persia

Summary

Summary: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)

Top Publications

  1. pmc The history of anatomy in Persia
    Mohammadali M Shoja
    Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    J Anat 210:359-78. 2007
  2. ncbi Ophthalmology from ancient Persia to the modern era
    Ali A Khodadoust
    Arch Ophthalmol 124:1481-3. 2006
  3. ncbi Diseases of the kidney in medieval Persia the--Hidayat of Al-Akawayni
    Mohammad R Ardalan
    Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz Medical University, Tabriz, Iran
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:3413-21. 2007
  4. ncbi Natural remedies for impotence in medieval Persia
    M Khaleghi Ghadiri
    Institut fur Physiologie, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Strasse, Munster, Germany
    Int J Impot Res 16:80-3. 2004
  5. ncbi An analysis of cytotoxic botanical formulations used in the traditional medicine of ancient Persia as abortifacients
    Hamta Madari
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Nat Prod 67:1204-10. 2004
  6. doi Comparative acute toxicities and immunomodulatory potentials of five Eastern Nigeria mistletoes
    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
    J Ethnopharmacol 126:287-93. 2009
  7. ncbi An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome
    Hassan Yarmohammadi
    Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Acta Med Hist Adriat 11:291-8. 2013
  8. ncbi [The birth of modern surgery]
    Nils Brage Nordlander
    Sven Med Tidskr 11:89-93. 2007
  9. doi Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine
    Azadeh Hamedi
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Pharm Biol 51:1208-18. 2013
  10. ncbi Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration
    M Regueiro
    Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, OE 304, Miami, FL 33199, USA
    Hum Hered 61:132-43. 2006

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications82

  1. pmc The history of anatomy in Persia
    Mohammadali M Shoja
    Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    J Anat 210:359-78. 2007
    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical ..
  2. ncbi Ophthalmology from ancient Persia to the modern era
    Ali A Khodadoust
    Arch Ophthalmol 124:1481-3. 2006
  3. ncbi Diseases of the kidney in medieval Persia the--Hidayat of Al-Akawayni
    Mohammad R Ardalan
    Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz Medical University, Tabriz, Iran
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 22:3413-21. 2007
    ..arose, and regional cultures flourished, medical texts began to be written in local dialects, particularly in Persia. Notable amongst those and probably the oldest is the Hidayat al-Muallimin fi-al-Tibb (Learner's; guide to ..
  4. ncbi Natural remedies for impotence in medieval Persia
    M Khaleghi Ghadiri
    Institut fur Physiologie, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Strasse, Munster, Germany
    Int J Impot Res 16:80-3. 2004
    ..Several documents still exist from which the clinical approaches of erectile dysfunction (ED) in medieval Persia can be ascertained. The medieval physicians described definitions and apparent causes of ED...
  5. ncbi An analysis of cytotoxic botanical formulations used in the traditional medicine of ancient Persia as abortifacients
    Hamta Madari
    Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Nat Prod 67:1204-10. 2004
    We report here an analysis of plants used by traditional healers of ancient Persia to induce abortions...
  6. doi Comparative acute toxicities and immunomodulatory potentials of five Eastern Nigeria mistletoes
    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, 410001 Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
    J Ethnopharmacol 126:287-93. 2009
    ..have been used as immunostimulant for the management of certain diseases with high profile immune depleting potentials. This practice has remained till date without scientific validation...
  7. ncbi An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome
    Hassan Yarmohammadi
    Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Acta Med Hist Adriat 11:291-8. 2013
    ..Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. ..
  8. ncbi [The birth of modern surgery]
    Nils Brage Nordlander
    Sven Med Tidskr 11:89-93. 2007
    In ancient India and Persia surgeons were highly respected and their operating skill with nose plastic and catatact couching is documented...
  9. doi Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine
    Azadeh Hamedi
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Pharm Biol 51:1208-18. 2013
    ..Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine...
  10. ncbi Iran: tricontinental nexus for Y-chromosome driven migration
    M Regueiro
    Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, University Park, OE 304, Miami, FL 33199, USA
    Hum Hered 61:132-43. 2006
    ..However, the extent to which the deserts within the Iranian plateau and the mountain ranges surrounding Persia inhibited gene flow via this corridor remains uncertain...
