european union

Summary

Summary: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Burden of rotavirus disease in European Union countries
    Montse Soriano-Gabarro
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:S7-S11. 2006
  2. pmc European union standards for tuberculosis care
    G B Migliori
    WHO Collaborating Centre for TB and Lung Diseases, Fondazione S Maugeri, Care and Research Institute, via Roncaccio 16, 21049 Tradate, Italy
    Eur Respir J 39:807-19. 2012
  3. doi The impact of pain on labor force participation, absenteeism and presenteeism in the European Union
    Paul Langley
    College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, MN 55455 0343, USA
    J Med Econ 13:662-72. 2010
  4. ncbi Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in the European Union
    K Johansen
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden
    Euro Surveill 14:19361. 2009
  5. ncbi [Scientific production in infectious diseases in Spain (1991-2001): position within the European Union]
    José Manuel Ramos-Rincón
    Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas Servicio de Medicina Interna Hospital General Universitario de Elche Alicante España
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:22-8. 2004
  6. doi Mapping of background air pollution at a fine spatial scale across the European Union
    Rob Beelen
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Sci Total Environ 407:1852-67. 2009
  7. doi Trends of cervical cancer mortality in the member states of the European Union
    Marc Arbyn
    Belgian Cancer Centre, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
    Eur J Cancer 45:2640-8. 2009
  8. pmc Effect of European Clinical Trials Directive on academic drug trials in Denmark: retrospective study of applications to the Danish Medicines Agency 1993-2006
    Louise Berendt
    Danish Medicines Agency, DK 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
    BMJ 336:33-5. 2008
  9. doi Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion
    P Gale
    Centre for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:214-25. 2010
  10. ncbi Avian influenza. H5N1 moves into Africa, European Union, deepening global crisis
    Martin Enserink
    Science 311:932. 2006

Detail Information

Publications247 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Burden of rotavirus disease in European Union countries
    Montse Soriano-Gabarro
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:S7-S11. 2006
    Two new rotavirus vaccines are expected to be introduced in the European Union (EU) in coming years...
  2. pmc European union standards for tuberculosis care
    G B Migliori
    WHO Collaborating Centre for TB and Lung Diseases, Fondazione S Maugeri, Care and Research Institute, via Roncaccio 16, 21049 Tradate, Italy
    Eur Respir J 39:807-19. 2012
    ..Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) jointly developed European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) aimed at providing European Union (EU)-tailored standards for the ..
  3. doi The impact of pain on labor force participation, absenteeism and presenteeism in the European Union
    Paul Langley
    College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, MN 55455 0343, USA
    J Med Econ 13:662-72. 2010
    ....
  4. ncbi Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in the European Union
    K Johansen
    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden
    Euro Surveill 14:19361. 2009
    Pandemic vaccines from four manufacturers are now available for use within the European Union (EU). Use of these vaccines will protect individuals and reduce the impact on health services to more manageable levels...
  5. ncbi [Scientific production in infectious diseases in Spain (1991-2001): position within the European Union]
    José Manuel Ramos-Rincón
    Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas Servicio de Medicina Interna Hospital General Universitario de Elche Alicante España
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 22:22-8. 2004
    ..was to quantitatively determine Spain's medical research output published in the journals included in the Infectious Diseases section of the Journal Citation Reports, and to compare it with that of other European Union (EU) countries.
  6. doi Mapping of background air pollution at a fine spatial scale across the European Union
    Rob Beelen
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Sci Total Environ 407:1852-67. 2009
    ..This requires the ability to extrapolate from monitoring stations to unsampled locations. The aim was to assess methods to develop accurate and high resolution maps of background air pollution across the EU...
  7. doi Trends of cervical cancer mortality in the member states of the European Union
    Marc Arbyn
    Belgian Cancer Centre, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
    Eur J Cancer 45:2640-8. 2009
    ..However, in 2004, more than 16,000 women died from cervical cancer in the European Union (EU)...
  8. pmc Effect of European Clinical Trials Directive on academic drug trials in Denmark: retrospective study of applications to the Danish Medicines Agency 1993-2006
    Louise Berendt
    Danish Medicines Agency, DK 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
    BMJ 336:33-5. 2008
    To determine the impact of the European Union's Clinical Trials Directive on the number of academic drug trials carried out in Denmark.
  9. doi Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion
    P Gale
    Centre for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:214-25. 2010
    ..was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health...
  10. ncbi Avian influenza. H5N1 moves into Africa, European Union, deepening global crisis
    Martin Enserink
    Science 311:932. 2006
  11. doi TB and MDR/XDR-TB in European Union and European Economic Area countries: managed or mismanaged?
