, Bjarnason F, Vasanth G, Dahle D, Huntley M, et al. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179907 pubmed publisher
    ..The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon. ..

More Information


  1. Azizi K, Keshavarz Moraveji M, Abedini Najafabadi H. Characteristics and kinetics study of simultaneous pyrolysis of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, wood and polypropylene through TGA. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:481-491 pubmed publisher
    Thermal decomposition behavior and kinetics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, wood and polypropylene were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)...
  2. Ranganathan P, Amal J, Savithri S, Haridas A. Experimental and modelling of Arthrospira platensis cultivation in open raceway ponds. Bioresour Technol. 2017;242:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the hydrodynamic behaviour and residence time distribution in our small raceway pond were predicted. These models can serve as a tool to assess the pond performance criteria. ..
  3. Hemalatha M, Sravan J, Yeruva D, Venkata Mohan S. Integrated ecotechnology approach towards treatment of complex wastewater with simultaneous bioenergy production. Bioresour Technol. 2017;242:60-67 pubmed publisher
    ..attempt to integrate sequence batch reactor (SBR) with bioelectrochemical treatment (BET) and finally with microalgae treatment was studied...
  4. Li Y, Xu Y, Zheng T, Wang H. Flocculation mechanism of the actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 on Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:137-143 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the results, Streptomyces sp. hsn06 can be used as a novel flocculating microbial resource for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae biomass.
  5. Vo T, Kim S, Ly H, Lee E, Lee C, Kim J. A general reaction network and kinetic model of the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae Tetraselmis sp. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:610-619 pubmed publisher
    ..A general reaction network and a quantitative kinetic model were proposed for the HTL of microalgae. In this reaction network, the primary decomposition of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates generated heavy oil (..
  6. Bonnefond H, Grimaud G, Rumin J, Bougaran G, Talec A, Gachelin M, et al. Continuous selection pressure to improve temperature acclimation of Tisochrysis lutea. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183547 pubmed publisher
    Temperature plays a key role in outdoor industrial cultivation of microalgae. Improving the thermal tolerance of microalgae to both daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations can thus contribute to increase their annual productivity...
  7. Dranguet P, Cosio C, Le Faucheur S, Beauvais Flück R, Freiburghaus A, Worms I, et al. Transcriptomic approach for assessment of the impact on microalga and macrophyte of in-situ exposure in river sites contaminated by chlor-alkali plant effluents. Water Res. 2017;121:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptomic response provided a sensitive measurement of the exposure as well as hints on the tolerance mechanisms of environmental pollution, and is thus promising as an early-warning tool to assess water quality degradation. ..
  8. Caronni S, Calabretti C, Cavagna G, Ceccherelli G, Delaria M, Macrì G, et al. The invasive microalga Chrysophaeum taylorii: Interactive stressors regulate cell density and mucilage production. Mar Environ Res. 2017;129:156-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, important mucilage blooms are expected in oligotrophic sheltered coastal locations where barren areas are present. ..
  9. Severes A, Hegde S, D Souza L, Hegde S. Use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for enhanced lipid production in micro-algae based biofuels. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;170:235-240 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae are an alternative source for renewable energy to overcome the energy crises caused by exhaustion of fuel reserves. Algal biofuel technology demands a cost effective strategy for net profitable productivity...
  10. Suh S, Kim S, Kim J, Hong J, Lee S, Youn U, et al. Anticancer activities of ethanol extract from the Antarctic freshwater microalga, Botryidiopsidaceae sp. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:509 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, microalgae are promising candidates as novel cancer therapeutic drugs...
  11. Koppel D, Gissi F, Adams M, King C, Jolley D. Chronic toxicity of five metals to the polar marine microalga Cryothecomonas armigera - Application of a new bioassay. Environ Pollut. 2017;228:211-221 pubmed publisher
    ..L-1, respectively, highlighting its potential as a sensitive measure of metal toxicity. ..
  12. Cheng T, Wei C, Leiknes T. Polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent by Chlorella vulgaris under low light intensity. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:360-368 pubmed publisher
    To investigate anaerobic secondary effluent polishing by microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) under low light intensity (14?mol/m2/s), bubbling column reactors were operated in batches of 8 d with initial ammonium nitrogen 10-50mg/L,..
  13. Ma Y, Wang X, Niu Y, Yang Z, Zhang M, Wang Z, et al. Antisense knockdown of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase promotes the neutral lipid accumulation in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microb Cell Fact. 2014;13:100 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae have been an emerging biofuel resource; however, the germplasm improvement has been slow due to the lack of molecular tools...
