Summary: A country located in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria. The capital is Beirut.

Top Publications

  1. Tokajian S, Khalil P, Jabbour D, Rizk M, Farah M, Hashwa F, et al. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lebanon. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (MRSA) and 37 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), clinical isolates recovered from Lebanon were typed by protein A gene (spa) sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)...
  2. Waked M, Salameh P, Aoun Z. Water-pipe (narguile) smokers in Lebanon: a pilot study. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:432-42 pubmed
    ..Chronic respiratory disease and chronic bronchitis were reported more frequently in exclusive WP smokers than absolute non-smokers. WP smoking seems to be as great a risk factor as cigarette smoking for chronic respiratory disease. ..
  3. Sabbagh A, Mahfoud Z, Taher A, Zaatari G, Daher R, Mahfouz R. High prevalence of MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphism in Lebanon. Genet Test. 2008;12:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important finding to be followed in terms of clinical significance and sheds light on an additional unique genetic feature in this community. ..
  4. Afifi R, Nakkash R, Khawaja M. Social capital, women's autonomy and smoking among married women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon. Womens Health Issues. 2010;20:156-67 pubmed publisher
    ..women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used...
  5. El Beyrouthy M, Marc E, Arnold N, Nelly A, Delelis Dusollier A, Annick D, et al. Plants used as remedies antirheumatic and antineuralgic in the traditional medicine of Lebanon. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;120:315-34 pubmed publisher
    ..research of the traditional use of plants to cure antirheumatic and antineuralgic diseases was carried out in Lebanon. The information was collected from different cities and villages of the twenty-six districts "aqdya or ..
  6. Salameh P, Waked M, Aoun Z. Waterpipe smoking: construction and validation of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11). Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10:149-58 pubmed publisher
    Waterpipe smoking is becoming fashionable in Lebanon, but no studies have studied nicotine dependence related to waterpipe smoking...
  7. Beck Razi N, Fischer D, Michaelson M, Engel A, Gaitini D. The utility of focused assessment with sonography for trauma as a triage tool in multiple-casualty incidents during the second Lebanon war. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:1149-56 pubmed
    ..Because of its moderate sensitivity, a negative FAST result with strong clinical suspicion demands further evaluation, especially in an MCI. ..
  8. Akl E, Maroun N, Major S, Afif C, Chahoud B, Choucair J, et al. Why are you draining your brain? Factors underlying decisions of graduating Lebanese medical students to migrate. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64:1278-84 pubmed
    In the context of a worldwide physician brain drain phenomenon, Lebanon has the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa...
  9. Musharrafieh U, Bizri A, Nassar N, Rahi A, Shoukair A, Doudakian R, et al. Health care workers' exposure to blood-borne pathogens in Lebanon. Occup Med (Lond). 2008;58:94-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study in Lebanon showed that exposure of HCWs to BBPs remains a problem...

More Information


  1. Osman H, Campbell O, Sinno D, Zarwi R, Nassar A. Facility-based audit of maternal mortality in Lebanon: a feasibility study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88:1338-44 pubmed publisher
    To assess the feasibility of establishing a maternal mortality audit in Lebanon. A facility-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS)...
  2. Inhorn M, Kobeissi L, Nassar Z, Lakkis D, Fakih M. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1104-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians)...
  3. Ammar W, Wakim I, Hajj I. Accreditation of hospitals in Lebanon: a challenging experience. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13:138-49 pubmed
    The quality of hospital care in Lebanon has witnessed a paradigm shift since May 2000, from a traditional focus on physical structure and equipment to a broader multidimensional approach, emphasizing managerial processes, performance and ..
  4. Ghandour L, Karam E, Maalouf W. Lifetime alcohol use, abuse and dependence among university students in Lebanon: exploring the role of religiosity in different religious faiths. Addiction. 2009;104:940-8 pubmed publisher
    ..alcohol consumption and the role of religiosity in alcohol use disorders in Christian, Druze and Muslim youth in Lebanon, given their distinct religious doctrines and social norms...
  5. Jalkh N, Genin E, Chouery E, Delague V, Medlej Hashim M, Idrac C, et al. Familial Mediterranean Fever in Lebanon: founder effects for different MEFV mutations. Ann Hum Genet. 2008;72:41-7 pubmed
    Haplotype analysis of 376 Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) patients and 100 controls from Lebanon was performed using 4 microsatellite loci to study founder effects for the five most frequent mutations within the MEFV gene (M694V, ..