  11. ncbi Psychoanalysis in Persia
    Saeed Shoja Shafti
    Am J Psychother 59:385-9. 2005
  12. ncbi Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia
    Nasser Vakili
    Institute for Physiology I, Munster University, Munster, Germany
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:1862-9. 2006
    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West...
  13. ncbi In commemorating one thousandth anniversary of the Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: gastric headache, a forgotten clinical entity from the medieval Persia
    Seyyed Mohammad Bagher Fazljou
    Department of Iranian Traditional Medicine, School of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Acta Med Iran 51:279-83. 2013
    ..The medieval Persian physicians' contributions to the concept of gastric headache influenced beyond doubt the later accounts of this condition...
  14. doi Esophageal cancer alters the expression of nuclear pore complex binding protein Hsc70 and eIF5A-1
    Mehdi Moghanibashi
    Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
    Funct Integr Genomics 13:253-60. 2013
    ..we analyzed expression pattern of the NPC components in a newly established esophageal cancer cell line from Persia (Iran), the high-risk region for esophageal cancer...
  15. doi Proteomics of a new esophageal cancer cell line established from Persian patient
    Mehdi Moghanibashi
    Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
    Gene 500:124-33. 2012
    Although the highest incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has repeatedly been reported from Persia (Iran), nevertheless the so far proteomic published reports were limited to one study on tissue specimens...
  16. doi Discourse on pulse in medieval Persia-the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983AD)
    Kazem Khodadoust
    Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    Int J Cardiol 166:289-93. 2013
    ....
  17. ncbi Jawarish, a Persian traditional gastrointestinal dosage form
    Arman Zargaran
    Research Office for the History of Persian Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Pharm Hist (Lond) 42:24-5. 2012
    Medical sciences including pharmacy flourished in Persia throughout medieval times. The oldest pharmacopeias which discussed pharmaceutical formulations were created by them, called Qarabadin...
  18. doi Cranioplasty in medieval Persia and the potential spread of this knowledge to Europe
    Mohammadali M Shoja
    Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    Childs Nerv Syst 28:1993-6. 2012
    ..However, cranioplasty for the surgical treatment of skull pathologies is a relatively recent phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on the account of skull injury and cranioplasty in medieval Persia.
  19. pmc Avicenna and cataracts: a new analysis of contributions to diagnosis and treatment from the canon
    M Nejabat
    Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Iran Red Crescent Med J 14:265-70. 2012
    Physicians in ancient Persia played an important role in the development of medicine in the medieval era. One of the most influential figures of this era was Abu Ali Sina or Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in the western world...
  20. pmc Science of breeding and heredity from ancient Persia to modern Iran
    Mohammad H Kariminejad
    Department of Pathology and Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
    Indian J Hum Genet 18:34-9. 2012
    ....
  21. doi Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice
    Paul S Agutter
    Theoretical Medicine and Biology Group, Glossop, Derbyshire, UK
    J Forensic Leg Med 20:133-5. 2013
    ..Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question ..
  22. pmc Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia - the Hidayat of Akhawayni (?-983 AD)
    Samad Ej Golzari
    Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 8:229-34. 2012
    ..Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.
  23. doi Antimotility effects of extracts and fractions of Eastern Nigeria mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn)
    Patience O Osadebe
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 5:556-60. 2012
    ..micranthus) Linn] parasitic on six different host trees viz. Baphia nitida, Persia americana, Kola accuminata, Irvingia gabonensis, Citrus simensis and Pentacletra macrophylla (P. mycrophylla).
  24. pmc Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)
    Harry S Paris
    Department of Vegetable Crops and Plant Genetics, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya ar Research Center, Ramat Yishay, Israel
    Ann Bot 110:23-33. 2012
    ..The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed...
  25. doi An ancient eye test--using the stars
    George M Bohigian
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine Barnes Hospital, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Surv Ophthalmol 53:536-9. 2008
    ..This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test...
  26. doi Avicenna's treatise on otology in Medieval Persia
    Sanaz Hamidi
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Irvine, California 92868, USA
    Otol Neurotol 29:1198-203. 2008
    Avicenna (AD 980-1037) was one of the best-known physicians of his time. Born in Persia, he gained notoriety both in the local and international scenes...
