Summary: A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)

Top Publications

  1. Al Riyami A, Ebrahim G. Genetic Blood Disorders Survey in the Sultanate of Oman. J Trop Pediatr. 2003;49 Suppl 1:i1-20 pubmed
    ..The survey was designed, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Health of the Sultanate of Oman. To reduce costs and save effort and time, data collection for the survey was implemented with the Gulf Family ..
  2. Al Riyami A, Afifi M. Hypertension in Oman: distribution and correlates. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2002;77:383-407 pubmed
    ..Hypertension is considered a major public health problem in Oman. Increasing the awareness of both health care providers and the community is crucial.
  3. Thomas C, Mahapatra A, Joy M, Krishnan A, Sharma R. Craniofacial surgery in Oman: a preliminary study of 10 cases. J Craniofac Surg. 2001;12:247-52 pubmed
    ..with craniofacial surgery in 10 patients during a 15-month period at Khoula Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. These operations were the first of this kind to be done in this part of the world...
  4. Jamrah A, Al Futaisi A, Rajmohan N, Al Yaroubi S. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment. Environ Monit Assess. 2008;147:125-38 pubmed
    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment...
  5. Abdulhadi N, Al Shafaee M, Ostenson C, Vernby A, Wahlstrom R. Quality of interaction between primary health-care providers and patients with type 2 diabetes in Muscat, Oman: an observational study. BMC Fam Pract. 2006;7:72 pubmed regarding the interaction between the primary health-care providers and patients with type 2 diabetes in Oman, where diabetes is a major and growing health problem...
  6. Robertson S, Suleiman A, Mehta F, Al Dhahry S, el Bualy M. Poliomyelitis in Oman: acute flaccid paralysis surveillance leading to early detection and rapid response to a type 3 outbreak. Bull World Health Organ. 1994;72:907-14 pubmed
    ..The experience of Oman provides many lessons in this respect. AFP surveillance in Oman was established systematically...
  7. Al Mahruqi S, van Ingen J, Al Busaidy S, Boeree M, Al Zadjali S, Patel A, et al. Clinical relevance of nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Oman. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:292-4 pubmed
    ..We assessed the prevalence and studied a random sample of isolates at a reference laboratory in Muscat, Oman. NTM cause disease in this region, and their prevalence has increased.
  8. Al Riyami A, Suleiman A, Afifi M, Al Lamki Z, Daar S. A community-based study of common hereditary blood disorders in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7:1004-11 pubmed
    ..8% and 2.2% respectively and showed no significant gender differences. There was a significant association between all three disorders and region of the country. ..
  9. Scrimgeour E, Al Ismaily S, Rolain J, Al Dhahry S, El Khatim H, Raoult D. Q Fever in human and livestock populations in Oman. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:221-5 pubmed
    In 2000, Q fever was documented for the first time in the Sultanate of Oman in two patients, one with chronic pericarditis and the other with acute pneumonia...

More Information


  1. Elshafie A, Al Lawatia T, Al Bahry S. Fungi associated with black tea and tea quality in the Sultanate of Oman. Mycopathologia. 1999;145:89-93 pubmed
    ..were purchased from the local markets in Muscat area, Sultanate of Oman. Tea leaves were surveyed for mycoflora. Five fungal species were isolated with A...
  2. Hassan M, Jaju D, Albarwani S, Al Yahyaee S, Al Hadabi S, Lopez Alvarenga J, et al. Non-dipping blood pressure in the metabolic syndrome among Arabs of the Oman family study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:2445-53 pubmed
    ..This study showed that non-dipping BP was common in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Higher 24-hour blood pressure load may add to the indices of the overall cardiovascular burden already associated with the metabolic syndrome. ..
  3. Khandekar R, Mohammed A, Raisi A. Prevalence and causes of blindness & low vision; before and five years after 'VISION 2020' initiatives in Oman: a review. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2007;14:9-15 pubmed
    A prevalence survey of blindness and low vision was conducted in Oman in 2005. Here, we present the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision among the population >or= 40 years of age...