    G B Migliori
    WHO Collaborating Centre forTuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Fondazione S Maugeri, Care andReasearch Institute, Tradate, Italy
    Eur Respir J 39:619-25. 2012
    ..We evaluated TB case management in the European Union/European Economic Area countries, with special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-..
  12. ncbi Surveillance for avian influenza in wild birds in the European Union in 2007
    Andrew C Breed
    Community Reference Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
    Avian Dis 54:399-404. 2010
    Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses has been compulsory in the European Union (EU) since 2005, primarily as a means of detecting H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and of monitoring the circulation of ..
  13. doi Description of the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union
    Ahti Anttila
    Finnish Cancer Registry, Pieni Roobertinkatu 9, FIN 00130 Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Cancer 45:2685-708. 2009
    ..report up-dates information on the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union. There is yet high diversity in the status of cervical screening, and rapid changes expected to occur in the ..
  14. doi Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis
    Carol Jagger
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Lancet 372:2124-31. 2008
    Although life expectancy in the European Union (EU) is increasing, whether most of these extra years are spent in good health is unclear...
  15. ncbi The challenge of biosimilars
    H Mellstedt
    Cancer Centre Karolinska, Department of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    Ann Oncol 19:411-9. 2008
    ..The purpose of this report was to review issues associated with the introduction of alternative versions of biosimilars used in the oncology setting...
  16. doi Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices: principles, problems, and proposals for European regulatory reform. Report of a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology
    Alan G Fraser
    Department of European Affairs, European Society of Cardiology, The European Heart House, 2035 Route des Colles Les Templiers, Sophia Antipolis, France
    Eur Heart J 32:1673-86. 2011
    ..Finally, it presents the main recommendations from a Policy Conference on the Clinical Evaluation of Cardiovascular Devices that was held at the European Heart House in January 2011...
  17. pmc Functional foods: the case for closer evaluation
    Nynke de Jong
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, PO Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    BMJ 334:1037-9. 2007
  18. ncbi Economic burden of cardiovascular diseases in the enlarged European Union
    Jose Leal
    Department of Public Health, Health Economics Research Centre, Oxford University, Old Road Campus, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK
    Eur Heart J 27:1610-9. 2006
    ..heart disease (CHD), and cerebrovascular diseases, is the main source of morbidity and mortality in the European Union (EU), but to date, there has not been any systematic cost-of-illness study to assess the economic impact of ..
  19. doi The prevalence, correlates and treatment of pain in the European Union
    P C Langley
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 27:463-80. 2011
    ..To report on the results of a recent large-scale, internet-based survey of the population, prevalence and attributes of pain experience in the United Kingdom (UK), France, Spain, Germany and Italy...
  20. doi The epidemiology of HIV and AIDS reports in migrants in the 27 European Union countries, Norway and Iceland: 1999-2006
    Julia del Amo
    National Center of Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Public Health 21:620-6. 2011
    ..To describe the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS by geographical origin in the EU, 1999-2006...
  21. doi The burden of TB-HIV in the EU: how much do we know? A survey of surveillance practices and results
    M E Kruijshaar
    Tuberculosis Section, Respiratory Diseases Dep, Imperial College London, London
    Eur Respir J 38:1374-81. 2011
    ..This study assessed current practices in countries of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for monitoring HIV co-infection in TB surveillance systems, countries' ..
  22. ncbi Primary healthcare in the developing part of Europe: changes and development in the former Eastern Bloc countries that joined the European Union following 2004
    Imre Rurik
    Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical and Health Science Center, University Debrecen, Hungary
    Med Sci Monit 15:PH78-84. 2009
    ..Primary care is an important tool to improve global health. This study presents an overview of how targets regarding primary care were realized in ten countries of the former Soviet Bloc that joined the EU since 2004...
  23. ncbi Medical device development: from prototype to regulatory approval
    Aaron V Kaplan
    Section of Cardiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Dr, Lebanon, NH 03756 0001, USA
    Circulation 109:3068-72. 2004
  24. doi The prevalence of cystic fibrosis in the European Union
    Philip M Farrell
    The School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Madison, 610 Walnut Street, 785 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 2397, United States
    J Cyst Fibros 7:450-3. 2008
    This study combined a variety of methods to determine the prevalence of cystic fibrosis in the European Union. The results of literature reviews, surveys, and registry analyses revealed a mean prevalence of 0...
  25. doi The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union
    Marc Arbyn
    Unit of Cancer Epidemiology and Belgian Cancer Centre, Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium
    Eur J Cancer 45:2671-8. 2009
    ..reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater...
  26. pmc "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents
    Katherine E Smith
    School for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 7:e1000202. 2010
    Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory...
  27. doi Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: key issues in the context of the new EU legislation
    Hans C M van Trijp
    Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Nutr 48:S41-8. 2009
    ..Not surprisingly, these two considerations constitute the cornerstone of the new EU legislation on nutrition and health claims, in which evidence for consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a new requirement...
