Summary: The continent north of AFRICA, west of ASIA and east of the ATLANTIC OCEAN.

Top Publications

  1. Erkoreka A. The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2010;4:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3% in Madrid. Victim age is an important criterion that can be used to evaluate the phase and evolution of pandemic influenza. The Spanish Influenza affected particularly the 25- to 34-year-old and 15- to 24-year-old age groups. ..
  2. Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M. Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50:113-9 pubmed publisher the evidence on the effects of breakfast consumption on body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched in January 2009. We identified 16 studies...
  3. Otter R, Qiao Y, Burton R, Samiei M, Parkin M, Trapido E, et al. Organization of population-based cancer control programs: Europe and the world. Tumori. 2009;95:623-36 pubmed
  4. Grundmann H, Aanensen D, van den Wijngaard C, Spratt B, Harmsen D, Friedrich A. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000215 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe. In each country, staphylococcal reference laboratories secured the participation of a sufficient number of ..
  5. Leinonen R, Akhtar R, Birney E, Bonfield J, Bower L, Corbett M, et al. Improvements to services at the European Nucleotide Archive. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:D39-45 pubmed publisher
    The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA; is Europe's primary nucleotide sequence archival resource, safeguarding open nucleotide data access, engaging in worldwide collaborative data exchange and integrating with ..
  6. Burra P, Senzolo M, Adam R, Delvart V, Karam V, Germani G, et al. Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease in Europe: a study from the ELTR (European Liver Transplant Registry). Am J Transplant. 2010;10:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for de novo tumors and prevention of cardiovascular complications are essential to provide better long-term results. ..
  7. Kienast F, Bolliger J, Potschin M, de Groot R, Verburg P, Heller I, et al. Assessing landscape functions with broad-scale environmental data: insights gained from a prototype development for Europe. Environ Manage. 2009;44:1099-120 pubmed publisher
    ..The binary links were applied to the environmental properties of 581 administrative units of Europe with widely differing environmental conditions and this resulted in a spatially explicit landscape function ..
  8. Berkvens N, Bale J, Berkvens D, Tirry L, De Clercq P. Cold tolerance of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis in Europe. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:438-44 pubmed publisher
    As an essential aspect of its invasive character in Europe, this study examined the cold hardiness of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis...
  9. Joseph C, Ricketts K. Legionnaires disease in Europe 2007-2008. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:19493 pubmed
    ..As in previous years, the overall main method of diagnosis was by urinary antigen detection and the proportion of cases diagnosed by culture remained low at 8.8%, although isolation rates by country ranged from under 1% to over 40%. ..

More Information


  1. Meerding W, Polinder S, Lyons R, Petridou E, Toet H, van Beeck F, et al. How adequate are emergency department home and leisure injury surveillance systems for cross-country comparisons in Europe?. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2010;17:13-22 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to assess whether the emergency department (ED) injury surveillance systems in Europe are suitable for cross-country comparisons...
  2. Engardt M, Bergström R, Andersson C. Climate and emission changes contributing to changes in near-surface ozone in Europe over the coming decades: results from model studies. Ambio. 2009;38:452-8 pubmed
    ..and future levels of near-surface ozone and accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb(v) (AOT40) in Europe. To describe the current situation and enable an evaluation of the model's performance we simulated a number of ..
  3. Decaro N, Mari V, Elia G, Addie D, Camero M, Lucente M, et al. Recombinant canine coronaviruses in dogs, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (TGEV), referred to as a new subtype (IIb) of canine coronavirus (CCoV), were recently identified in dogs in Europe. To assess the distribution of the TGEV-like CCoV subtype, during 2001-2008 we tested fecal samples from dogs with ..
  4. Kyriakis C, Olsen C, Carman S, Brown I, Brookes S, Doorsselaere J, et al. Serologic cross-reactivity with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in pigs, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found more serologic cross-reaction than expected. Data suggest pigs in Europe may have partial immunity to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.
  5. Tornesello M, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, et al. Human herpesvirus type 8 variants circulating in Europe, Africa and North America in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma lesions during pre-AIDS and AIDS era. Virology. 2010;398:280-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA samples from cutaneous KS lesions of 68 patients living in Africa (n=23, Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda), Europe (n=34, Greece and Italy) and North America (n=11) have been subjected to PCR amplification of HHV-8 ORF 26, T0...