  14. Shen Y, Li H, Zhu W, Ho S, Yuan W, Chen J, et al. Microalgal-biochar immobilized complex: A novel efficient biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:1031-1038 pubmed publisher
    ..999). Moreover, zeta potential, SEM and FTIR studies revealed that electrostatic attraction, ion exchange and surface complexation were the main mechanisms responsible for Cd removal when using MBIC. ..
  15. Bayat Tork M, Khalilzadeh R, Kouchakzadeh H. Efficient harvesting of marine Chlorella vulgaris microalgae utilizing cationic starch nanoparticles by response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:583-588 pubmed publisher
    Harvesting involves nearly thirty percent of total production cost of microalgae that needs to be done efficiently. Utilizing inexpensive and highly available biopolymer-based flocculants can be a solution for reducing the harvest costs...
  16. Huo S, Shang C, Wang Z, Zhou W, Cui F, Zhu F, et al. Outdoor Growth Characterization of an Unknown Microalga Screened from Contaminated Chlorella Culture. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5681617 pubmed publisher
    Outdoor microalgae cultivation process is threatened by many issues, such as pest pollution and complex, changeable weather...
  17. Dahmen Ben Moussa I, Chtourou H, Karray F, Sayadi S, Dhouib A. Nitrogen or phosphorus repletion strategies for enhancing lipid or carotenoid production from Tetraselmis marina. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:325-332 pubmed publisher
    ..marina. Thus, this native microalga strain could be a potent candidate for feed, ?food or biofuel production. ..
  18. Sloth J, Jensen H, Pleissner D, Eriksen N. Growth and phycocyanin synthesis in the heterotrophic microalga Galdieria sulphuraria on substrates made of food waste from restaurants and bakeries. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Still, G. sulphuraria 074G grew and produced phycocyanin efficiently on food waste under adequate conditions and may potentially be utilised for synthesise of high-valuable products from food waste. ..
  19. Yu Z, Song M, Pei H, Jiang L, Hou Q, Nie C, et al. The effects of combined agricultural phytohormones on the growth, carbon partitioning and cell morphology of two screened algae. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:87-96 pubmed publisher
    Applying phytohormones has been considered a promising way to increase lipid productivity of microalgae recently. Eight dosages of auxin phytohormones were tested to exploit the effects and mechanism of such stimulants on microalgae...
  20. Pham H, Kwak H, Hong M, Lee J, Chang W, Sim S. Development of an X-Shape airlift photobioreactor for increasing algal biomass and biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:211-218 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this work was to develop a high efficient photobioreactor for increasing biomass and lipid production in microalgae by assessment of the hydrodynamic properties and kLa which are important parameters for improving the ..
  21. Ramadass K, Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R. Toxicity of diesel water accommodated fraction toward microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella sp. MM3. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;142:538-543 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study clearly demonstrated the use of SOD, POX and CAT as suitable biomarkers for assessing diesel pollution in aquatic ecosystem. ..
  22. Bhujade R, Chidambaram M, Kumar A, Sapre A. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng. 2017;8:335-357 pubmed publisher
    ..oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids...
  23. Liu J, Wu Y, Wu C, Muylaert K, Vyverman W, Yu H, et al. Advanced nutrient removal from surface water by a consortium of attached microalgae and bacteria: A review. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:1127-1137 pubmed publisher
    ..However, microalgae-bacteria consortium is promising for advanced nutrient removal from wastewater...
  24. Liu Q, Zhang M, Lv T, Chen H, Chika A, Xiang C, et al. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:1022-1026 pubmed publisher
    ..hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation...
  25. Zorin B, Pal Nath D, Lukyanov A, Smolskaya S, Kolusheva S, Didi Cohen S, et al. Arachidonic acid is important for efficient use of light by the microalga Lobosphaera incisa under chilling stress. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:853-868 pubmed publisher
    ..This might 'lock' violaxanthin de-epoxidase in the activated state causing high constitutive NPQ and alleviate the risk of photodamage under chilling conditions in the mutant. ..
  26. Wei L, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yang J, Hu H, Xu J. RNAi-based targeted gene knockdown in the model oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica. Plant J. 2017;89:1236-1250 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae are promising feedstock for renewable fuels such as biodiesel, yet development of industrial oleaginous strains has been hindered by the paucity and inefficiency of reverse genetics tools...