  27. ncbi Cover illustration. Abu Bakr Razi
    Ahmad Muneer Otri
    Br J Ophthalmol 92:1324. 2008
  28. ncbi Management of spinal disorders and trauma in Avicenna's Canon of medicine
    Ahmet Aciduman
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ministry of Health Etlik Ihtisas Hospital, Ankara University Health Sciences Institute, Ankara, Turkey
    Neurosurgery 59:397-403; discussion 397-403. 2006
    ..Although, there are not basic differences from Hippocratic knowledge, this book contains some original contributions...
  29. ncbi ['The spirit has left the bottle': the medieval Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ: his medical work and his bizarre affiliation with twentieth-century spiritualism]
    N Peter Joosse
    Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Letteren, Postbus 9515, 2300 RA Leiden
    Gewina 30:211-29. 2007
    ..He became known as Abduhl Latif the great Persian physician and acted as a control of mediums. Until the late sixties, he practised the art of healing as the head of a medical mission somewhere in the Spheres...
  30. doi Comparison of the rapidly evolving KIR locus in Parsis and natives of India
    S Kulkarni
    Cancer Research Institute, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Khraghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 410208, India
    Immunogenetics 60:121-9. 2008
    ..despite their distinct ethnic background and the fairly recent migration of Parsis to Western India from Persia around 900 A.D: ...
  31. doi Go east: phylogeographies of Mauremys caspica and M. rivulata- discordance of morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear genomic markers and rare hybridization
    U Fritz
    Museum of Zoology Museum für Tierkunde, Natural History State Collections, Dresden, Germany
    J Evol Biol 21:527-40. 2008
    ..caspica three distinct Pleistocene refuges are postulated (Central Anatolia, south coast of Caspian Sea, Gulf of Persia). Morphologically defined subspecies within M. caspica are not supported by genetic data...
  32. ncbi Differentiation of opium and poppy straw using capillary electrophoresis and pattern recognition techniques
    Raymond G Reid
    School of Pharmacy, The Robert Gordon University, Schoolhill, Aberdeen AB10 1FR, UK
    Anal Chim Acta 605:20-7. 2007
    ..Supervised pattern recognition using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was performed to show individual groupings and allow unknown samples to be classified according to the models built using the CZE assay results...
  33. ncbi Anatomy of the cranial nerves in medieval Persian literature: Esmail Jorjani (AD 1042-1137) and The treasure of the Khwarazm shah
    Mohammadali M Shoja
    Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz Medical University, Tabriz, Iran
    Neurosurgery 61:1325-30; discussion 1330-1. 2007
    ..Some of these descriptions, such as the eloquent ones provided by Jorjani, were original and have gone mostly unknown to post-Vesalian European scholars...
  34. doi The life and work of Abu ul-Ala Shirazi (d. 1001): a Persian pioneer in the treatment of malaria, in the style of Rhazes (865-925)
    Masoud Mahmoudian
    Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    J Med Biogr 16:186-7. 2008
    ..A clinical trial dating from the 10th century demonstrates Abu ul-Ala's intelligence and careful clinical observation, in the tradition of Rhazes' practice based on experimentation and clinical trial...
  35. pmc Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500-1300 CE: two routes to Europe
    Harry S Paris
    Department of Vegetable Crops and Plant Genetics, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya ar Research Center, PO Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30 095, Israel
    Ann Bot 109:117-26. 2012
    ..The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route...
  36. doi Postcards in Persia: randomised controlled trial to reduce suicidal behaviours 12 months after hospital-treated self-poisoning
    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran, Iran
    Br J Psychiatry 198:309-16. 2011
    ..Hospital-treated self-poisoning is common, with limited effective interventions for reducing subsequent suicidal behaviour...
  37. doi Gender and population history: sex bias revealed by studying genetic admixture of Ngazidja population (Comoro Archipelago)
    Géraud Gourjon
    UMR 6578 Anthropologie bioculturelle, Université de la Méditerranée CNRS EFS, Faculté de Médecine Secteur Nord Université de la Méditerranée, Bd Pierre Dramard, Marseille Cedex 15, France
    Am J Phys Anthropol 144:653-60. 2011
    ..by successive waves of migration from three main areas: the East African Coast (Bantu-speaking populations), the Persia and Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia)...
