Genomes and Genes
Summary: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Publications215 found, 100 shown here
- Economic burden of cardiovascular diseases in the enlarged European UnionJose Leal
Department of Public Health, Health Economics Research Centre, Oxford University, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
Eur Heart J 27:1610-9. 2006..heart disease (CHD), and cerebrovascular diseases, is the main source of morbidity and mortality in the European Union (EU), but to date, there has not been any systematic cost-of-illness study to assess the economic impact of ..
- Bluetongue epidemiology in the European UnionClaude Saegerman
Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
Emerg Infect Dis 14:539-44. 2008..This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments...
- Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in the European UnionK Johansen
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden
Euro Surveill 14:19361. 2009Pandemic vaccines from four manufacturers are now available for use within the European Union (EU). Use of these vaccines will protect individuals and reduce the impact on health services to more manageable levels...
- [Scientific production in infectious diseases in Spain (1991-2001): position within the European Union]José Manuel Ramos-Rincón
Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas Servicio de Medicina Interna Hospital General Universitario de Elche Alicante España
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:22-8. 2004..was to quantitatively determine Spain's medical research output published in the journals included in the Infectious Diseases section of the Journal Citation Reports, and to compare it with that of other European Union (EU) countries.
- Mapping of background air pollution at a fine spatial scale across the European UnionRob Beelen
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Sci Total Environ 407:1852-67. 2009..This requires the ability to extrapolate from monitoring stations to unsampled locations. The aim was to assess methods to develop accurate and high resolution maps of background air pollution across the EU...
- Trends of cervical cancer mortality in the member states of the European UnionMarc Arbyn
Belgian Cancer Centre, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
Eur J Cancer 45:2640-8. 2009..However, in 2004, more than 16,000 women died from cervical cancer in the European Union (EU)...
- The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European UnionMarc Arbyn
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology and Belgian Cancer Centre, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
Eur J Cancer 45:2671-8. 2009..reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater...
- The state of mental health in old-age across the 'old' European Union-- a systematic reviewS G Riedel-Heller
Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Germany
Acta Psychiatr Scand 113:388-401. 2006The paper provides the first syllabus on the prevalence of mental disorders in old-age focusing on surveys conducted in the 15 countries, which comprised the 'old' European Union.
- The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European UnionAnna Muijzer
Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Eur J Public Health 20:689-94. 2010..Aim of the study was to investigate whether in 13 European countries these RTW efforts are assessed and to compare the procedures by means of six criteria...
- Description of the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European UnionAhti Anttila
Finnish Cancer Registry, Pieni Roobertinkatu 9, FIN 00130 Helsinki, Finland
Eur J Cancer 45:2685-708. 2009..report up-dates information on the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union. There is yet high diversity in the status of cervical screening, and rapid changes expected to occur in the ..
- The challenge of biosimilarsH Mellstedt
Cancer Centre Karolinska, Department of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
Ann Oncol 19:411-9. 2008..The purpose of this report was to review issues associated with the introduction of alternative versions of biosimilars used in the oncology setting...
- Avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the European Union in 2006Uta Hesterberg
Community Reference Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
Influenza Other Respi Viruses 3:1-14. 2009Infections of wild birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in the European Union in 2006.
- Low-pathogenic notifiable avian influenza serosurveillance and the risk of infection in poultry - a critical review of the European Union active surveillance programme (2005-2007)J L Gonzales
Department of Virology, Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands
Influenza Other Respi Viruses 4:91-9. 2010Since 2003, Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) have implemented serosurveillance programmes for low pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in poultry...
- Consistency of staining and reporting of oestrogen receptor immunocytochemistry within the European Union--an inter-laboratory studyC A Wells
Department of Histopathology, St Bartholomew s Hospital Medical School, West Smithfield, London, EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom
Virchows Arch 445:119-28. 2004..The Quick score method of receptor assessment may also have too many categories for good concordance, and grouping of these into fewer categories may remove some of the variation among laboratories...
- Mapping health literacy research in the European Union: a bibliometric analysisBarbara K Kondilis
Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Athens, Greece
PLoS ONE 3:e2519. 2008To examine and compare the research productivity on selected fields related to health literacy of the current members of the European Union, the four candidate countries waiting to join the EU, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States.