  27. García Espín L, Cantoral E, Asencio A, Aboal M. Microcystins and cyanophyte extracts inhibit or promote the photosynthesis of fluvial algae. Ecological and management implications. Ecotoxicology. 2017;26:658-666 pubmed publisher
  28. Freitas B, Morais M, Costa J. Chlorella minutissima cultivation with CO2 and pentoses: Effects on kinetic and nutritional parameters. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:338-344 pubmed publisher
    ..9mL.100g-1 of ethanol can be produced. These results demonstrate that C. minutissima cultured with the combined use of CO2 and pentoses generates a biomass with high bioenergetic potential. ..
  29. Barragán Trinidad M, Carrillo Reyes J, Buitrón G. Hydrolysis of microalgal biomass using ruminal microorganisms as a pretreatment to increase methane recovery. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:100-107 pubmed publisher
    The use of ruminal fluid as a source of hydrolytic microorganisms for the pretreatment of a native consortium of microalgae (essentially Senedesmus) was investigated...
  30. Jain P, Arora N, Mehtani J, Pruthi V, Majumder C. Pretreated algal bloom as a substantial nutrient source for microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol. 2017;242:152-160 pubmed publisher
    ..The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of C14-C22 with increased amount of monounsaturated fatty acids as compared to BG-11. The results obtained showed that algal bloom can be used as a potential nutrient source for microalgae.
  31. Solé Bundó M, Eskicioglu C, Garfí M, Carrère H, Ferrer I. Anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass and wheat straw with and without thermo-alkaline pretreatment. Bioresour Technol. 2017;237:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the co-digestion of 50% microalgae - 50% wheat straw was investigated in mesophilic lab-scale reactors...
  32. Cheng T, Zhang W, Zhang W, Yuan G, Wang H, Liu T. An oleaginous filamentous microalgae Tribonema minus exhibits high removing potential of industrial phenol contaminants. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:749-754 pubmed publisher
    Discharge of industrial phenol contaminants could cause great harm on natural environment. Through oleaginous microalgae cultivation in phenolic wastewater, pollutants can be phototrophically biofixed into biomass as feedstock for ..
  33. Quraishi K, Bustam M, Krishnan S, Aminuddin N, Azeezah N, Ghani N, et al. Ionic liquids toxicity on fresh water microalgae, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris &Botryococcus braunii; selection criterion for use in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPBR). Chemosphere. 2017;184:642-651 pubmed publisher
    A promising method of Carbon dioxide (CO2) valorization is to use green microalgae photosynthesis to process biofuel...
  34. Mohamadzadeh Shirazi H, Karimi Sabet J, Ghotbi C. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:378-386 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae as a candidate for production of biodiesel, possesses a hard cell wall that prevents intracellular lipids leaving out from the cells...
  35. Eliseus A, Bilad M, Nordin N, Putra Z, Wirzal M. Tilted membrane panel: A new module concept to maximize the impact of air bubbles for membrane fouling control in microalgae harvesting. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:661-668 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae harvesting using membrane technology is challenging because of its high fouling propensity...
  36. Sun J, Simsek H. Bioavailability of wastewater derived dissolved organic nitrogen to green microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Chlorella vulgaris with/without presence of bacteria. J Environ Sci (China). 2017;57:346-355 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that C. reinhardtii and C. vulgaris can be used as a test species the same as S. capricornutum since there were no significant differences among these three algae species based on their ability to remove nitrogen species. ..
  37. Wen Y, He Y, Ji X, Li S, Chen L, Zhou Y, et al. Isolation of an indigenous Chlorella vulgaris from swine wastewater and characterization of its nutrient removal ability in undiluted sewage. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:247-253 pubmed publisher
    Bio-treatment of wastewater mediated by microalgae is considered as a promising solution. This work aimed to isolate an indigenous microalgal strain (named MBFJNU-1) from swine wastewater effluent and identify as Chlorella vulgaris...
  38. Thapa H, Tang S, Sacchettini J, Devarenne T. Tetraterpene Synthase Substrate and Product Specificity in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii Race L. ACS Chem Biol. 2017;12:2408-2416 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies also offer insights into tetraterpene hydrocarbon metabolism in B. braunii and provide a foundation for engineering LOS for robust production of specific hydrocarbons of a desired chain length. ..
  39. Sadeghizadeh A, Farhad Dad F, Moghaddasi L, Rahimi R. CO2 capture from air by Chlorella vulgaris microalgae in an airlift photobioreactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:441-447 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the effect of high gas superficial velocity on CO2 biofixation using Chlorella vulgaris microalgae and its growth...