  38. pmc Population genetic structure of the people of Qatar
    Haley Hunter-Zinck
    Program in Computational Biology and Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 87:17-25. 2010
    ..represent a relatively recent founding by a small number of families from three tribes of the Arabian Peninsula, Persia, and Oman, with indications of African admixture...
  39. doi Mutations of a country: a mutation review of single gene disorders in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
    Lihadh Al-Gazali
    Departments of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
    Hum Mutat 31:505-20. 2010
    The United Arab Emirates inhabitants are ethnically diverse, with ancestries from Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and Africa...
  40. doi Illustration of the heart and blood vessels in medieval times
    Majid Khalili
    Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz Medial University, Tabriz, Iran
    Int J Cardiol 143:4-7. 2010
    ..Due to religious prohibitions, color drawings of the human body did not appear in medieval Persia and during the Islamic Golden Age...
  41. ncbi Ibn Sina and the clinical trial
    Mohammad M Sajadi
    University of Maryland School of Medicine and Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Ann Intern Med 150:640-3. 2009
    ..In addition, the authors provide a translation of his treatise on drug testing and discuss its similarity to modern concepts of pharmacology and clinical trials...
  42. doi Facial soft tissue values in Persian adults with normal occlusion and well-balanced faces
    Amjad Al Taki
    Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Ajman University of Science and Technology, Ajman, United Arab Emirates
    Angle Orthod 79:491-4. 2009
    ..To determine the mean soft tissue facial profile for Persian adults as determined by the Holdaway analysis...
  43. doi Hydrocephalus and its treatment according to Rhazes
    Ahmet Aciduman
    Department of Deontology, Ankara University, The School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    J Neurosurg Pediatr 3:161-5. 2009
    ..Although he did not introduce novel concepts of hydrocephalus and its management, by combining the different approaches of experienced scholars he endeavored to improve treatment and knowledge of this problematic disease...
  44. ncbi Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale
    Philip A Mackowiak
    Medical Care Clinical Center 111, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA
    Mil Med 173:1158-63. 2008
    ....
  45. ncbi Medicine in stamps. Avicenna (980-1037): prince of physicians
    S Y Tan
    University of Hawaii, USA
    Singapore Med J 43:445-6. 2002
  46. ncbi Medieval neurosurgery: contributions from the Middle East, Spain, and Persia
    Scott Y Rahimi
    Medical College of Georgia, Department of Neurosurgery, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    Neurosurg Focus 23:E14. 2007
    ..As in other fields, in neurosurgery these periods of "enlightenment" have occurred in a variety of civilizations and time periods...
  47. ncbi Bioemulsifier production by a halothermophilic Bacillus strain with potential applications in microbially enhanced oil recovery
    S M M Dastgheib
    Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
    Biotechnol Lett 30:263-70. 2008
    ..The efficiency of the residual oil recovery increased by 22% after in situ growth of B. licheniformis ACO1 in a sand-pack model saturated with liquid paraffin...
  48. ncbi The book of heat from Rashīd ad-Dīn's Kitāb Bayān al-Haqā'iq, MS. Klç Ali Pasha 834, fol. 208 b-241 b Chinese medicine from a source in 14th Century Persia
    Felix Klein-Franke
    Institute of Asian and African Studies, The Hebrew University 91905 Jerusalem, Israel
    Am J Chin Med 31:977-82. 2003
    ..Rashid ad-Din gives a summary of what he found in Arabic and Chinese medical literature concerning the topic Heat...
  49. ncbi Venous thrombosis: the history of knowledge
    P M Mannucci
    Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, IRCCS Maggiore Hospital and University of Milan, Italy
    Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb 32:209-12. 2002
    ..compatible with a diagnosis of venous thrombosis can be found in pieces of art from ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia and South America...
  50. ncbi [The use of honey in the simple and composed drugs at Rhazés]
    Mehrnaz Katouzian-Safadi
    Centre d histoire des sciences et des philosophies arabes et médiévales, Villejuif Cedex
    Rev Hist Pharm (Paris) 51:29-36. 2003
    ..We examine here, the use of honey by this scientist as a simple drug and as one of the essential substances included in composed medicines. That leads us to examine the notion of simple and of composed in this physician and alchemist...