  28. doi Quantitative risk assessment for the introduction of African swine fever virus into the European Union by legal import of live pigs
    L Mur
    VISAVET Center and Animal Health Department, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Transbound Emerg Dis 59:134-44. 2012
    ..and spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the Russian Federation and Caucasus region, close to European Union (EU) borders, have increased the concerns regarding the probability of ASFV introduction into the EU...
  29. ncbi The state of mental health in old-age across the 'old' European Union-- a systematic review
    S G Riedel-Heller
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Germany
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 113:388-401. 2006
    The paper provides the first syllabus on the prevalence of mental disorders in old-age focusing on surveys conducted in the 15 countries, which comprised the 'old' European Union.
  30. doi Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in European Union and European Economic Area countries
    L Pimpin
    Tuberculosis Section, Respiratory Diseases Dept, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Eur Respir J 38:1382-92. 2011
    ..A systematic review was undertaken to determine the burden of TB-HIV infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA)...
  31. pmc Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European Union
    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
    Tobacco Control Unit, Institut Català d Oncologia ICO, L Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS ONE 5:e13881. 2010
    ..objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27).
  32. doi The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European Union
    Anna Muijzer
    Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Public Health 20:689-94. 2010
    ..Aim of the study was to investigate whether in 13 European countries these RTW efforts are assessed and to compare the procedures by means of six criteria...
  33. ncbi The legal landscape for advanced therapies: material and institutional implementation of European Union rules in France and the United Kingdom
    Aurélie Mahalatchimy
    Universite de Toulouse
    J Law Soc 39:131-49. 2012
    In 2007, the European Union adopted a lex specialis, Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), a new legal category of medical product in regenerative medicine...
  34. ncbi Attitude survey of adverse drug-reaction reporting by health care professionals across the European Union. The European Pharmacovigilance Research Group
    K J Belton
    Wolfson Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 52:423-7. 1997
    This survey was conducted to assess the attitudes of medical practitioners in the European Union regarding their national spontaneous reporting scheme, to identify reasons for under-reporting and to determine what steps might be effective ..
  35. ncbi The contribution of health to the economy in the European Union
    Marc Suhrcke
    European Office for Investment for Health and Development, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Venice, Italy
    Public Health 120:994-1001. 2006
    ..In spite of remaining evidence gaps economic policy-makers also in developed countries should consider investing in health as one (of few) ways by which to achieve their economic objectives...
  36. doi Low-pathogenic notifiable avian influenza serosurveillance and the risk of infection in poultry - a critical review of the European Union active surveillance programme (2005-2007)
    J L Gonzales
    Department of Virology, Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 4:91-9. 2010
    Since 2003, Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) have implemented serosurveillance programmes for low pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) in poultry...
  37. doi Avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the European Union in 2006
    Uta Hesterberg
    Community Reference Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 3:1-14. 2009
    Infections of wild birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in the European Union in 2006.
  38. pmc Mapping health literacy research in the European Union: a bibliometric analysis
    Barbara K Kondilis
    Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Athens, Greece
    PLoS ONE 3:e2519. 2008
    To examine and compare the research productivity on selected fields related to health literacy of the current members of the European Union, the four candidate countries waiting to join the EU, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States.
  39. doi Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union
    L Alban
    Danish Agriculture and Food Council, Denmark
    Prev Vet Med 99:148-60. 2011
    Each year, more than 167 million pigs in the European Union (EU) are tested for Trichinella spp. under the current meat hygiene regulations...
  40. doi Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation
    J H Petersen
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK 2860 Søborg, Denmark
    Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 27:1608-16. 2010
    ..metal lid gaskets instead of analysis of phthalates in the food when controlling foodstuffs packed outside the European Union proved to be an efficient and simple control method...
  41. doi The carcinoGENOMICS project: critical selection of model compounds for the development of omics-based in vitro carcinogenicity screening assays
    Mathieu Vinken
    Department of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B 1090 Brussels, Belgium
    Mutat Res 659:202-10. 2008
    ..Since selecting an appropriate set of chemicals is a frequent impediment in the early stages of similar research projects, the information provided in this paper might be extremely valuable...
  42. pmc Immunity against HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis during co-infections with neglected infectious diseases: recommendations for the European Union research priorities
    Diana Boraschi
    CNR, Pisa, Italy
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e255. 2008
    ..The new scientific and technical tools of the post-genomic era can allow us to reach this goal. However, a concomitant effort in improving education and social conditions will be needed to make the scientific findings effective...
  43. doi Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review
    Jaume Puig-Junoy
    Research Centre for Economics and Health CRES, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
    Pharmacoeconomics 28:649-63. 2010
    ....