  4. Tageldin M, Al Kitany Fadiya A, Al Yahyae Sabra A, Al I Ismaily S. Theileriosis in sheep and goats in the Sultanate of Oman. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2005;37:491-3 pubmed
  5. Al Lawati J, Mabry R, Mohammed A. Addressing the threat of chronic diseases in Oman. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A99 pubmed
    ..studies and reports and examined socioeconomic indicators to assess the impact of the changing disease profile on Oman's economy and its health care infrastructure...
  6. de Mora S, Fowler S, Wyse E, Azemard S. Distribution of heavy metals in marine bivalves, fish and coastal sediments in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Mar Pollut Bull. 2004;49:410-24 pubmed
    An assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals was made in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman based on marine biota (fish and various bivalves) and coastal sediment collected in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) ..
  7. Khandekar R, Mohammed A. Gender inequality in vision loss and eye diseases: evidence from the Sultanate of Oman. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009;57:443-9 pubmed publisher
    The data from surveys of vision loss and monitoring of services were used to assess changes in gender inequality in Oman. Retrospective review of data collection instruments...
  8. Al Shaqsi S. EMS in the Sultanate of Oman. Resuscitation. 2009;80:740-2 pubmed publisher
    The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Oman is a relatively new project in the country. It has been developed based on the Anglo-American system of EMS...
  9. Al Lawati J, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Oman using the International Diabetes Federation's Criteria. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1925-6 pubmed
  10. Al Awaidy S, Griffiths U, Nwar H, Bawikar S, Al Aisiri M, Khandekar R, et al. Costs of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in Oman: evidence based on long-term follow-up of 43 children. Vaccine. 2006;24:6437-45 pubmed
    As part of the national plan for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), Oman established a national registry of CRS cases. As of May 2005, the registry included 43 surviving CRS cases, with a mean age of 11.9 years...
  11. Rajab A, Patton M, Modell B. Study of hemoglobinopathies in Oman through a national register. Saudi Med J. 2000;21:1168-72 pubmed
    A national register of symptomatic hemoglobinopathies has been developed in Oman to facilitate the development of the National Program for the control of genetic blood disorders...
  12. Bialasiewicz A, Wali U, Shenoy R, Thakral A, Al Fadhil N, Syed G. [Ipsilateral autorotational keratoplasty and cataract extraction in patients with trachoma and trauma in Oman. Report on visual rehabilitation]. Ophthalmologe. 2009;106:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..rotational keratoplasty (IRK) and cataract extraction in 17 patients with trachoma and with trachoma and trauma in Oman over 3 years...
  13. Elshafie A, Al Rashdi T, Al Bahry S, Bakheit C. Fungi and aflatoxins associated with spices in the Sultanate of Oman. Mycopathologia. 2002;155:155-60 pubmed pepper, cardamom, ginger, and coriander) were purchased from five popular companies in the Sultanate of Oman. The spices were surveyed for the mycoflora and aflatoxins...
  14. Al Adawi S, Dorvlo A, Al Ismaily S, Al Ghafry D, Al Noobi B, Al Salmi A, et al. Perception of and attitude towards mental illness in Oman. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2002;48:305-17 pubmed influence on a person's attitude towards people with mental illness (PWMI) in the rapidly changing country of Oman. This study compares the response elicited from medical students, relatives of psychiatric patients and the general ..
  15. Deleu D, Khan M, Al Shehab T. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of headache in a rural community in Oman. Headache. 2002;42:963-73 pubmed
    To perform a prospective epidemiological study of headache in a rural community in Oman, assessing prevalence, symptom profile, and health care utilization pattern...
  16. Santoshkumar B, Turnbull J, Minassian B. Unverricht-Lundborg progressive myoclonus epilepsy in Oman. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;38:252-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Unverricht-Lundborg disease is very severe in adolescence, its clinical signs stabilize and improve somewhat in adulthood in this so-called "progressive epilepsy." ..