- Avian influenza. H5N1 moves into Africa, European Union, deepening global crisisMartin Enserink
Science 311:932. 2006
- Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European UnionL Alban
Danish Agriculture and Food Council, Denmark
Prev Vet Med 99:148-60. 2011Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations...
- Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislationJ H Petersen
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK 2860 Søborg, Denmark
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 27:1608-16. 2010..metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method...
- The carcinoGENOMICS project: critical selection of model compounds for the development of omics-based in vitro carcinogenicity screening assaysMathieu Vinken
Department of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
Mutat Res 659:202-10. 2008..Since selecting an appropriate set of chemicals is a frequent impediment in the early stages of similar research projects, the information provided in this paper might be extremely valuable...
- Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a reviewJaume Puig-Junoy
Research Centre for Economics and Health CRES, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
Pharmacoeconomics 28:649-63. 2010....
- Proposals for model-based paediatric medicinal development within the current European Union regulatory frameworkEfthymios Manolis
Scientific Advice and Orphan Drugs, European Medicines Agency, London, UK
Br J Clin Pharmacol 68:493-501. 2009The new paediatric European Union (EU) regulation and the consequent demand for paediatric studies on one hand and the ethical need for minimizing the burden of studies in children on the other hand necessitate optimal techniques in the ..
- Immunity against HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis during co-infections with neglected infectious diseases: recommendations for the European Union research prioritiesDiana Boraschi
CNR, Pisa, Italy
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e255. 2008..The new scientific and technical tools of the post-genomic era can allow us to reach this goal. However, a concomitant effort in improving education and social conditions will be needed to make the scientific findings effective...
- The future of tobacco product regulation and labelling in Europe: implications for the forthcoming European Union directiveC Bates
Action on Smoking and Health, London, UK
Tob Control 8:225-35. 1999..We therefore make the following recommendations for the way forward...
- Burden of rotavirus disease in European Union countriesMontse Soriano-Gabarro
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium
Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:S7-S11. 2006Two new rotavirus vaccines are expected to be introduced in the European Union (EU) in coming years...
- Prevalence of physical activity during leisure time in the European UnionM A Martinez-Gonzalez
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1142-6. 2001To estimate the prevalence of physical activity during leisure time in adults from the 15 member states of the European Union and the relationship with sociodemographic variables.
- Migrant tuberculosis screening in the EU/EEA: yield, coverage and limitationsE Klinkenberg
KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands
Eur Respir J 34:1180-9. 2009..objective of assessing the effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) screening methods and strategies in migrants in European Union/European Economic Area (including Switzerland) countries...
- Health behavior among Lithuania's adolescents in context of European UnionApolinaras Zaborskis
Institute for Biomedical Research, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania
Croat Med J 47:335-43. 2006To compare health behavior patterns of adolescents in Lithuania with health behavior of adolescents in European Union (EU) in 2001/2002.
- A new year, a new era: Romania and Bulgaria join the European UnionMartin McKee
Eur J Public Health 17:119-20. 2007
- European Clinical Trials Directive: the Italian positionUmberto Filibeck
Lancet 363:1651-2. 2004
- The changing structure of diets in the European Union in relation to healthy eating guidelinesJosef Schmidhuber
Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy
Public Health Nutr 9:584-95. 2006OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this paper is to assess diets in the European Union (EU) in relation to the recommendations of the recent World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization expert consultation and to show how diets ..
- A critical assessment of the directive on tissue engineering of the European unionLeen Trommelmans
Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Tissue Eng 13:667-72. 2007..We equally suggest that the general public remain involved in regulatory issues concerning tissue-engineered products...
- Towards quality assurance and harmonization of genetic testing services in the European UnionDolores Ibarreta
European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Edificio Expo, E-41092 Seville, Spain
Nat Biotechnol 22:1230-5. 2004
- Policy and science in children's health and environment: recommendations from the PINCHE projectPeter van den Hazel
Public Health Services Gelderland Midden, Arnhem, The Netherlands
Acta Paediatr Suppl 95:114-9. 2006..The contribution of all players in the production, distribution and use of scientific knowledge in the field of children's environmental health is necessary...