  44. pmc Proposals for model-based paediatric medicinal development within the current European Union regulatory framework
    Efthymios Manolis
    Scientific Advice and Orphan Drugs, European Medicines Agency, London, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 68:493-501. 2009
    The new paediatric European Union (EU) regulation and the consequent demand for paediatric studies on one hand and the ethical need for minimizing the burden of studies in children on the other hand necessitate optimal techniques in the ..
  45. pmc Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union
    Claude Saegerman
    Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:539-44. 2008
    ..This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments...
  46. pmc Distribution of sickness absence in the European Union countries
    D Gimeno
    Occupational Health Research Unit, Department of Experimental Sciences and Health, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    Occup Environ Med 61:867-9. 2004
    To determine the sickness absence frequency in European Union (EU) countries.
  47. ncbi Overview of important cervical cancer screening process values in European Union (EU) countries, and tentative predictions of the corresponding effectiveness and cost-effectiveness
    M van Ballegooijen
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Eur J Cancer 36:2177-88. 2000
    The objective was the evaluation of the (cost-)effectiveness of cervical cancer screening in the European Union (EU) countries...
  48. ncbi Estimating prevalence of problem drug use at national level in countries of the European Union and Norway
    Ludwig Kraus
    Institute for Therapy Research, Abteilung Soziale Epidemiologie, Munich, Germany
    Addiction 98:471-85. 2003
    ..This paper will present the most recent estimates for problematic drug use in European Member States and explore the problems of comparability...
  49. doi Migrant tuberculosis screening in the EU/EEA: yield, coverage and limitations
    E Klinkenberg
    KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 34:1180-9. 2009
    ..objective of assessing the effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) screening methods and strategies in migrants in European Union/European Economic Area (including Switzerland) countries...
  50. pmc The future of tobacco product regulation and labelling in Europe: implications for the forthcoming European Union directive
    C Bates
    Action on Smoking and Health, London, UK
    Tob Control 8:225-35. 1999
    ..We therefore make the following recommendations for the way forward...
  51. doi Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union
    Arnold Vlietinck
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Planta Med 75:683-8. 2009
    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important...
  52. pmc Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States
    Sabine Vogler
    Health Economics Department, WHO Collaborating Centre for Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies, Gesundheit Österreich GmbH Geschäftsbereich ÖBIG Austrian Health Institute, Stubenring 6, Vienna, Austria
    Croat Med J 52:183-97. 2011
    To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States.
  53. ncbi Prevalence of pathogenic bee viruses in Hungarian apiaries: situation before joining the European Union
    Petra Forgách
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent Istvan University, Hungária krt 23 25, H 1143 Budapest, Hungary
    J Invertebr Pathol 98:235-8. 2008
    ..The results could serve as a basis for monitoring further changes in the distribution of honeybee viruses in Europe...
  54. ncbi Consistency of staining and reporting of oestrogen receptor immunocytochemistry within the European Union--an inter-laboratory study
    C A Wells
    Department of Histopathology, St Bartholomew s Hospital Medical School, West Smithfield, London, EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom
    Virchows Arch 445:119-28. 2004
    ..The Quick score method of receptor assessment may also have too many categories for good concordance, and grouping of these into fewer categories may remove some of the variation among laboratories...
  55. doi Percutaneous mitral annuloplasty for functional mitral regurgitation: results of the CARILLON Mitral Annuloplasty Device European Union Study
    Joachim Schofer
    Medical Care Center Professor Mathey, Professor Schofer Hamburg University Cardiovascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Circulation 120:326-33. 2009
    ..Percutaneous mitral annuloplasty has the potential to serve as a therapeutic adjunct to standard medical care...
  56. ncbi Prevalence of physical activity during leisure time in the European Union
    M A Martinez-Gonzalez
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1142-6. 2001
    To estimate the prevalence of physical activity during leisure time in adults from the 15 member states of the European Union and the relationship with sociodemographic variables.
  57. ncbi Study of the efficacy of 18 sun filters authorized in European Union tested in vitro
    C Couteau
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Universite de Nantes, France
    Pharmazie 62:449-52. 2007
    ..31) < octyldimethyl PABA (8.71) < octocrylene (10.41) < octylmethoxycinnamate (10.42) < diethylhexylbutamidotriazone (12.58) <isoamylparamethoxycinnamate (15.14) < anisotriazine (20.0)...
  58. ncbi On the critical assessment of the impact of the recent European Union Tissues and Cells Directive
    Pushpa M Bhargava
    Anveshna, Furqan Cottage, 12 13 100 Lane No 1, Street No 3, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500 017, India
    Reprod Biomed Online 11:161. 2005
    ..and air quality standards to assisted conception facilities, especially IVF laboratories', as envisaged in the European Union's Tissues and Cells Directive (2004), is fully justified...