  17. Al Maniri A, Al Rawas O, Al Tuhami H, Eriksson B, Diwan V. Towards the elimination of tuberculosis in a developing country: 25 years of tuberculosis control in Oman. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007;11:175-80 pubmed
    To analyse trends of tuberculosis (TB) in Oman (1981-2005) in relation to the socio-economic development of the country. Data were used from the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP)...
  18. Machado N, Grant C, AlKindi S, Daar S, Al Kindy N, Al Lamki Z, et al. Splenectomy for haematological disorders: a single center study in 150 patients from Oman. Int J Surg. 2009;7:476-81 pubmed publisher
    Haematological disorders, in particular sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassaemia, are relatively common in Oman. We report our experience of splenectomy for haematological disorders and review the literature on splenectomy role in their ..
  19. Jaffer Y, Afifi M, Al Ajmi F, Alouhaishi K. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary-school pupils in Oman: II. reproductive health. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12:50-60 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of fertility period was poor as was knowledge of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. There was a high rate of approval (80%) of female genital cutting by both sexes. ..
  20. Nzeako B, Al Daughari H, al Lamki Z, Al Rawas O. Nature of bacteria found on some wards in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman. Br J Biomed Sci. 2006;63:55-8 pubmed
    ..These measures are necessary to ensure that the antibiotic-resistant strains identified in this study are not allowed to spread in the hospital. ..
  21. Rajab A, Yoo S, Abdulgalil A, Kathiri S, Ahmed R, Mochida G, et al. An autosomal recessive form of spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with microcephaly and mental retardation. Am J Med Genet A. 2006;140:1504-10 pubmed
    ..We have identified a large consanguineous family from Oman with spastic diplegia, microcephaly, and mental retardation...
  22. Alasfoor D, Traissac P, Gartner A, Delpeuch F. Determinants of persistent underweight among children, aged 6-35 months, after huge economic development and improvements in health services in Oman. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:359-69 pubmed
    Over the last decades, health indicators have witnessed major improvements in the Sultanate of Oman. This study was aimed at factors associated with underweight among children in four regions of Oman, as, in 1998, underweight was ..
  23. Al Awaidy S, Abu Elyazeed R, Al Hosani H, Al Mulla A, Al Busaiedy S, Al Amiry A, et al. Sero-epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women in Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. J Infect. 2006;52:202-6 pubmed
    ..A total of 1710 pregnant women aged 15-45 years were enrolled in June-July 2000 in nine centres across Oman, Qatar and Unite Arab Emirates. The percentage of HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive individuals was determined...
  24. Al Riyami A, Afifi M. Distribution and correlates of total impaired fasting glucose in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9:377-89 pubmed
    To determine the distribution and correlates of total impaired fasting glucose in Oman, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1968 households with 7011 eligible residents in 2000...
  25. Khandekar R, Khabori M, Jaffer Mohammed A, Gupta R. Neonatal screening for hearing impairment--The Oman experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;70:663-70 pubmed
    b>Oman introduced universal hearing screening at a national level in 2002 after piloting it in limited regions. Authors present their experiences. The screening had three phases...
  26. Khandekarl R, Zutshi R. Glaucoma in oman: a review. J Glaucoma. 2006;15:271-3 pubmed
    Glaucoma is one of the priority eye diseases in Oman in its VISION 2020 Plan. A review of available data is presented on the basis of situation analysis carried out in 2002...
  27. Al Khabori M, Khandekar R. The prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Oman: a community-based cross-sectional study. Int J Audiol. 2004;43:486-92 pubmed
    A community-based nationwide survey for hearing loss was conducted in Oman in 1996-97. Audiometric tests and ear examinations were conducted for 12,400 persons in phase I...
  28. Alasfoor D, elSayed M, Al Qasmi A, Malankar P, Sheth M, Prakash N. Protein-energy malnutrition among preschool children in Oman: results of a national survey. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13:1022-30 pubmed
    We assessed the prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among preschool children in Oman from March to December 1999...