  51. ncbi Pharmacological treatment of headache using traditional Persian medicine
    Ali Gorji
    Institut fur Physiologie, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 27a, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 24:331-4. 2003
  52. ncbi History of headache in medieval Persian medicine
    Ali Gorji
    Institut fur Physiologie, Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 1:510-5. 2002
    Despite the many studies into the history of headache, the ways in which the disorder was treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the west...
  53. ncbi [Avicenna, prince of scholars]
    Martine Franzin-Garrec
    Département de pathologie cardiovasculaire, Hôpital d Instruction des Armées du Val de Grâce, Paris 75
    Soins . 2003
  54. ncbi [The origins of the Islamic model of hospital]
    Francesca Romana Romani
    Sezione di Storia della Medicina, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Pathologia,
    Med Secoli 14:69-99. 2002
    ..The Islamic bîmaristan brought about a new concept of assistance by offering a medical cure rather than care...
  55. ncbi Hereditary inclusion body myopathy: the Middle Eastern genetic cluster
    Z Argov
    Department of Neurology and Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital and Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem
    Neurology 60:1519-23. 2003
    ..body myopathy (HIBM) with quadriceps sparing was initially described only in Jews originating from the region of Persia. The recent identification of the gene responsible for this myopathy and the common "Persian Jewish mutation" (..
  56. pmc Hypertension in the Parsi community of Bombay: a study on prevalence, awareness and compliance to treatment
    Nadir E Bharucha
    Department of Neuroepidemiology, Medical Research Center, Bombay Hospital, Mumbai 400020 India
    BMC Public Health 3:1. 2003
    ..The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness, compliance to medication and control of HT in this community...
  57. ncbi Rhazes (835-925 A.D.): medical scholar of Islam
    S Y Tan
    University of Hawaii, USA
    Singapore Med J 43:331-2. 2002
  58. ncbi [Persian terminology in Arabic anatomical texts.]
    J J Barcia Goyanes
    ,
    Asclepio 47:23-31. 1995
    ....
  59. ncbi Al-Adwiyah Al-Qalbiyah: introduction and commentary
    K A Azmi
    Literary Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi
    Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad 24:127-68. 1994
    ..Like Al-Qanun, it was also very popular in Europe and was translated into Latin. It has also been translated in Turkish, Uzbbek, and later on in Persian and Urdu...
  60. ncbi The sacred disease of Cambyses II
    G K York
    Department of Neurology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Stockton, Calif, USA
    Arch Neurol 58:1702-4. 2001
    ..However, the view of epilepsy as a somatic disease and uncertainty about the cause of madness shows Herodotus as a transitional figure between supernatural and naturalistic medical theories...
  61. ncbi A nonsense mutation (W9X) in CRYAA causes autosomal recessive cataract in an inbred Jewish Persian family
    E Pras
    Department of Ophthalmology, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:3511-5. 2000
    ..To identify the genetic defect causing autosomal recessive cataract in two inbred families...
  62. ncbi Chest trauma during the battle of Troy: ancient warfare and chest trauma
    G H Santos
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 69:1285-7. 2000
    ..That, as well as the presence of physicians in the battlefield, is of special interest for us surgeons...
  63. ncbi [A great Franco-Mauritian epidemiologist: Joseph Désiré Tholozan (1820-18970]
    J Theodorides
    Recherche honoraire au CNRS, Paris
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 91:104-8. 1998
    ..In 1858, he was appointed personal physician to Nasreddin Shah and remained in Persia until his death in Teheran (1897) where he is buried...
  64. ncbi Hereditary inclusion body myopathy maps to chromosome 9p1-q1
    S Mitrani-Rosenbaum
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 5:159-163. 1996
    ..32, theta = 0.0). This region contains the Friedreich's Ataxia gene, raising the possibility that HIBM may be a related neurogenic disorder...
  65. ncbi Periodic emergence of great poets in the history of Arabia & Persia, China and Japan
    Emil Pales
    Sophia Foundation, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 25:169-72. 2004
    ..Great poets of Arabia, Persia, China and Japan emerged periodically every 500 years...
  66. ncbi Duodenal date seed bezoar: a very unusual cause of partial gastric outlet obstruction
    S K Singh
    Sur Hospital, South Sharquiyah State, Ministry of Health, Oman
    Australas Radiol 51:B126-9. 2007
    ..Originally described from Persia, they have been known to mankind for centuries...