  6. Socolovschi C, Mediannikov O, Raoult D, Parola P. Update on tick-borne bacterial diseases in Europe. Parasite. 2009;16:259-73 pubmed
    ..We focus on the epidemiological and clinical aspects of tick-borne rickettsioses and give an overview of other tick-borne illnesses as well as the emergence and re-emergence of these diseases. ..
  7. Nemirov K, Leirs H, Lundkvist A, Olsson G. Puumala hantavirus and Myodes glareolus in northern Europe: no evidence of co-divergence between genetic lineages of virus and host. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1262-74 pubmed publisher
    ..glareolus), is a pathogenic hantavirus that causes outbreaks of mild haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome across Europe. In northern Europe, PUUV is represented by several genetic lineages that are maintained by distinct phylogroups ..
  8. Nicoll A, Ammon A, Amato Gauci A, Amato A, Ciancio B, Zucs P, et al. Experience and lessons from surveillance and studies of the 2009 pandemic in Europe. Public Health. 2010;124:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 2009 pandemic, the prime early detection and investigation took place in the Americas, but Europe needed to undertake the other three components while remaining vigilant to new phenomenon such as the emergence of ..
  9. MacLachlan N. Global implications of the recent emergence of bluetongue virus in Europe. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2010;26:163-71, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes recent events in Europe and the current status of BTV in the Americas and elsewhere in the context of potential global emergence of the ..
  10. Paillet Y, Bergès L, Hjältén J, Odor P, Avon C, Bernhardt Römermann M, et al. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe. Conserv Biol. 2010;24:101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-..
  11. Zoccali C, Kramer A, Jager K. Epidemiology of CKD in Europe: an uncertain scenario. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:1731-3 pubmed publisher
  12. Reuter G, Zimsek Mijovski J, Poljsak Prijatelj M, di Bartolo I, Ruggeri F, Kantala T, et al. Incidence, diversity, and molecular epidemiology of sapoviruses in swine across Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sapoviruses are commonly circulating and endemic agents in swine herds throughout Europe. Highly heterogeneous and potential new genogroups of sapoviruses were found in pigs; however, no "human-like&..
  13. Leiner T, Kucharczyk W. NSF prevention in clinical practice: summary of recommendations and guidelines in the United States, Canada, and Europe. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;30:1357-63 pubmed publisher
    In this article we summarize recommendations and guidelines for the prevention of NSF from the United States, Canada, and Europe. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:1357-1363. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  14. Zaninelli A, Kaufholz C, Schwappach D. Physicians' attitudes toward post-MI aspirin prophylaxis: findings from an online questionnaire in Europe and Latin America. Postgrad Med. 2009;121:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..aspirin therapy was recommended by most physicians (> 90%), compliance was suboptimal; 29% of patients in Europe and 35% in Latin America were partially or totally noncompliant, and 18% of physicians in Europe and 20% in Latin ..
  15. Dryden M, Andrasevic A, Bassetti M, Bouza E, Chastre J, Cornaglia G, et al. A European survey of antibiotic management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: current clinical opinion and practice. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16 Suppl 1:3-30 pubmed publisher
    Although the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) varies across Europe, healthcare-associated MRSA infections are common in many countries...
  16. Bennett C, McKoy J, Henke M, Silver S, Macdougall I, Birgegard G, et al. Reassessments of ESAs for cancer treatment in the US and Europe. Oncology (Williston Park). 2010;24:260-8 pubmed
    ..policies, and utilization for ESAs in the cancer and chronic kidney disease settings within the United States, Europe, and Canada. In 2008 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) restricted ESAs from cancer patients seeking cure...
  17. Verdecchia A, Santaquilani M, Sant M. Survival for cancer patients in Europe. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2009;45:315-24 pubmed
    ..The EUROCARE project compares survival in Europe since the nineties...
  18. Schlagenhauf P, Santos O Connor F, Parola P. The practice of travel medicine in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:203-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine...
  19. Galvez R. Variable use of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain in Europe: causes and consequences. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2009;23:346-56 pubmed publisher
    According to the 2005 Pain in Europe Survey, the use of opioids to treat patients with chronic noncancer pain varies considerably among different countries in Europe. Undertreatment of chronic pain is common...
  20. Eichler H, Aronsson B, Abadie E, Salmonson T. New drug approval success rate in Europe in 2009. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2010;9:355-6 pubmed publisher
  21. Durrenberger P, Fernando S, Kashefi S, Ferrer I, Hauw J, Seilhean D, et al. Effects of antemortem and postmortem variables on human brain mRNA quality: a BrainNet Europe study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the quality of human brain postmortem tissue from multiple laboratories within the BrainNet Europe brain bank network to identify all possible confounding variables and determine how they may affect RNA quality...