  29. Al Lawati J, Jousilahti P. Prevalence and 10-year secular trend of obesity in Oman. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:346-51 pubmed
    ..5%; p for the change <0.003). Obesity and overweight combined was markedly more common in the Southern part of Oman (70%) compared to Northern areas (32-57%). People living in urban areas were more obese (21...
  30. Bayoumi R, Al Yahyaee S, Albarwani S, Rizvi S, Al Hadabi S, Al Ubaidi F, et al. Heritability of determinants of the metabolic syndrome among healthy Arabs of the Oman family study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:551-6 pubmed
    ..Other determinants such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels seem to be more environmentally driven. ..
  31. Alnaqy A, Al Harthy S, Kaminski G, Al Dhahry S. Detection of serum antibodies to hepatitis C virus in 'false-seronegative' blood donors in Oman. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:111-3 pubmed
    ..Of the 9 only 3 antibody-positive samples had detectable HCV RNA. Screening for antibodies to HCV in combination with PCR appears to be the safest way to reduce the residual risk of HCV in blood transfusion. ..
  32. Lall S, Al Wahaibi S, Al Riyami M, Al Kharusi K. Profile of acute poisoning cases presenting to health centres and hospitals in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9:944-54 pubmed
    A simple pro forma was used for a retrospective study of poisoning cases at 45 health institutions in Oman during January-December 2000. No deaths were recorded among 2009 cases of acute poisoning. A quarter of all cases (55...
  33. Al Lawati J, Mohammed A, Al Hinai H, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1781-5 pubmed
    ..3%) than in men (4.7%). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Oman is similar to that in developed countries...
  34. Khandekar R, Mohammed A. Assessment and care of children with low vision disability in Oman. Situation analysis. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:1028-30 pubmed
  35. Ganguly S, Al Shafaee M, Al Lawati J, Dutta P, Duttagupta K. Epidemiological transition of some diseases in Oman: a situational analysis. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:209-18 pubmed
    During the past 35 years Oman has undergone a rapid socioeconomic and epidemiological transition leading to a steep reduction in child and adult mortality and morbidity due to the decline of various communicable diseases, including ..
  36. Al Awaidy S, Bawikar S, Al Busaidy S, Baqiani S, Al Abedani I, Varghese R, et al. Considerations for introduction of a rotavirus vaccine in Oman: rotavirus disease and economic burden. J Infect Dis. 2009;200 Suppl 1:S248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide the first estimates of the health care and economic burden of severe rotavirus disease in Oman. We conducted active, hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease at 11 regional public hospitals in Oman, ..
  37. Khandekar R, Mabry R, Al Hadrami K, Sarvanan N. Active trachoma, face washing (F) and environmental improvement (E) in a high-risk population in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:402-9 pubmed
    b>Oman aims to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2010...
  38. Al Riyami A, Afifi M, Morsi M, Mabry R. A national study of gynecological morbidities in Oman. Effect of women's autonomy. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:881-90 pubmed
    ..This study is a part of the National Health Survey in the Sultanate of Oman, conducted between January and March 2000...
  39. Afifi M. Depression in adolescents: gender differences in Oman and Egypt. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12:61-71 pubmed
    ..associated factors were determined for secondary school adolescents in 2 different samples, 552 in South Sharqiya, Oman, and 1577 in Alexandria, Egypt...
  40. Sakamoto N, Martin R, Kumano H, Kuboki T, Al Adawi S. Hikikomori, is it a culture-reactive or culture-bound syndrome? Nidotherapy and a clinical vignette from Oman. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2005;35:191-8 pubmed
    ..quot; We report a case from Oman, in the southern part of Arabia, with all the essential features of hikikomori...