- Comparison of China's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) law with the European Union (EU) EIA DirectiveQiaoling Chen
Institute of Law, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 1200, FIN 02015 HUT, Espoo, Finland
Environ Monit Assess 132:53-65. 2007..Our study indicates that these three major shortcomings should be overcome and improved in China's EIA system, when compared with the EU EIA system...
- Differences that hurt: self-perceived health inequalities in Croatia and the European UnionZoran Sucur
Department of Social Work, Zagreb University School of Law, Zagreb, Croatia
Croat Med J 48:653-66. 2007To investigate the differences in self-reported health status and access to health care according to different income groups, urbanization level, and regional distribution in Croatia and European Union (EU) countries.
- Primary healthcare in the developing part of Europe: changes and development in the former Eastern Bloc countries that joined the European Union following 2004Imre Rurik
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Center, University Debrecen, Hungary
Med Sci Monit 15:PH78-84. 2009..Primary care is an important tool to improve global health. This study presents an overview of how targets regarding primary care were realized in ten countries of the former Soviet Bloc that joined the EU since 2004...
- Quantitative risk assessment for the introduction of African swine fever virus into the European Union by legal import of live pigsL Mur
VISAVET Center and Animal Health Department, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Transbound Emerg Dis 59:134-44. 2012..and spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the Russian Federation and Caucasus region, close to European Union (EU) borders, have increased the concerns regarding the probability of ASFV introduction into the EU...
- "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documentsKatherine E Smith
School for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
PLoS Med 7:e1000202. 2010Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory...
- Difficulties of tracing health research funded by the European UnionKelly Ernst
European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Brussels, Belgium
J Health Serv Res Policy 15:133-6. 2010b>European Union (EU) information from research projects, including key findings, should be available on the European Commission's Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) database...
- Surveillance for avian influenza in wild birds in the European Union in 2007Andrew C Breed
Community Reference Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
Avian Dis 54:399-404. 2010Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses has been compulsory in the European Union (EU) since 2005, primarily as a means of detecting H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and of monitoring the circulation of ..
- The size of the irregular migrant population in the European Union – counting the uncountable?Dita Vogel
Hamburg Institute of International Economics
Int Migr 49:78-96. 2011..9 million and a maximum of 3.8 million irregular foreign residents in the 27 member states of the European Union (2008)...
- Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member StatesSabine Vogler
Health Economics Department, WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies, Gesundheit Österreich GmbH Geschäftsbereich ÖBIG Austrian Health Institute, Stubenring 6, Vienna, Austria
Croat Med J 52:183-97. 2011To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States.
- Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countriesL Pimpin
Tuberculosis Section, Respiratory Diseases Dept, Imperial College London, London, UK
Eur Respir J 38:1382-92. 2011..A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA)...
- The burden of TB-HIV in the EU: how much do we know? A survey of surveillance practices and resultsM E Kruijshaar
Tuberculosis Section, Respiratory Diseases Dep, Imperial College London, London
Eur Respir J 38:1374-81. 2011..This study assessed current practices in countries of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for monitoring HIV co-infection in TB surveillance systems, countries' ..
- The contribution of health to the economy in the European UnionMarc Suhrcke
European Office for Investment for Health and Development, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Venice, Italy
Public Health 120:994-1001. 2006..In spite of remaining evidence gaps economic policy-makers also in developed countries should consider investing in health as one (of few) ways by which to achieve their economic objectives...
- Unintentional injury mortality in the European Union: how many more lives could be saved?Eleni Th Petridou
Unit of Preventive Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
Scand J Public Health 35:278-87. 2007The wide variation of unintentional (accidental) injury mortality rates in the European Union (EU) member states suggests that there is high potential for prevention...
- Predictors of orphan drug approval in the European UnionHarald E Heemstra
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 082, 3508 TB, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:545-52. 2008..Recent literature discusses factors that may influence the development of new orphan medicinal products in the EU. This study aims to identify predictors for successful marketing authorisation of potential orphan drugs in the EU...
- The first biosimilar epoetin: but how similar is it?Huub Schellekens
Departments of Pharmaceutical and Innovation Sciences, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:174-8. 2008
- Estimating the use of veterinary medicines in the European unionStefan A E Kools
ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Boettgerstrasse 2 14, D 65439 Floersheim a M, Germany
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 50:59-65. 2008..In total, an estimated 6051 tons of active substances in veterinary medicines were used in the European Union. We discuss available data sources and quality, our method and possible refinement of our approach...