  59. ncbi A concise overview of national nutrition action plans in the European Union Member States
    Carl Lachat
    Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium
    Public Health Nutr 8:266-74. 2005
    This study presents an overview of national nutrition action plans in the member states of the European Union (EU), before its enlargement in 2004...
  60. doi Defining output-based standards to achieve and maintain tuberculosis freedom in farmed deer, with reference to member states of the European Union
    Simon J More
    Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Veterinary Sciences Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Prev Vet Med 90:254-67. 2009
    Within the European Union (EU), detailed legislation has been developed for cattle, but not deer, to minimise disease risks associated with trade in animals and animal products...
  61. doi Polish Research Ethics Committees in the European Union system of assessing medical experiments
    Marek Czarkowski
    Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, ul Banacha 1a, 02 097 Warszawa, Poland
    Sci Eng Ethics 15:201-12. 2009
    ..The results confirm the usefulness of the current practice of creating BCs by medical universities, medical institutes and regional chambers of physicians and dentists but rationalization of the workload for individual BCs is necessary...
  62. ncbi The impact of European Union law on individuals as patients
    John Hodgson
    Department of Academic Legal Studies, Nottingham Law School, Nottingham Trent University
    Br J Nurs 18:308-10. 2009
    ..A 'monolithic' national health service offering a comprehensive service 'free at the point of delivery', as in the UK, is the exception rather than the rule...
  63. doi Stochastic spatio-temporal modelling of African swine fever spread in the European Union during the high risk period
    Annette Nigsch
    Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield AL9 7TA, United Kingdom
    Prev Vet Med 108:262-75. 2013
    ..the disease has spread to several neighbouring countries and cases have been detected in areas bordering the European Union (EU)...
  64. doi An approach for mapping the vulnerability of European Union soils to antibiotic contamination
    Ana de la Torre
    Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Carretera de Algete a El Casar, 28130 Valdeolmos, Madrid, Spain
    Sci Total Environ 414:672-9. 2012
    ..Enrofloxacin was the highest-risk antibiotic in the European Union, followed by tetracyclines, tylosin and sulfodiazine...
  65. pmc Tuberculosis treatment outcome monitoring in European Union countries: systematic review
    Rob van Hest
    KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands
    Eur Respir J 41:635-43. 2013
    ..We performed a systematic literature review on national-level TOM in the 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Areas (EEA) countries to summarise methods used to collect and report data on TOM...
  66. doi An anthropological analysis of European Union (EU) health governance as biopolitics: the case of the EU tissues and cells directive
    Klaus Hoeyer
    Center for Medical Science and Technology Studies, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, P O Box 2099, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Soc Sci Med 70:1867-73. 2010
    Healthcare in Europe is increasingly influenced by European Union (EU) regulation enacted to harmonise heterogeneous practices through common safety standards...
  67. doi European approach to increasing organ donation: European Union donor card, presumed consent, and other innovations
    Juan C Garcia-Valdecasas
    Department of Surgery, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Villaroel 170, Barcelona, Spain
    Liver Transpl 18:S8-9. 2012
    ..2. Unfortunately, liver transplantation has become the victim of its own success because the number of available donors is not meeting the growing demand for organs...
  68. doi Chronic diseases in the European Union: the prevalence and health cost implications of chronic pain
    R M Leadley
    Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd, York, United Kingdom
    J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 26:310-25. 2012
    ..of chronic pain as a chronic condition in its own right; the costs attributed to chronic pain; and the European Union (EU) policies to addressing chronic pain...
  69. ncbi Scenario tree modeling to analyze the probability of classical swine fever virus introduction into member states of the European Union
    Clazien J de Vos
    Farm Management Group, Department of Social Sciences, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Risk Anal 24:237-53. 2004
    ..this purpose a spreadsheet model was constructed that calculates the annual PCSFV into member states of the European Union (EU). The scenario pathway approach was used as most probabilities in the model are very small...
  70. pmc Differences that hurt: self-perceived health inequalities in Croatia and the European Union
    Zoran Sucur
    Department of Social Work, Zagreb University School of Law, Zagreb, Croatia
    Croat Med J 48:653-66. 2007
    To investigate the differences in self-reported health status and access to health care according to different income groups, urbanization level, and regional distribution in Croatia and European Union (EU) countries.
  71. doi Difficulties of tracing health research funded by the European Union
    Kelly Ernst
    European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Brussels, Belgium
    J Health Serv Res Policy 15:133-6. 2010
    b>European Union (EU) information from research projects, including key findings, should be available on the European Commission's Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) database...