  67. ncbi Avicenna (AD 980 to 1037) and the care of the newborn infant and breastfeeding
    H D Modanlou
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868, USA
    J Perinatol 28:3-6. 2008
    A brief historical review of medicine during the fourth century Islamic civilization or eleventh century AD in Persia or Iran was undertaken with its focus on Avicenna...
  68. ncbi Abubakr Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Razi, Rhazes (865-925 AD: )
    R Shane Tubbs
    Section of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children s Hospital, 1600 7th Avenue South ACC 400, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    Childs Nerv Syst 23:1225-6. 2007
  69. pmc A Persian anatomical image in a non-muslim manuscript from Gujarat
    Dominik Wujastyk
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine UCL, 210 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK
    Med Hist 51:237-42. 2007
  70. ncbi ["This science is the most noble of all sciences" -- on relations of religion and medicine in Bahaism]
    Stephan Anis Towfigh
    Institut fur Geschichte der Medizin, Universitat Freiburg
    Praxis (Bern 1994) 96:753-6. 2007
  71. ncbi The art of smoking in Iran and other uses of tobacco
    Willem Floor
    Iran Stud 35:47-85. 2002
  72. ncbi The disorder of love in the Canon of Avicenna (A.D. 980-1037)
    Mohammadali M Shoja
    Department of Anatomy and Neurosurgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51738, Iran
    Am J Psychiatry 164:228-9. 2007
  73. ncbi A pioneer from the Islamic Golden Age: Haly Abbas and spinal traumas in his principal work, The Royal Book
    Deniz Belen
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ministry of Health Diskapi Research and Educational Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    J Neurosurg Spine 5:381-3. 2006
    ..More than a thousand years ago Persia was a cradle of medical learning, and Islamic medicine and other sciences spread westward from that center...
  74. ncbi [History of Arabic medicine]
    Rafik Boukhris
    Tunis Med 83:36-58. 2005
  75. ncbi AVECENNA (980-1037 A.D). Postal stamps released on Avecenna in Turkey-1980 and USSR-1980
    J V Pai-Dhungat
    Dept of Medicine, TN Medical College
    J Assoc Physicians India 53:536. 2005
  76. ncbi A new bioactive flavone glycoside from the seeds of Melilotus indica All
    R N Yadava
    Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Dr H S Gour University, Sagar, 470003 M P, India
    J Asian Nat Prod Res 7:595-9. 2005
    ..It is found in North India, extending into S. Persia, S. Europe and the Tropical zone of India...
  77. ncbi Mitochondrial myopathy, sideroblastic anemia, and lactic acidosis: an autosomal recessive syndrome in Persian Jews caused by a mutation in the PUS1 gene
    Avraham Zeharia
    Department of Pediatircs, Schneider Children s Medical of Israel, Petah Tiqva
    J Child Neurol 20:449-52. 2005
    ..This finding provides additional evidence that mitochondrial ribonucleic acid modification impacts the phenotypic expression of oxidative phosphorylation disorders...
  78. ncbi Islamic science: rebuilding the past
    Alison Abbott
    Nature 432:794-5. 2004
  79. ncbi A Stone at the Siege of Cyropolis: why it is unlikely that Alexander had a carotid dissection causing his death 6 years later
    Marie Germaine Bousser
    Service de Neurologie Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France
    J Hist Neurosci 13:157-8. 2004
  80. ncbi A stone at the Siege of Cyropolis and the death of Alexander the Great
    Andrew N Williams
    Centre for the History of Medicine, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK
    J Hist Neurosci 13:130-7. 2004
    ..We present evidence that this should be considered as a differential diagnosis and how it might explain an unusual symptom seen at his deathbed in Babylon six years later...
  81. ncbi [Contribution of Persian physicians to the development of Islamic medicine]
    R Kalhor
    Naucno istrazivacki institut Ibn sina, Sarajevo
    Med Arh 51:9-12. 1997
    ....
  82. doi Avicenna, the first to describe thyroid-related orbitopathy
    Iraj Nabipour
    Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University M C, Tehran, IR Iran
    Thyroid 19:7-8. 2009
    ..Although Graves and Basedow are credited with the first descriptions of this association, it was described many years earlier between AD 1000 and 1110 by two Persian physicians and philosophers, Avicenna and Al-Jurjani...