- Comparative approaches to pharmaceutical price regulation in the European UnionMonique F Mrazek
LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC1B 4BP, UK
Croat Med J 43:453-61. 2002To review pharmaceutical price regulation methods in countries of the European Union (EU), in terms of the anticipated impact of regulation on pharmaceutical expenditures and evidence of actual outcomes.
- Transnational migration of health professionals in the European UnionThomas Gerlinger
Institute of Medical Sociology, University of Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Cad Saude Publica 23:S184-92. 2007..Since the 1970s, the European Union (EU) has passed numerous regulations to enforce the mutual recognition of qualifications of physicians, nurses,..
- The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future directionJulia Fentem
SEAC, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
Altern Lab Anim 32:617-23. 2004..If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit the "translation" of experimental non-animal data, so that they can then be used in risk assessment...
- The European Union of Medical Specialties core training curriculum in infectious diseases: overview of national systems and distribution of specialistsM W McKendrick
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
Clin Microbiol Infect 11:28-32. 2005The European Union of Medical Specialities (UEMS) Section of Infectious Diseases agreed on an infectious disease training programme in 1999, which was updated in 2002...
- An assessment of the incidence of fistula-in-ano in four countries of the European UnionCarlo Zanotti
Cellerix, S L, Madrid, Spain
Int J Colorectal Dis 22:1459-62. 2007..Nevertheless, no comprehensive analysis of its incidence in developed countries is available. Our goal was to determine the actual incidence of fistula-in-ano based on the study of incidence in four countries of the European Union (EU).
- Using biological effects tools to define Good Environmental Status under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework DirectiveB P Lyons
Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, United Kingdom
Mar Pollut Bull 60:1647-51. 2010The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining ..
- A survey of public funding of cancer research in the European unionSeth Eckhouse
European Cancer Research Managers Forum, London, United Kingdom
PLoS Med 3:e267. 2006
- European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) section of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine: a position paper on physical and rehabilitation medicine in acute settingsAnthony B Ward
North Staffordshire Rehabilitation Centre, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, High Lane, Burslem, Stoke on Trent, UK Staffordshire ST6 7AG, United Kingdom
J Rehabil Med 42:417-24. 2010..Prospective trials are required to show this benefit, and a number of examples need to be set up to pilot this in order to provide realistic cost-effectiveness data...
- [Health trends in the Czech Republic and European Union]Emil Ginter
Ustav preventívnej a klinickej medicíny, Bratislava, Slovenska republika
Cas Lek Cesk 149:232-4. 2010..It is probable, that in the 2015 some parameters of health trends will be near to the average of EU and in some parameters (infant mortality, incidence of HIV) it will be at the top of EU...
- Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European UnionJose M Martínez-Sánchez
Tobacco Control Unit, Institut Català d Oncologia ICO, L Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
PLoS ONE 5:e13881. 2010..objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27).
- Improving cancer control in the European Union: conclusions from the Lisbon round-table under the Portuguese EU Presidency, 2007Joaquim Gouveia
National Coordination for Oncological Diseases, Alto Comissariado da Saúde, Estrada da Luz, 153, 1600 153 Lisbon, Portugal
Eur J Cancer 44:1457-62. 2008Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the European Union (EU), and a public health burden...
- Recent trends in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the European UnionK A Fenton
HIV STI Department, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Sex Transm Infect 80:255-63. 2004..We review recent trends in the epidemiology of the major acute STIs in the European Union and Norway, their key determinants, and opportunities for enhancing STI prevention interventions in the region.
- The use of mechanisms and modes of toxic action in integrated testing strategies: the report and recommendations of a workshop held as part of the European Union OSIRIS Integrated ProjectJ Arie Vonk
Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Altern Lab Anim 37:557-71. 2009..In this report, the possibilities of a mechanistic approach to assist in and guide ITS are explored, and the differences between human health and environmental areas are summarised...
- Mental illness stigma and willingness to seek mental health care in the European UnionRamin Mojtabai
Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 45:705-12. 2010..This study aims to examine these assumptions...