  72. ncbi Towards quality assurance and harmonization of genetic testing services in the European Union
    Dolores Ibarreta
    European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Edificio Expo, E 41092 Seville, Spain
    Nat Biotechnol 22:1230-5. 2004
  73. ncbi The size of the irregular migrant population in the European Union – counting the uncountable?
    Dita Vogel
    Hamburg Institute of International Economics
    Int Migr 49:78-96. 2011
    ..9 million and a maximum of 3.8 million irregular foreign residents in the 27 member states of the European Union (2008)...
  74. ncbi The changing structure of diets in the European Union in relation to healthy eating guidelines
    Josef Schmidhuber
    Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy
    Public Health Nutr 9:584-95. 2006
    Our objective in this paper is to assess diets in the European Union (EU) in relation to the recommendations of the recent World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization expert consultation and to show how diets have changed ..
  75. ncbi Comparison of China's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) law with the European Union (EU) EIA Directive
    Qiaoling Chen
    Institute of Law, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 1200, FIN 02015 HUT, Espoo, Finland
    Environ Monit Assess 132:53-65. 2007
    ..Our study indicates that these three major shortcomings should be overcome and improved in China's EIA system, when compared with the EU EIA system...
  76. ncbi A critical assessment of the directive on tissue engineering of the European union
    Leen Trommelmans
    Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Tissue Eng 13:667-72. 2007
    ..We equally suggest that the general public remain involved in regulatory issues concerning tissue-engineered products...
  77. ncbi European Clinical Trials Directive: the Italian position
    Umberto Filibeck
    Lancet 363:1651-2. 2004
  78. ncbi A new year, a new era: Romania and Bulgaria join the European Union
    Martin McKee
    Eur J Public Health 17:119-20. 2007
  79. pmc Health behavior among Lithuania's adolescents in context of European Union
    Apolinaras Zaborskis
    Institute for Biomedical Research, Kaunas University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania
    Croat Med J 47:335-43. 2006
    To compare health behavior patterns of adolescents in Lithuania with health behavior of adolescents in European Union (EU) in 2001/2002.
  80. ncbi Policy and science in children's health and environment: recommendations from the PINCHE project
    Peter van den Hazel
    Public Health Services Gelderland Midden, Arnhem, The Netherlands
    Acta Paediatr Suppl 95:114-9. 2006
    ....
  81. ncbi Estimating the use of veterinary medicines in the European union
    Stefan A E Kools
    ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Boettgerstrasse 2 14, D 65439 Floersheim a M, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 50:59-65. 2008
    ..In total, an estimated 6051 tons of active substances in veterinary medicines were used in the European Union. We discuss available data sources and quality, our method and possible refinement of our approach...
  82. doi Using biological effects tools to define Good Environmental Status under the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive
    B P Lyons
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, United Kingdom
    Mar Pollut Bull 60:1647-51. 2010
    The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining ..
  83. ncbi The first biosimilar epoetin: but how similar is it?
    Huub Schellekens
    Departments of Pharmaceutical and Innovation Sciences, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 082, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:174-8. 2008
  84. doi Challenges in starting organised screening programmes for cervical cancer in the new member states of the European Union
    Florian Al Nicula
    Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Oncological Institute I Chiricuta, Cluj Napoca, Romania
    Eur J Cancer 45:2679-84. 2009
    Following the 2003 Recommendation of the Council of the European Union on cancer screening, equal access to organised cervical cancer screening is supposed to be ensured for all women at risk in all member states...
  85. ncbi Unintentional injury mortality in the European Union: how many more lives could be saved?
    Eleni Th Petridou
    Unit of Preventive Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
    Scand J Public Health 35:278-87. 2007
    The wide variation of unintentional (accidental) injury mortality rates in the European Union (EU) member states suggests that there is high potential for prevention...
  86. ncbi [Health trends in the Czech Republic and European Union]
    Emil Ginter
    Ustav preventívnej a klinickej medicíny, Bratislava, Slovenska republika
    Cas Lek Cesk 149:232-4. 2010
    ..It is probable, that in the 2015 some parameters of health trends will be near to the average of EU and in some parameters (infant mortality, incidence of HIV) it will be at the top of EU...
  87. ncbi Information disclosure and smoking risk perceptions. Potential short-term impact on Spanish students of the new European Union directive on tobacco products
    Fabiola Portillo
    Department of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de La Rioja, C La Cigüena 60, 26004 Logroño, Spain
    Eur J Public Health 12:295-301. 2002
    ..The aim of the present study was to analyse the potential effect of the planned measures on the perceptions by Spanish youth of the risks associated with smoking...
  88. ncbi Transnational migration of health professionals in the European Union
    Thomas Gerlinger
    Institute of Medical Sociology, University of Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Cad Saude Publica 23:S184-92. 2007
    ..Since the 1970s, the European Union (EU) has passed numerous regulations to enforce the mutual recognition of qualifications of physicians, nurses,..