  6. Bissar Tadmouri N, Tadmouri G. Bibliometric analyses of biomedical research outputs in Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates (1988-2007). Saudi Med J. 2009;30:130-9 pubmed
    ..bibliometric methods in representing quantitative and qualitative differences in biomedical research outputs in Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)...
  7. Khawaja M, Hammoury N. Coerced sexual intercourse within marriage: a clinic-based study of pregnant Palestinian refugees in Lebanon. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2008;53:150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..the correlates of forced sexual intercourse among pregnant refugee women attending an antenatal clinic in Sidon, Lebanon. A total of 349 pregnant women were interviewed during a clinic visit for a prenatal check-up during the months ..
  8. Abu Saad Huijer H, Dimassi H. Palliative care in Lebanon: knowledge, attitudes and practices of physicians and nurses. J Med Liban. 2007;55:121-8 pubmed
    ..quot; In Lebanon, PC is new to the health care field and as such very little is known about type of services offered and the ..
  9. Nakkash R, Lee K. Smuggling as the "key to a combined market": British American Tobacco in Lebanon. Tob Control. 2008;17:324-31 pubmed publisher
    ..component of BAT's market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries...
  10. Chaaya M, Sibai A, Fayad R, El Roueiheb Z. Religiosity and depression in older people: evidence from underprivileged refugee and non-refugee communities in Lebanon. Aging Ment Health. 2007;11:37-44 pubmed
    ..A total of 740 persons aged 60 + were interviewed in three poor urban areas of Lebanon, one of which was a Palestinian refugee camp...
  11. Cardile V, Russo A, Formisano C, Rigano D, Senatore F, Arnold N, et al. Essential oils of Salvia bracteata and Salvia rubifolia from Lebanon: Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effect on human melanoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;126:265-72 pubmed publisher
    Salvia bracteata Banks et Sol. and Salvia rubifolia Boiss. are known in folk medicine of Lebanon for the treatment of microbial infections, cancer, urinary and pulmonary problems...
  12. Khawaja M, Habib R. Husbands' involvement in housework and women's psychosocial health: findings from a population-based study in Lebanon. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:860-6 pubmed
    ..and the psychosocial health of their wives using data on married couples living in poor neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 2797 households; 1652 married couples and their families were ..
  13. Knio K, Usta J, Dagher S, Zournajian H, Kreydiyyeh S. Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:763-8 pubmed
    This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius...
  14. Akl E, Maroun N, Major S, Afif C, Abdo A, Choucair J, et al. Post-graduation migration intentions of students of Lebanese medical schools: a survey study. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:191 pubmed publisher
    The international migration of physicians is a global public health problem. Lebanon is a source country with the highest emigration factor in the Middle East and North Africa and the 7th highest in the World...
  15. Kanj S, Corkill J, Kanafani Z, Araj G, Hart C, Jaafar R, et al. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates at a tertiary-care centre in Lebanon. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:501-4 pubmed publisher
    ..n = 50) from Lebanon was 96%, 57% and 67%, and 40%, 82% and 84%, respectively...
  16. Waked M, Salameh P. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in 5-12-year-old school children across Lebanon. Public Health. 2008;122:965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Descriptive cross-sectional study on children in public and private schools in Lebanon. Standardized written questionnaires were distributed to 5-12-year-old students at 22 schools...
  17. Waked M, Salameh P. Symptoms, severity and asthma control in 5-14 y-old Lebanon school children. J Med Liban. 2007;55:145-51 pubmed
    ..addressed symptoms' profile, severity and determinants of asthma control in school-aged patients (5-14 y) across Lebanon. It is a cross-sectional study, applied on school children with physician-diagnosed asthma (PDA), divided into ..
  18. Haddad N, Harbach R, Chamat S, Bouharoun Tayoun H. Presence of Aedes albopictus in Lebanon and Syria. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2007;23:226-8 pubmed
    The occurrence of Aedes albopictus in Lebanon and Syria is reported for the first time. Larvae were found in 4 localities in Lebanon, and 1 female was captured inside a house located in a coastal locality in Syria...
  19. Akl E, Maroun N, Major S, Chahoud B, Schunemann H. Graduates of Lebanese medical schools in the United States: an observational study of international migration of physicians. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:49 pubmed
    ..3% of all IMG. Compared to other foreign countries contributing to the US physician workforce, Lebanon ranked 2nd after adjusting for country population size (about 4 million) and 21st overall...
  20. El Jardali F. Hospital accreditation policy in Lebanon: its potential for quality improvement. J Med Liban. 2007;55:39-45 pubmed
    ..paper will identify barriers and derive observations and lessons for health policy makers and hospital leaders in Lebanon to consider for their ongoing efforts to further improve the hospital accreditation policy and its implementation...