  41. Sawardekar K. Profile of major congenital malformations at Nizwa Hospital, Oman: 10-year review. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005;41:323-30 pubmed
    ..profile of major congenital malformations at Nizwa Hospital, which is a major hospital in the Al-Dakhliya region of Oman. All births with birthweight more than 500 g were prospectively studied from January 1993 through December 2002 for ..
  42. da Costa D, Nair P, Al Khusaiby S. Effects of antenatal steroids on the complications of prematurity in an era of surfactant replacement therapy in Oman. J Trop Pediatr. 2000;46:375-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a trend towards greater neonatal infections. These results need to be confirmed in similar population groups. ..
  43. Patel P. Profile of major congenital anomalies in the Dhahira region, Oman. Ann Saudi Med. 2007;27:106-11 pubmed
  44. Al Riyami A, Afifi M. Smoking in Oman: prevalence and characteristics of smokers. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:600-9 pubmed
    ..7 years for males and 24.3 years for females. Although smoking prevalence is low in Oman, prevention should be addressed in health education programmes, with the emphasis on heightening awareness in ..
  45. Al Futaisi A, Al Zakwani I, Almahrezi A, Al Hajri R, Al Hashmi L, Al Muniri A, et al. Prevalence and predictors of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional observational study in Oman. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;72:212-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the prevalence and predictors of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetics in Oman. All patients attending an outpatient diabetic clinic at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between 2002 and 2003 were enrolled in the study...
  46. Mohamed A, Onyango A, de Onis M, Prakash N, Mabry R, Alasfoor D. Socioeconomic predictors of unconstrained child growth in Muscat, Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:295-302 pubmed
    ..a study to identify socioeconomic factors associated with unconstrained growth among preschoolers in Muscat, Oman. A sample of children born in 1995 and aged 28-43 months was drawn from the Child Health Registers of 2 health care ..
  47. Khandekar R, Shah S, Al Lawatti J. Retinal examination of diabetic patients: knowledge, attitudes and practices of physicians in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:850-7 pubmed
    Knowledge, attitudes and practices of 40 randomly selected physicians was assessed in the North Sharqiya region of Oman in 2003...
  48. Al Lawati J, Nooyi S, Al Lawati A. Knowledge, attitudes and prevalence of tobacco use among physicians and dentists in Oman. Ann Saudi Med. 2009;29:128-33 pubmed
    ..Tobacco use among physicians and dentists in Oman is lower than in other countries in the region, but remains a cause of concern...
  49. Al Moundhri M, Al Bahrani B, Pervez I, Ganguly S, Nirmala V, Al Madhani A, et al. The outcome of treatment of breast cancer in a developing country--Oman. Breast. 2004;13:139-45 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of treatment of breast cancer in Oman with an analysis of clinico-pathological features, treatment modalities utilized, and prognostic factors...
  50. Osman N, Johnson E, Al Busaidi R, Suttle N. The effects of breed, neonatal age and pregnancy on the plasma copper status of goats in Oman. Vet Res Commun. 2003;27:219-29 pubmed
    ..17 (0.039) mg/L) but the breeds did not then differ. Some effects on TCA solubility were found but were considered unreliable. Breed effects may have been diminished by the generous supply of copper and early stage of lactation studied. ..
  51. Heathcote K, Rajab A, Magré J, Syrris P, Besti M, Patton M, et al. Molecular analysis of Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy in Oman: evidence for multiple loci. Diabetes. 2002;51:1291-3 pubmed
    ..We have examined case subjects from 11 families in Oman with CGL...
  52. Deleu D, Khan M, Humaidan H, Al Mantheri Z, Al Hashami S. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of headache in medical students in oman. Headache. 2001;41:798-804 pubmed
    ..7:1). It is likely that analgesic use/overuse also coexists with headache in medical students at Sultan Qaboos University, since a large majority of them rely on nonprescription medications. ..
  53. Alasfoor D, Mohammed A. Implications of the use of the new WHO growth charts on the interpretation of malnutrition and obesity in infants and young children in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:890-8 pubmed
    ..The differences were not consistent across age groups. ..