  89. ncbi Comparative approaches to pharmaceutical price regulation in the European Union
    Monique F Mrazek
    LSE Health and Social Care, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London, WC1B 4BP, UK
    Croat Med J 43:453-61. 2002
    To review pharmaceutical price regulation methods in countries of the European Union (EU), in terms of the anticipated impact of regulation on pharmaceutical expenditures and evidence of actual outcomes.
  90. ncbi An assessment of the incidence of fistula-in-ano in four countries of the European Union
    Carlo Zanotti
    Cellerix, S L, Madrid, Spain
    Int J Colorectal Dis 22:1459-62. 2007
    ..Nevertheless, no comprehensive analysis of its incidence in developed countries is available. Our goal was to determine the actual incidence of fistula-in-ano based on the study of incidence in four countries of the European Union (EU).
  91. pmc A survey of public funding of cancer research in the European union
    Seth Eckhouse
    European Cancer Research Managers Forum, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 3:e267. 2006
  92. pmc Predictors of orphan drug approval in the European Union
    Harald E Heemstra
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, P O Box 80 082, 3508 TB, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:545-52. 2008
    ..Recent literature discusses factors that may influence the development of new orphan medicinal products in the EU. This study aims to identify predictors for successful marketing authorisation of potential orphan drugs in the EU...
  93. ncbi The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction
    Julia Fentem
    SEAC, Unilever Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK
    Altern Lab Anim 32:617-23. 2004
    ..If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit the "translation" of experimental non-animal data, so that they can then be used in risk assessment...
  94. ncbi The European Union of Medical Specialties core training curriculum in infectious diseases: overview of national systems and distribution of specialists
    M W McKendrick
    University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
    Clin Microbiol Infect 11:28-32. 2005
    The European Union of Medical Specialities (UEMS) Section of Infectious Diseases agreed on an infectious disease training programme in 1999, which was updated in 2002...
  95. ncbi The use of mechanisms and modes of toxic action in integrated testing strategies: the report and recommendations of a workshop held as part of the European Union OSIRIS Integrated Project
    J Arie Vonk
    Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Altern Lab Anim 37:557-71. 2009
    ..In this report, the possibilities of a mechanistic approach to assist in and guide ITS are explored, and the differences between human health and environmental areas are summarised...
  96. doi Human vaccine research in the European Union
    Ole F Olesen
    Health Directorate, DG Research, European Commission, Rue de la Loi 200, B 1049 Brussels, Belgium
    Vaccine 27:640-5. 2009
    ..This impressive number signals a new spirit of collaborative research, which will facilitate the exploitation of the immense possibilities in modern vaccinology...
  97. doi A multilevel analysis of condom use among adolescents in the European Union
    J V Lazarus
    Communicable Diseases Unit, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Denmark
    Public Health 123:138-44. 2009
    ..This study examined which individual and national factors affect condom use among adolescents...
  98. pmc Recent trends in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the European Union
    K A Fenton
    HIV STI Department, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 80:255-63. 2004
    ..We review recent trends in the epidemiology of the major acute STIs in the European Union and Norway, their key determinants, and opportunities for enhancing STI prevention interventions in the region.
  99. ncbi Trends in cancer mortality in the European Union and accession countries, 1980-2000
    F Levi
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Institut Universitaire de Medecine Sociale et Preventive, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Ann Oncol 15:1425-31. 2004
    Cancer mortality rates and trends over the period 1980-2000 for accession countries to the European Union (EU) in May 2004, which include a total of 75 million inhabitants, were abstracted from the World Health Organization (WHO) database,..
  100. ncbi HIV-infected immigrants from non-European Union countries and antiretroviral treatment: comparison of epidemiologic, clinical, and therapeutic variables according to patient sex
    Roberto Manfredi
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:408-10. 2003
  101. doi Mental illness stigma and willingness to seek mental health care in the European Union
    Ramin Mojtabai
    Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 45:705-12. 2010
    ..This study aims to examine these assumptions...

Research Grants76

  1. Next Generation Oxime Therapeutic for Chemical Agent Inhibited CNS (Brain) ChEs
    Richard Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  2. Genetic Epidemiology of Melanoma
    David Elder; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A successful application to the European Union for a Network of Excellence (NoE) "Framework 6" grant has ensured the viability of a considerably enlarged ..
  3. Hyaluronan/CD44 and the Early Endometriotic Lesion
    Robert Schenken; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The findings should enable us to predict a woman's risk of developing endometriosis based on endometrial cell CD44 characteristics and suggest new approaches to prevent the disease. ..