- Challenges in starting organised screening programmes for cervical cancer in the new member states of the European UnionFlorian Al Nicula
Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Oncological Institute I Chiricuta, Cluj Napoca, Romania
Eur J Cancer 45:2679-84. 2009Following the 2003 Recommendation of the Council of the European Union on cancer screening, equal access to organised cervical cancer screening is supposed to be ensured for all women at risk in all member states...
- HIV-infected immigrants from non-European Union countries and antiretroviral treatment: comparison of epidemiologic, clinical, and therapeutic variables according to patient sexRoberto Manfredi
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:408-10. 2003
- Human vaccine research in the European UnionOle F Olesen
Health Directorate, DG Research, European Commission, Rue de la Loi 200, B 1049 Brussels, Belgium
Vaccine 27:640-5. 2009..This impressive number signals a new spirit of collaborative research, which will facilitate the exploitation of the immense possibilities in modern vaccinology...
- Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European unionArnold Vlietinck
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Planta Med 75:683-8. 2009In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important...
- Trends in cancer mortality in the European Union and accession countries, 1980-2000F Levi
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Lausanne, Switzerland
Ann Oncol 15:1425-31. 2004Cancer mortality rates and trends over the period 1980-2000 for accession countries to the European Union (EU) in May 2004, which include a total of 75 million inhabitants, were abstracted from the World Health Organization (WHO) database,..
- Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU. Reality and challenges for the toxicologistMarleen Pauwels
Dermato Cosmetology and Pharmacognosy, Department of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
Toxicol Lett 151:7-17. 2004..These legal requirements induce a number of important challenges for the cosmetic industry and more specifically for the toxicologist involved as safety assessor...
- A multilevel analysis of condom use among adolescents in the European UnionJ V Lazarus
Communicable Diseases Unit, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Denmark
Public Health 123:138-44. 2009..This study examined which individual and national factors affect condom use among adolescents...
- Information disclosure and smoking risk perceptions. Potential short-term impact on Spanish students of the new European Union directive on tobacco productsFabiola Portillo
Department of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de La Rioja, C La Cigüena 60, 26004 Logroño, Spain
Eur J Public Health 12:295-301. 2002..The aim of the present study was to analyse the potential effect of the planned measures on the perceptions by Spanish youth of the risks associated with smoking...
- Percutaneous mitral annuloplasty for functional mitral regurgitation: results of the CARILLON Mitral Annuloplasty Device European Union StudyJoachim Schofer
Medical Care Center Professor Mathey, Professor Schofer Hamburg University Cardiovascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Circulation 120:326-33. 2009..Percutaneous mitral annuloplasty has the potential to serve as a therapeutic adjunct to standard medical care...
- ECVAM's response to the changing political environment for alternatives: consequences of the European Union chemicals and cosmetics policiesThomas Hartung
ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra (VA, Italy
Altern Lab Anim 31:473-81. 2003..In essence, steering groups formed by ECVAM senior staff, and complemented with external experts, will carry out the project management and will coordinate the various inputs...
- Cancer mortality in the European Union, 1970-2003, with a joinpoint analysisC Bosetti
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
Ann Oncol 19:631-40. 2008Cancer mortality peaked in the European Union (EU) in the late 1980s and declined thereafter. Materials and methods: We analyzed EU cancer mortality data provided by the World Health Organization in 1970-2003, using join point analysis.
- Antenatal care in the European Union: a survey on guidelines in all 25 member states of the CommunityAnnette Bernloehr
European Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 122:22-32. 2005..of the content of national guidelines on antenatal care for normal pregnancies in the member states of the European Union was required to find out whether a common minimum guideline would be of benefit to complement national public ..
- Suicide mortality in the European UnionParveen Chishti
Paediatric Epidemiology and Community Health PEACH Unit, Department of Child Health, Glasgow University, Yorkhill Hospital, Glasgow G3 8SJ, Scotland, UK
Eur J Public Health 13:108-14. 2003..about suicide within Europe, the EUROSAVE (European Review of Suicide and Violence Epidemiology) study was undertaken to examine recent trends in the epidemiology of suicide and self-inflicted injury mortality in the European Union (EU).
