Summary: Country located between France on the northeast and Portugal on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The capital is Madrid.

Top Publications

  1. Garcia García J, Pérez Vallés A, Martorell M, Gómez B, Gómez Cabrero D, Soler F, et al. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in women from Valencia, Spain, with abnormal cytology. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:159-64 pubmed
    ..knowledge of human papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of oncogenic types in cervical lesions in Spain. Consensus PCR and direct s quencing of PCR products (DNA HPV typing) were used in a retrospective study to ..
  2. Chaudhary M, Moreno S, Kumar R, Nocea G, Elbasha E. Cost-effectiveness analysis of raltegravir in treatment-experienced HIV type 1-infected patients in Spain. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:679-89 pubmed publisher
    ..ICER was also sensitive to analytical time horizon and alternative sources of QoL scores. In treatment-experienced Spanish patients, raltegravir was projected to provide survival benefits and be cost effective. ..
  3. Trevino A, Aguilera A, Caballero E, Toro C, Eiros J, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, et al. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among native and immigrant pregnant women in Spain. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:551-4 pubmed
    ..increase in immigrants coming from areas endemic for HTLV-1 infection has compelled a review of this policy in Spain. From February 2006 to December 2007, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at 10 ..
  4. Ruiz Fons F, Astobiza I, Barandika J, Hurtado A, Atxaerandio R, Juste R, et al. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems. BMC Vet Res. 2010;6:3 pubmed publisher
    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders...
  5. Rodriguez A, Socias L, Guerrero J, Figueira J, Gonzalez N, Maravi Poma E, et al. [Pandemic influenza A in the ICU: experience in Spain and Latin America. GETGAG/SEMICYUC/(Spanish Working Group on Severe Pandemic Influenza A/SEMICYUC)]. Med Intensiva. 2010;34:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical presentation and outcome among the critical patients admitted to the ICU until July 31, 2009 in Spain with some series from Latin America. Six series of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU were considered...
  6. Morcillo S, Rojo Martinez G, Martín Núñez G, Gómez Zumaquero J, Garcia Fuentes E, Ruiz de Adana M, et al. Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene predicts hyperuricemia risk in a population from southern Spain. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:417-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene in the risk of developing hyperuricemia in 1051 subjects from southern Spain, with a followup of 6 years...
  7. Mothe B, Pérez I, Domingo P, Podzamczer D, Ribera E, Curran A, et al. HIV-1 infection in subjects older than 70: a multicenter cross-sectional assessment in Catalonia, Spain. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:597-600 pubmed
    ..179 individuals from eight university hospitals in Barcelona, Spain, were included, representing 1.5% of HIV-1 infected subjects followed during 2008...
  8. Rodriguez E, Sanchez L, Perez S, Herrera L, Jimenez M, Samper S, et al. Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in Spain, 2004-2007. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1536-41 pubmed
    ..caprae in Spain. Retrospective study covering all M. bovis and M...
  9. Monge Maíllo B, Jiménez B, Pérez Molina J, Norman F, Navarro M, Pérez Ayala A, et al. Imported infectious diseases in mobile populations, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..infectious diseases were most common among 2 mobile immigrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans and Latin Americans) in Spain, we analyzed health and demographic characteristics of 2,198 immigrants referred to the Tropical Medicine Unit of ..