  4. Exposure and biological response biomarkers of cigarette smoke
    Ian Blair; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  5. Genetic Epidemiology of Melanoma
    DAVID ERIC ELDER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A successful application to the European Union for a Network of Excellence (NoE) "Framework 6" grant has ensured the viability of a considerably enlarged ..
  6. Genetic Epidemiology of Melanoma
    David E Elder; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A successful application to the European Union for a Network of Excellence (NoE) "Framework 6" grant has ensured the viability of a considerably enlarged ..
  7. The Role of the Cortex in Discoordination After Stroke
    Julius Dewald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source Imaging
    Bin He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The availability of a noninvasive imaging technology to identify and image the epileptogenic foci would benefit numerous patients suffering from epilepsy and the healthcare system. ..
  9. Do Patient Requests Affect Doctor's Decisions? A Complementary Experimental and Q
    John B McKinlay; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. and elsewhere (DTCA of pharmaceuticals is about to be introduced throughout the countries of the European Union)...
  10. Do Patient Requests Affect Doctor's Decisions? A Complementary Experimental and Q
    John McKinlay; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S. and elsewhere (DTCA of pharmaceuticals is about to be introduced throughout the countries of the European Union)...
  11. A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source Imaging
    Bin He; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The availability of a noninvasive imaging technology to identify and image the epileptogenic foci would benefit numerous patients suffering from epilepsy and the healthcare system. ..
  12. Potential Surrogate Marker of Epileptogenic Cortex
    Joyce Wu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  13. SUPPORT FOR GENESIS
    James Bower; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to summer courses, GENESIS continues to be part of the course in Woods Hole, as well as courses offered in the European Union, Mexico, India, Japan, and recently a new course in Brazil for Latin America...
  14. SUPPORT FOR GENESIS
    James M Bower; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to summer courses, GENESIS continues to be part of the course in Woods Hole, as well as courses offered in the European Union, Mexico, India, Japan, and recently a new course in Brazil for Latin America...
  15. Efficacy of The Ketogenic Diet
    John Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The mechanics of the study have gone well with no adverse events and no dropouts. We believe that the recruitment problems have been solved. Since the investigators remain blinded, the results are not available. ..
  16. A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source Imaging
    Bin He; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The availability of a noninvasive imaging technology to identify and image the epileptogenic foci would benefit numerous patients suffering from epilepsy and the healthcare system. ..
  17. Functional Neuroimaging in Childhood Absence Epilepsy
    Hal Blumenfeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding mechanisms of impaired attention in this form of epilepsy may have implications for treating other types of epilepsy as well. ..
  18. Astrocyte Dysfunction in Epilepsy
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..RESEARCH GRANT TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Numbers Face Page 1 Description, ..
  19. THE USE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE TO MODULATE AROUSAL
    Edgar Garcia Rill; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..However, the optimal stimulation sites and paradigms muse be identified and proven effective, first, in control populations, and later, in pathological populations. ..
  20. Control of Repetitive Movement in Parkinson's Disease
    Colum MacKinnon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This project is relevant to public health because the findings will provide a better understanding of the human basal ganglia and its role in the production of disordered movement and help to develop improved treatments. ..
  21. Control of Repetitive Movement in Parkinson's Disease
    Colum MacKinnon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This project is relevant to public health because the findings will provide a better understanding of the human basal ganglia and its role in the production of disordered movement and help to develop improved treatments. ..
  22. Neural Grafts and Injury-Induced Hippocampal Dysfunction
    Ashok K Shetty; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Collectively, the proposed experiments have immense value for the development of apt treatment strategy that prevents both chronic epilepsy and learning and memory impairments after hippocampal injury in adults. ..
  23. Arousal, orexins and anesthesia
    MAX KELZ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Together with his current skill set, these new tools will help transition him towards becoming an independent physician-scientist by bridging the interface between sleep neurobiology and anesthetic action. ..
  24. Neural Grafts and Injury-Induced Hippocampal Dysfunction
    Ashok Shetty; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Collectively, the proposed experiments have immense value for the development of apt treatment strategy that prevents both chronic epilepsy and learning and memory impairments after hippocampal injury in adults. ..
  25. 2006 Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Gordon Conference
    Rex Hess; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Governments of the United States, Japan and the European Union have enacted laws regulating endocrine disrupters and in the U.S...
  26. GENDER, CULTURE, AND ALCOHOL: A MULTI-NATIONAL STUDY
    Sharon Wilsnack; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Considerable groundwork for the project has been completed, including obtaining funds for support of European Union members of the study, and (through our partnership with the World Health Organization) obtaining funds to ..
  27. A Mouse Model of Inherited Frontal Lobe Epilepsy
    Jim Boulter; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The objective of these experiments is to examine possible synaptic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and to determine the effects of ADNFLE mutations on a4a2receptor-mediated function in vivo. ..