- Comparison of amount of biomedical research originating from the European Union and the United StatesElpidoforos S Soteriades
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
BMJ 331:192-4. 2005OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the research productivity of the European Union, the four "candidate" countries (those currently waiting to join the EU), and the United States in several fields of biomedical sciences...
- Comparison of the European Union Disease Surveillance Networks' websitesA Lenglet
European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET
Euro Surveill 11:119-22. 2006Currently the surveillance of infectious disease in the European Union (EU) is supported by the Basic Surveillance Network (BSN) and other disease specific surveillance networks (DSNs). Each network has its own website...
- Access to health care for asylum seekers in the European Union--a comparative study of country policiesMarie Norredam
Department of Health Services Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Eur J Public Health 16:286-90. 2006..article is to characterise and compare current standards of health care provision for asylum seekers in the 25 European Union (EU) countries in order to identify the needs and potential for improving access to health care for asylum ..
- Cross border access to healthcare services within the European UnionClare Sellars
McDermott Will and Emery UK LLP
World Hosp Health Serv 42:23-5. 2006..The article also looks at the most recent developments in the case law concerning EU based national health services...
- Trends in mortality from major cancers in the European Union, including acceding countries, in 2004Fabio Levi
Cancer Epidemiology Unit and Cancer Registries of Vaud and Neuchâtel, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Lausanne, Switzerland
Cancer 101:2843-50. 2004In May 2004, 10 additional countries joined the European Union (EU), including a total of 75 million inhabitants...
- Prevalence of physical activity in the European UnionAlfred Rutten
Institut fur Sportwissenschaft und Sport, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen
Soz Praventivmed 49:281-9. 2004..is the second in a series of four that present data about physical activity in the 15 member states of the European Union collected by the Eurobarometer 58.2...
- Safety-related regulatory actions for biologicals approved in the United States and the European UnionThijs J Giezen
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
JAMA 300:1887-96. 2008..Biologicals are a relatively new class of medicines that carry specific risks (eg, immunogenicity). However, limited information is available on the nature and timing of safety problems with their use that were identified after approval...
- Surveillance systems for STIs in the European Union: facing a changing epidemiologyC M Lowndes
Department of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
Sex Transm Infect 80:264-71. 2004To characterise the nature, content, and performance characteristics of existing national STI surveillance systems in the European Union (EU) and Norway, to facilitate collection of comparable surveillance data.
- Regulation of tissue-engineered products in the European Union: where are we heading?Laure Brévignon-Dodin
Cambridge University, Centre for Economics and Policy, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, Cambridge, UK
Regen Med 1:709-14. 2006..Therapy Medicinal Products, voted on by the European Commission in November 2005, has been developed by European Union regulators to provide the necessary framework to regulate TEPs...
- Drug-resistant tuberculosis in the European Union: opportunities and challenges for controlRobin Fears
European Academies Science Advisory Council Secretariat, Royal Society, London, UK
Tuberculosis (Edinb) 90:182-7. 2010..In the European Union (EU), efforts initiated by the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) now assess how research can ..
- The government's role in advancing regenerative medicine and tissue engineering - science, safety, and ethicsDavid S Smith
Pepper Hamilton, LLP, Pittsburgh, Pennsylavania, USA
Periodontol 2000 41:16-29. 2006
- Protected areas in Europe: principle and practiceKevin J Gaston
Biodiversity and Macroecology Group, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1134:97-119. 2008..vi) There are significant concerns over the extent to which existing protected area systems can maintain their biodiversity values, particularly given the small size of many of these areas and likely impacts of climate change...
- The development of an audit technique to assess the quality of safety barrier managementFrank Guldenmund
Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
J Hazard Mater 130:234-41. 2006..However, this strength is also its limitation, since the full safety management system is not covered with the technique. Finally, some preliminary experiences obtained from several test sites are compiled and discussed...
- EU Directive, ICNIRP guidelines and Polish legislation on electromagnetic fieldsJolanta Karpowicz
Central Institute for Labour Protection National Research Institute, Poland
Int J Occup Saf Ergon 12:125-36. 2006..The problems of a practical implementation of the Directive's provisions are discussed...
- Electromagnetic fields in officesMonica Sandström
National Institute for Working Life, Umea, Sweden
Int J Occup Saf Ergon 12:137-47. 2006....