  40. Xiong J, Kurade M, Jeon B. Ecotoxicological effects of enrofloxacin and its removal by monoculture of microalgal species and their consortium. Environ Pollut. 2017;226:486-493 pubmed publisher
    ..The ecotoxicity and removal of ENR by five individual microalgae species and their consortium were studied to correlate the behavior and interaction of ENR in natural systems...
  41. Hom Diaz A, Norvill Z, Blánquez P, Vicent T, Guieysse B. Ciprofloxacin removal during secondary domestic wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds. Chemosphere. 2017;180:33-41 pubmed publisher
  42. Hulatt C, Berecz O, Egeland E, Wijffels R, Kiron V. Polar snow algae as a valuable source of lipids?. Bioresour Technol. 2017;235:338-347 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae offer excellent opportunities for producing food and fuel commodities, but in colder climates the low growth rates of many varieties may hamper production...
  43. Pandit P, Fulekar M, Karuna M. Effect of salinity stress on growth, lipid productivity, fatty acid composition, and biodiesel properties in Acutodesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:13437-13451 pubmed publisher
    Two microalgae strains including Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were grown on BG11 medium with salinity stress ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 M NaCl. Highest lipid content in C. vulgaris and A...
  44. Vazquez Muñoz R, Borrego B, Juárez Moreno K, García García M, Mota Morales J, Bogdanchikova N, et al. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in biological systems: Does the complexity of biological systems matter?. Toxicol Lett. 2017;276:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The studied organisms included viruses, bacteria, microalgae, fungi, animal and human cells (including cancer cell lines)...
  45. Yonamine Y, Suzuki Y, Ito T, Miura Y, Goda K, Ozeki Y, et al. Monitoring Photosynthetic Activity in Microalgal Cells by Raman Spectroscopy with Deuterium Oxide as a Tracking Probe. Chembiochem. 2017;18:2063-2068 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae offer great potential for the production of biofuel, but high photosynthetic activity is demanded for the practical realisation of microalgal biofuels...
  46. Celewicz Gołdyn S, Kuczyńska Kippen N. Ecological value of macrophyte cover in creating habitat for microalgae (diatoms) and zooplankton (rotifers and crustaceans) in small field and forest water bodies. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177317 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we tested the effect of different habitat types typically found within small ponds on the microalgae and zooplankton communities...
  47. Son J, Sung M, Ryu H, Oh Y, Han J. Microalgae dewatering based on forward osmosis employing proton exchange membrane. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..forward osmosis (FO) employing proton exchange membrane (PEM) was established for the purpose of microalgae dewatering...
  48. González Camejo J, Serna García R, Viruela A, Pachés M, Duran F, Robles A, et al. Short and long-term experiments on the effect of sulphide on microalgae cultivation in tertiary sewage treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:15-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Microalgae cultivation appears to be a promising technology for treating nutrient-rich effluents from anaerobic membrane bioreactors, as microalgae are able to consume nutrients from sewage without an organic carbon source, although the ..
  49. Aboulkas A, Hammani H, El Achaby M, Bilal E, Barakat A, El Harfi K. Valorization of algal waste via pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:400-408 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the bio-char is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications and for the production of carbon materials. ..
  50. Cheirsilp B, Thawechai T, Prasertsan P. Immobilized oleaginous microalgae for production of lipid and phytoremediation of secondary effluent from palm oil mill in fluidized bed photobioreactor. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:787-794 pubmed publisher
    ..lipids showed their suitability as biodiesel feedstocks. This system not only contributes as tertiary treatment of industrial effluent and CO2 mitigation but also low-cost production of renewable energy. ..
  51. Pina Pérez M, Rivas A, Martinez A, Rodrigo D. Antimicrobial potential of macro and microalgae against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in food. Food Chem. 2017;235:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..as natural as possible in the formulation of innovative products has given rise to the introduction of macro and microalgae in food industry...
  52. Freitas B, Cassuriaga A, Morais M, Costa J. Pentoses and light intensity increase the growth and carbohydrate production and alter the protein profile of Chlorella minutissima. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:248-253 pubmed publisher
    ..The luminous intensity affects xylose and arabinose assimilation and augments the carbohydrate content in C. minutissima, making this microalga appropriate for bioethanol production. ..
  53. Safi C, Cabas Rodriguez L, Mulder W, Engelen Smit N, Spekking W, van den Broek L, et al. Energy consumption and water-soluble protein release by cell wall disruption of Nannochloropsis gaditana. Bioresour Technol. 2017;239:204-210 pubmed publisher
    ..The energy cost per unit of released protein ranged from 0.15-0.25 €.kgProtein-1 in case of HPH, and up to 2-20 €.kgProtein-1 in case of PEF. ..