  22. Cuocolo A, Breatnach E. Multimodality imaging in Europe: a survey by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..growth with important professional implication for both nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists throughout Europe. As a preliminary step for future action aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of PET/SPECT/CT ..
  23. Migliori G, D Arcy Richardson M, Sotgiu G, Lange C. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the West. Europe and United States: epidemiology, surveillance, and control. Clin Chest Med. 2009;30:637-65, vii pubmed publisher
    ..cases are recognized in every setting where there has been the capacity to detect them, particularly in Eastern Europe. MDR- and XDR-TB control in Europe and the United States are heavily affected by what happens globally, as the ..
  24. Brug J, van Stralen M, te Velde S, Chinapaw M, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Lien N, et al. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among schoolchildren across Europe: the ENERGY-project. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34742 pubmed publisher
    ..High levels and striking differences in overweight status and potential risk behaviors were found among schoolchildren across Europe.
  25. . The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:D142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..UniProt is updated and distributed every 3 weeks and can be accessed online for searches or download at ..
  26. Grundmann H, Livermore D, Giske C, Canton R, Rossolini G, Campos J, et al. Carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in Europe: conclusions from a meeting of national experts. Euro Surveill. 2010;15: pubmed
    ..diverse strains harbouring New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) are repeatedly being imported into Europe, commonly via patients with prior medical exposure in the Indian subcontinent...
  27. Quinlivan M, Sengupta N, Papaevangelou V, Sauerbrei A, Grillner L, Rousseva R, et al. Use of oral fluid to examine the molecular epidemiology of varicella zoster virus in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..varicella zoster virus (VZV) genotyping and further characterized VZV clade prevalence in the United Kingdom and Europe. VZV was detected in up to 91% of OF specimens. Paired OF and vesicle fluid samples contained identical VZV clades...
  28. Enzmann P, Castric J, Bovo G, Thiery R, Fichtner D, Schütze H, et al. Evolution of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a fish rhabdovirus, in Europe over 20 years: implications for control. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;89:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..IHNV was first detected in Europe in 1987 and has since undergone considerable spread...
  29. Davidson J. Major depressive disorder treatment guidelines in America and Europe. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71 Suppl E1:e04 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarities and differences among 6 sets of guidelines from Europe and the Americas published in the past decade are reviewed here (American Psychiatric Association, British ..
  30. Otter J, French G. Molecular epidemiology of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Europe. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:227-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Although data are limited, the prevalence of community-associated MRSA in Europe seems to be low but is increasing...
  31. Cherny N, Baselga J, De Conno F, Radbruch L. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Europe: a report from the ESMO/EAPC Opioid Policy Initiative. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:615-26 pubmed publisher
    Many patients in Europe do not receive adequate relief of pain because of excessive regulatory restrictions on the availability and accessibility of opioids. This is a major public health problem...
  32. Ladhani S, Slack M, Heath P, Von Gottberg A, Chandra M, Ramsay M. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease, Europe, 1996-2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the incidence of invasive non-type b H. influenzae is now higher than that of Hib and is associated with higher case fatality. ..
  33. Zhang W, Caspell R, Karulin A, Ahmad M, Haicheur N, Abdelsalam A, et al. ELISPOT assays provide reproducible results among different laboratories for T-cell immune monitoring--even in hands of ELISPOT-inexperienced investigators. J Immunotoxicol. 2009;6:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, 11 laboratories across Europe and the United States were provided identical reagents and were asked to follow the same protocol while testing ..
  34. Velankar S, Best C, Beuth B, Boutselakis C, Cobley N, Sousa Da Silva A, et al. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:D308-17 pubmed publisher
    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) (
  35. Salabi A, Toleman M, Weeks J, Bruderer T, Frei R, Walsh T. First report of the metallo-beta-lactamase SPM-1 in Europe. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:582 pubmed publisher
  36. Vesikari T, Itzler R, Karvonen A, Korhonen T, Van Damme P, Behre U, et al. RotaTeq, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine: efficacy and safety among infants in Europe. Vaccine. 2009;28:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated among nearly 70,000 infants in the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST), of which 30,523 were from Europe. All infants were followed for serious adverse events as well as hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) ..
  37. Miravitlles M, Anzueto A, Ewig S, Legnani D, Stauch K. Characterisation of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD in Europe: the GIANT study. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2009;3:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The GIANT study collected information on patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effect of treatment with moxifloxacin...