- Successful validation of in vitro methods in toxicology by ZEBET, the National Centre for Alternatives in Germany at the BfR (Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)Horst Spielmann
ZEBET National Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, Berlin, Germany
Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:225-33. 2008..Finally, the currently accepted alternative methods for standardisation and safety testing of drugs, biologicals and medical devices are summarised...
- Managing Legionnaires' disease in Europe: the need for international collaborationC Joseph
Euro Surveill 12:E1-2. 2007
- In search of a common European approach to a healthy indoor environmentOlaf C G Adan
The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Delft, The Netherlands
Environ Health Perspect 115:983-8. 2007..Certain member states of the European Union (EU) have already achieved successes in improving indoor environmental quality, such as controlling certain ..
- [New evaluation by the EU approval committee. Benefits of cox-2 inhibitors outweigh possible risks (interview by Dr. Thomas Meissner)]Kay Brune
MMW Fortschr Med 146:47. 2004
- [The regulatory framework for complementary and alternative medicines in Europe]Werner Knöss
Bundesinstitut fur Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, Kurt Georg Kiesinger Allee 3, Bonn, BRD
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 51:771-8. 2008..The provisions of this directive will substantially influence the development of the European market during the forthcoming years...
- Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and EnvironmentPeter van den Hazel
Public Health Services Gelderland Midden, Arnhem, The Netherlands
Acta Paediatr Suppl 95:6-12. 2006..The policy recommendations for each policy level were prioritized. High priorities were given to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, transport related air pollution, indoor air and mercury...
- Is the gift still good? Examining the politics and regulation of blood safety in the European UnionAnne Maree Farrell
School of Law, University of Manchester
Med Law Rev 14:155-79. 2006
- European regulations and their impact on tissue bankingAlina Tatarenko
Health Division, Council of Europe, F 67075, Strasbourg Cedex, France
Cell Tissue Bank 7:231-5. 2006..The tissue establishments need to introduce technical and structural changes to adhere to the new regulations which ultimately results in saving and improving of lives of many patients...
- Occupational exposure to base stations-compliance with EU directive 2004/40/ECPeter Gajsek
Institute of Non Ionizing Radiation, Slovenia
Int J Occup Saf Ergon 12:187-94. 2006..This paper deals with measurements and calculations of the compliance boundary for workers in one typical roof top base station setting according to EU Directive and other relevant EN standards...
- Pharmaceuticals, the state and the global harmonisation processJohn Abraham
Centre for Research in Health and Medicine, Department of Sociology, University of Sussex, School of Social Sciences, Arts E Building, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9SN, UK
Aust Health Rev 28:150-60. 2004..However, evidence is presented to suggest that these legitimising claims are not tenable...
- Next Generation Oxime Therapeutic for Chemical Agent Inhibited CNS (Brain) ChEsRichard Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Genetic Epidemiology of MelanomaDavid E Elder; Fiscal Year: 2009..A successful application to the European Union for a Network of Excellence (NoE) "Framework 6" grant has ensured the viability of a considerably enlarged ..
- Genetic Epidemiology of MelanomaDavid Elder; Fiscal Year: 2007..A successful application to the European Union for a Network of Excellence (NoE) "Framework 6" grant has ensured the viability of a considerably enlarged ..
- Exposure and biological response biomarkers of cigarette smokeIan Blair; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Genetic Epidemiology of MelanomaDAVID ERIC ELDER; Fiscal Year: 2010..A successful application to the European Union for a Network of Excellence (NoE) "Framework 6" grant has ensured the viability of a considerably enlarged ..
- Hyaluronan/CD44 and the Early Endometriotic LesionRobert Schenken; Fiscal Year: 2005..The findings should enable us to predict a woman's risk of developing endometriosis based on endometrial cell CD44 characteristics and suggest new approaches to prevent the disease. ..
- The Role of the Cortex in Discoordination After StrokeJulius Dewald; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source ImagingBin He; Fiscal Year: 2009..The availability of a noninvasive imaging technology to identify and image the epileptogenic foci would benefit numerous patients suffering from epilepsy and the healthcare system. ..
- A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source ImagingBin He; Fiscal Year: 2007..The availability of a noninvasive imaging technology to identify and image the epileptogenic foci would benefit numerous patients suffering from epilepsy and the healthcare system. ..