More Information


  1. Wild D, Murray M, Donatti C. Patient perspectives on taking vitamin K antagonists: a qualitative study in the UK, USA and Spain. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2009;9:467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 60 respondents, recruited from the UK, USA and Spain, were interviewed on their experiences and views of VKA therapy. Thematic analysis was conducted on the data...
  2. Fernández Santander A, Luna F, Santiago C, Rodríguez M, Bandres F, Ruiz J, et al. CYP2D6 polymorphism screening in a selected population of Spain (La Alpujarra): no effect of geographical isolation. Ann Hum Biol. 2010;37:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter is a small mountainous region of Spain that shows a remarkable degree of geographical and cultural isolation...
  3. Reyes J, Venturini M, Oria R, Blanco D. Prevalence of Ewingella americana in retail fresh cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus) in Zaragoza (Spain). FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004;47:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..bisporus stipe. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from healthy cultivated button mushroom as well as from other species of cultivated mushrooms different from A. bisporus. ..
  4. Pereira M, Dalmau A, Corrons J. Molecular heterogeneity of beta-thalassemia alleles in Spain and its importance in the diagnosis and prevention of beta-thalassemia major and sickle cell disorders. Hemoglobin. 2009;33:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the remaining 19 cases, 11 different mutations were identified. beta-Thalassemia heterogeneity in Spain has markedly increased, leading to the requirement of including new methods for genetic diagnosis...
  5. Moreno J, Téllez C, Pardo F. [Hydatid disease in the Department of Health #2 of the Valencian Community (Spain)]. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2009;22:62-7 pubmed
    ..of diagnosed and treated cases of hydatidosis carried out at the Department of Health 2 of the Valencia Community, Spain. Thirty three cases were evaluated of which we describe demographic, radiological, clinical, analytic, ..
  6. Rodriguez Sanchez B, Gortazar C, Ruiz Fons F, Sanchez Vizcaino J. Bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 4 in red deer, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:518-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the virus was not transmitted to yearlings. BTV serotype 1 RNA was detected in red deer immediately after its first detection in cattle. ..
  7. Roura X, Peters I, Altet L, Tabar M, Barker E, Planellas M, et al. Prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in healthy and unhealthy cats and dogs in Spain. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:270-4 pubmed
    ..of the present study were to determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in cats and dogs from the Barcelona area of Spain with the use of species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and to evaluate any ..
  8. Zamora Ros R, Andres Lacueva C, Lamuela Raventos R, Berenguer T, Jakszyn P, Barricarte A, et al. Estimation of dietary sources and flavonoid intake in a Spanish adult population (EPIC-Spain). J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The study included 40,683 subjects aged 35 to 64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Spanish cohort...
  9. de Ona M, Alvarez Argüelles M, Torrents M, Villa L, Rodriguez Feijoo A, Palacio A, et al. Prevalence, evolution, and features of infection with human papillomavirus: a 15-year longitudinal study of routine screening of a women population in the north of Spain. J Med Virol. 2010;82:597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine HPV infection in two areas in the north of Spain, and their evolution in the last 15 years...
  10. Moreno -, Clotet -, Sarría -, Ortega -, Leal -, Rodriguez Arrondo -, et al. Prevalence of CCR5-tropic HIV-1 among treatment-experienced individuals in Spain. HIV Clin Trials. 2009;10:394-402 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of CCR5-tropic HIV-1 among treatment-experienced patients in Spain. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional, and non-interventional study between January and June 2008 in HIV-1-infected patients in Spain...
  11. Herdman M, Gudex C, Lloyd A, Janssen M, Kind P, Parkin D, et al. Development and preliminary testing of the new five-level version of EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L). Qual Life Res. 2011;20:1727-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was performed in the United Kingdom and Spain. Severity labels for 5 levels in each dimension were identified using response scaling...
  12. Gaspar P, Herrera J, Rodrigues D, Cerezo S, Delgado R, Andrade C, et al. Frequency of Fabry disease in male and female haemodialysis patients in Spain. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:19 pubmed publisher
    ..A gene (GLA) in dried blood samples (DBS) of 911 patients undergoing haemodialysis in centers across Spain. GLA alterations were found in seven unrelated patients (4 males and 3 females). Two novel mutations (p...
  13. Luque Fernández M, Bueno Cavanillas A, de Mateo S. Excess of maternal mortality in foreign nationalities in Spain, 1999-2006. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;149:52-6 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to compare maternal mortality by province, autonomous region and mother's country of birth in Spain during 1999-2006...
  14. Faria M, Huertas D, Soto D, Grimalt J, Catalan J, Riva M, et al. Contaminant accumulation and multi-biomarker responses in field collected zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), to evaluate toxicological effects of industrial hazardous dumps in the Ebro river (NE Spain). Chemosphere. 2010;78:232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..residues were dumped in a reservoir adjacent to a chlorine-alkali plant in the village of Flix(Catalonia, Spain), situated at the shore of the lower Ebro river...
  15. Gramaje D, Armengol J, Mohammadi H, Banihashemi Z, Mostert L. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with Petri disease and esca of grapevine in Iran and Spain. Mycologia. 2009;101:920-9 pubmed
    Eight Phaeoacremonium (Pm.) isolates from grapevines in Iran and Spain were studied with morphological and cultural characteristics as well as phylogenetic analyses of combined DNA sequences of the actin and beta-tubulin genes...
  16. Andreu Ballester J, Gonzalez Sanchez A, Ballester F, Almela Quilis A, Cano Cano M, Millan Scheiding M, et al. Epidemiology of appendectomy and appendicitis in the Valencian community (Spain), 1998-2007. Dig Surg. 2009;26:406-12 pubmed publisher
    Our purpose was to study the incidence of appendectomy and appendicitis in the Valencian community (Spain) during a period of 10 years (1998-2007)...
  17. Rodríguez Dehli C, Ariza Hevia F, Riaño Galán I, Moro Bayón C, Suárez Menéndez E, Mosquera Tenreiro C, et al. [The epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Asturias (Spain) during the period 1990-2004]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2009;71:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent increase in prevalence of CHD results mainly from improved diagnosis of minor defects, but there has been no change over time in birth prevalence of more serious defects. ..
  18. Faubel R, Lopez Garcia E, Guallar Castillon P, Balboa Castillo T, Gutiérrez Fisac J, Banegas J, et al. Sleep duration and health-related quality of life among older adults: a population-based cohort in Spain. Sleep. 2009;32:1059-68 pubmed
    ..Sleep duration in 2001 failed to predict changes in HRQL between 2001 and 2003. Extreme sleep durations are a marker of worse HRQL in the elderly. ..
  19. Fogeda M, Avellon A, Cilla C, Echevarria J. Imported and autochthonous hepatitis E virus strains in Spain. J Med Virol. 2009;81:1743-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Only a few strains have been characterized to date from cases of hepatitis E in Spain. Using three sets of new, HEV-specific primers, viral genome fragments were amplified from serum samples from 13 ..
  20. Allepuz A, Saez M, Solymosi N, Napp S, Casal J. The role of spatial factors in the success of an Aujeszky's disease eradication programme in a high pig density area (Northeast Spain, 2003-2007). Prev Vet Med. 2009;91:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..on the risk of a sow herd being Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) seropositive in certain areas of North Eastern Spain and during different periods of the eradication programme...
  21. Rodriguez Sanchez B, Sánchez Cordón P, Molina V, Risalde M, Pérez de Diego A, Gómez Villamandos J, et al. Detection of bluetongue serotype 4 in mouflons (Ovis aries musimon) from Spain. Vet Microbiol. 2010;141:164-7 pubmed publisher
    ..has been detected for the first time in tissue samples from 2 mouflons (Ovis aries musimon) from the South of Spain, in a retrospective study...