  21. Bachir R, Chaaya M. Maternal smoking: determinants and associated morbidity in two areas in Lebanon. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:298-307 pubmed
    This study assessed the factors related to smoking during pregnancy in two areas in Lebanon, and the association of smoking to selected maternal and newborn health related factors...
  22. Zabaneh J, Watt G, O Donnell C. Living and health conditions of Palestinian refugees in an unofficial camp in the Lebanon: a cross-sectional survey. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008;62:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the living conditions and self-reported health of Palestinian refugees living in an unofficial camp in Lebanon. Cross-sectional survey. Gaza displacement centre, Beirut, Lebanon. 97 Households and 437 residents...
  23. Tamim H, Al Sahab B, Akkary G, Ghanem M, Tamim N, El Roueiheb Z, et al. Cigarette and nargileh smoking practices among school students in Beirut, Lebanon. Am J Health Behav. 2007;31:56-63 pubmed
    ..the prevalence and predictors of smoking nargileh and/or cigarettes among school students in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. A proportionate random sample of 2443 students from 13 public and private schools was selected and asked to ..
  24. Bou Kheir R, Greve M, Abdallah C, Dalgaard T. Spatial soil zinc content distribution from terrain parameters: a GIS-based decision-tree model in Lebanon. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..our study proposes a regression-tree model to predict the concentration level of zinc in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes) under a GIS environment...
  25. Zalloua P, Xue Y, Khalife J, Makhoul N, Debiane L, Platt D, et al. Y-chromosomal diversity in Lebanon is structured by recent historical events. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:873-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Lebanon is an eastern Mediterranean country inhabited by approximately four million people with a wide variety of ethnicities and religions, including Muslim, Christian, and Druze...
  26. Chemali Z, Chahine L, Sibai A. Older adult care in Lebanon: towards stronger and sustainable reforms. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:1466-76 pubmed
    We assessed elderly care in Lebanon through direct observation and review of the literature and legislation with the aim of drawing attention to the current situation and the need for improvement, and providing suggestions to address the ..
  27. Solomon Z, Shklar R, Singer Y, Mikulincer M. Reactions to combat stress in Israeli veterans twenty years after the 1982 Lebanon war. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006;194:935-9 pubmed
    ..Two groups of veterans from the 1982 Lebanon war were assessed 20 years after the war: one comprised 286 CSR casualties and the other comprised 218 matched ..
  28. Henry P, Hardin C. The contact hypothesis revisited: status bias in the reduction of implicit prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:862-8 pubmed
    ..and prejudice-between Whites and Blacks in the United States (Experiment 1) and between Christians and Muslims in Lebanon (Experiment 2)-we examined whether intergroup status differences moderate contact effects on implicit prejudice, ..
  29. Barbour B, Salameh P. Knowledge and practice of university students in Lebanon regarding contraception. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:387-99 pubmed
    ..The majority of males (73.3%) and a few females (21.8%) declared previous sexual relations: the majority of males had used a condom (86.1%), but females had generally not used contraceptives (75.6%). ..
  30. Adib S, Sabbah M, Hlais S, Hanna P. Research in action: mammography utilization following breast cancer awareness campaigns in Lebanon 2002-05. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:6-18 pubmed
    Four consecutive annual surveys of 1200 women each were conducted in Lebanon in connection with the National Breast Cancer Awareness campaigns (2002-05) to measure the prevalence of mammography utilization and the impact of these ..
  31. Abdul Baki H, Elhajj I, El Zahabi L, Azar C, Aoun E, Zantout H, et al. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Lebanon. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:475-80 pubmed
    ..practice prevalence trends, disease characteristics, and impact on quality of life (QoL) of IBD patients in Lebanon. All of a university-based health program's 2000-2004 computerized records that listed a diagnosis of Crohn's ..
  32. Zalloua P, Azar S, Delepine M, Makhoul N, Blanc H, Sanyoura M, et al. WFS1 mutations are frequent monogenic causes of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus in Lebanon. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:4012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the suggestive evidence for a high prevalence of Wolfram syndrome (WFS) in Lebanon, the phenotypic variability associated with WFS1 mutations, and the high consanguinity rate in Lebanon, we aimed ..
  33. Kanaan Z, Mahfouz R, Tamim H. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages in an underserved area in Lebanon and its association with congenital anomalies. Genet Test. 2008;12:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..objectives of this study were to study the prevalence of consanguinity among the marriages of Bekaa (a region in Lebanon) with its sociodemographic correlates, and to assess the prevalence of congenital anomalies associated with these ..