- Do Patient Requests Affect Doctor's Decisions? A Complementary Experimental and QJohn McKinlay; Fiscal Year: 2009..S. and elsewhere (DTCA of pharmaceuticals is about to be introduced throughout the countries of the European Union)...
- Do Patient Requests Affect Doctor's Decisions? A Complementary Experimental and QJohn B McKinlay; Fiscal Year: 2010..S. and elsewhere (DTCA of pharmaceuticals is about to be introduced throughout the countries of the European Union)...
- A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source ImagingBin He; Fiscal Year: 2010..The availability of a noninvasive imaging technology to identify and image the epileptogenic foci would benefit numerous patients suffering from epilepsy and the healthcare system. ..
- Potential Surrogate Marker of Epileptogenic CortexJoyce Wu; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Efficacy of The Ketogenic DietJohn Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2002..The mechanics of the study have gone well with no adverse events and no dropouts. We believe that the recruitment problems have been solved. Since the investigators remain blinded, the results are not available. ..
- SUPPORT FOR GENESISJames M Bower; Fiscal Year: 2010..to summer courses, GENESIS continues to be part of the course in Woods Hole, as well as courses offered in the European Union, Mexico, India, Japan, and recently a new course in Brazil for Latin America...
- SUPPORT FOR GENESISJames Bower; Fiscal Year: 2009..to summer courses, GENESIS continues to be part of the course in Woods Hole, as well as courses offered in the European Union, Mexico, India, Japan, and recently a new course in Brazil for Latin America...
- Functional Neuroimaging in Childhood Absence EpilepsyHal Blumenfeld; Fiscal Year: 2007..Understanding mechanisms of impaired attention in this form of epilepsy may have implications for treating other types of epilepsy as well. ..
- THE USE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE TO MODULATE AROUSALEdgar Garcia Rill; Fiscal Year: 2002..However, the optimal stimulation sites and paradigms muse be identified and proven effective, first, in control populations, and later, in pathological populations. ..
- Astrocyte Dysfunction in EpilepsyMaiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2009..RESEARCH GRANT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Numbers Face Page 1 Description, ..
- Control of Repetitive Movement in Parkinson's DiseaseColum MacKinnon; Fiscal Year: 2007..This project is relevant to public health because the findings will provide a better understanding of the human basal ganglia and its role in the production of disordered movement and help to develop improved treatments. ..
- Control of Repetitive Movement in Parkinson's DiseaseColum MacKinnon; Fiscal Year: 2009..This project is relevant to public health because the findings will provide a better understanding of the human basal ganglia and its role in the production of disordered movement and help to develop improved treatments. ..
- Neural Grafts and Injury-Induced Hippocampal DysfunctionAshok K Shetty; Fiscal Year: 2010..Collectively, the proposed experiments have immense value for the development of apt treatment strategy that prevents both chronic epilepsy and learning and memory impairments after hippocampal injury in adults. ..
- Neural Grafts and Injury-Induced Hippocampal DysfunctionAshok Shetty; Fiscal Year: 2009..Collectively, the proposed experiments have immense value for the development of apt treatment strategy that prevents both chronic epilepsy and learning and memory impairments after hippocampal injury in adults. ..
- Arousal, orexins and anesthesiaMAX KELZ; Fiscal Year: 2007..Together with his current skill set, these new tools will help transition him towards becoming an independent physician-scientist by bridging the interface between sleep neurobiology and anesthetic action. ..
- 2006 Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Gordon ConferenceRex Hess; Fiscal Year: 2006..Governments of the United States, Japan and the European Union have enacted laws regulating endocrine disrupters and in the U.S...
- A Mouse Model of Inherited Frontal Lobe EpilepsyJim Boulter; Fiscal Year: 2006..The objective of these experiments is to examine possible synaptic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and to determine the effects of ADNFLE mutations on a4a2receptor-mediated function in vivo. ..
- GENDER, CULTURE, AND ALCOHOL: A MULTI-NATIONAL STUDYSharon Wilsnack; Fiscal Year: 2004..Considerable groundwork for the project has been completed, including obtaining funds for support of European Union members of the study, and (through our partnership with the World Health Organization) obtaining funds to ..