  38. Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P, Gaudart J, Castelli F, Brouqui P, von Sonnenburg F, et al. Multicenter EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel study of travel-related infectious diseases in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results should be considered in the practice of travel medicine and development of health recommendations for European travelers. ..
  39. Suk J, Manissero D, Büscher G, Semenza J. Wealth inequality and tuberculosis elimination in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1812-4 pubmed publisher
    In Europe, wealth inequality is directly related to tuberculosis (TB) notification (R2 = 0.69), while in countries with lower TB rates, higher proportions of TB cases occur in foreign-born persons...
  40. Vullo R, Gheerbrant E, de Muizon C, Néraudeau D. The oldest modern therian mammal from Europe and its bearing on stem marsupial paleobiogeography. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the presence of a mammal with North American affinities in western Europe during the early Late Cretaceous provides further evidence of a large Euramerican biogeographical province at this ..
  41. Singer A, Kauhala K, Holmala K, Smith G. Rabies in northeastern Europe--the threat from invasive raccoon dogs. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:1121-37 pubmed
    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main terrestrial wildlife rabies vector in Europe. However, recently the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides)--an invasive species originating from East Asia--has become increasingly important as ..
  42. Ferlay J, Parkin D, Steliarova Foucher E. Estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2008. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:765-81 pubmed publisher population estimates for 2008 to obtain an estimate of the numbers of cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2008. There were an estimated 3.2 million new cases of cancer and 1.7 million deaths from cancer in 2008...
  43. vanEngelsdorp D, Meixner M. A historical review of managed honey bee populations in Europe and the United States and the factors that may affect them. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;103 Suppl 1:S80-95 pubmed publisher
    ..honey bee populations have not been increasing in all parts of the world, and have declined in many nations in Europe and in North America...
  44. Lucotte G, Mercier G, Dieterlen F, Yuasa I. A decreasing gradient of 374F allele frequencies in the skin pigmentation gene SLC45A2, from the north of West Europe to North Africa. Biochem Genet. 2010;48:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..691). A significant latitudinal cline in 374F allele frequencies was observed, ranging from the north of West Europe to North Africa (r = 0.869)...
  45. Dantas Torres F, Lia R, Barbuto M, Casiraghi M, Crovace A, Caligiani L, et al. Ocular dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis in a dog: first case report from Europe. J Small Anim Pract. 2009;50:667-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although other cases of ocular dirofilariosis by D. immitis have been previously recorded in Australia and the United States, the case reported herein is the first in a dog from Europe.
  46. Abdel Rahman M, Stockton D, Rachet B, Hakulinen T, Coleman M. What if cancer survival in Britain were the same as in Europe: how many deaths are avoidable?. Br J Cancer. 2009;101 Suppl 2:S115-24 pubmed publisher Great Britain that would be avoidable within 5 years of diagnosis if the mean (or highest) survival in Europe for patients diagnosed during 1985-1989, 1990-1994 and 1995-1999 were achieved...
  47. Pilo P, Johansson A, Frey J. Identification of Francisella tularensis cluster in central and western Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:2049-51 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis subsp. holarctica that is widely dispersed in central and western continental Europe. This subpopulation was present before the tularemia epidemics on the Iberian Peninsula.
  48. Escudero M, Vargas P, Arens P, Ouborg N, Luceño M. The east-west-north colonization history of the Mediterranean and Europe by the coastal plant Carex extensa (Cyperaceae). Mol Ecol. 2010;19:352-70 pubmed publisher
    ..AFLP and SSR data accord with the 'tabula rasa' hypothesis in which a recent and rapid colonization of northern Europe took place from the western Mediterranean after the Last Glacial Maximum. The unbalanced west-east vs...
  49. Rogers S, McIntosh R, Cheung N, Lim L, Wang J, Mitchell P, et al. The prevalence of retinal vein occlusion: pooled data from population studies from the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:313-9.e1 pubmed publisher
    To summarize the prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) from studies in the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Pooled analysis using individual population-based data...
  50. Elfving K, Olsen B, Bergstrom S, Waldenstrom J, Lundkvist A, Sjostedt A, et al. Dissemination of spotted fever rickettsia agents in Europe by migrating birds. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8572 pubmed publisher
    ..monacensis, an etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever-like illness, previously described in southern Europe as well as to the Rickettsia sp.IrITA3 strain. For 15 (1...