  34. Kabakian Khasholian T, Kaddour A, DeJong J, Shayboub R, Nassar A. The policy environment encouraging C-section in Lebanon. Health Policy. 2007;83:37-49 pubmed
    This study aims to analyse the environment encouraging C-section in Lebanon and to reveal approaches that could be adopted for the reduction of this practice, by considering the attitudes, opinions and actions of different stakeholders...
  35. Saade G, Abou Jaoude S, Afifi R, Warren C, Jones N. Patterns of tobacco use: results from the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Lebanon. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:1280-9 pubmed
    We report the results of the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Lebanon which investigated the self-reported attitudes and behaviours related to tobacco among 3314 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 13-15 years...
  36. Hammoury N, Khawaja M. Screening for domestic violence during pregnancy in an antenatal clinic in Lebanon. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:605-6 pubmed
    ..violence during pregnancy using data from 349 women attending an antenatal clinic serving refugees in Saidon, Lebanon. The Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify cases of abuse among the women attending the clinic during the ..
  37. Salem M, Abdulrahim S, Zurayk H. Using open-ended data to enrich survey results on the meanings of self-rated health: a study among women in underprivileged communities in Beirut, Lebanon. Women Health. 2009;49:625-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the meanings of self-rated health among women who live in socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Beirut, Lebanon. Using data from the Urban Health Study, a cross-sectional household survey of 1,869 women between 15 and 59 ..
  38. Nitecki S, Karram T, Ofer A, Engel A, Hoffman A. Vascular injuries in an urban combat setting: experience from the 2006 Lebanon war. Vascular. 2010;18:1-8 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis was made by CTA in 62% and by surgical exploration in 38%. Extremity arteries were injured in 72% of cases. Treatment included surgical and endovascular techniques...
  39. Sibai A, Tohme R, Saade G. Coronary angiography in Lebanon: Use and overuse. Int J Cardiol. 2008;125:422-4 pubmed
    Coronary angiography remains the gold standard for coronary artery disease diagnosis. In Lebanon, the density of cardiac catheterization centers is almost three times that of France (9.32 vs. 2...
  40. Nitecki S, Karram T, Hoffman A, Bass A. Venous trauma in the Lebanon War--2006. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007;6:647-50 pubmed
    ..The aim of the current paper is to present our recent experience in major venous trauma during the Lebanon conflict, means of diagnosis and treatment in a level I trauma center...
  41. Kahhaleh J, El Nakib M, Jurjus A. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices in Lebanon concerning HIV/AIDS, 1996-2004. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:920-33 pubmed
    This cross-sectional study, aimed at evaluating the impact of HIV prevention interventions in Lebanon since 1996, was performed between January 2004 and July 2004 on 3200 Lebanese aged 15-49 years. Of the sexually active respondents, 13...
  42. Abu Saad Huijer H, Dimassi H, Abboud S. Perspectives on palliative care in Lebanon: knowledge, attitudes, and practices of medical and nursing specialties. Palliat Support Care. 2009;7:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of physicians and nurses on Palliative Care (PC) in Lebanon, across specialties...
  43. Abu Saad Huijer H, Abboud S, Dimassi H. Palliative care in Lebanon: knowledge, attitudes and practices. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2009;15:346-53 pubmed
    To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of palliative care nurses in Lebanon. Cross-sectional descriptive survey using self-administered questionnaire; 1873 nurses from 15 hospitals were included...
  44. DeJong J, Mahfoud Z, Khoury D, Barbir F, Afifi R. Ethical considerations in HIV/AIDS biobehavioral surveys that use respondent-driven sampling: illustrations from Lebanon. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:1562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed a study of 3 groups in Lebanon who are at risk for HIV (injection drug users, men who have sex with men, female sex workers) and the ethical ..
  45. Karam E, Mneimneh Z, Dimassi H, Fayyad J, Karam A, Nasser S, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in Lebanon: first onset, treatment, and exposure to war. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e61 pubmed publisher
    ..the lifetime prevalence, treatment, age of onset of mental disorders, and their relationship to war in Lebanon. The Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study was carried out on a nationally ..
  46. Musharrafieh U, Tamim H, Rahi A, El Hajj M, Al Sahab B, El Asmar K, et al. Determinants of university students physical exercise: a study from Lebanon. Int J Public Health. 2008;53:208-13 pubmed publisher
    Studies to assess the patterns of physical exercise among University students in Lebanon are lacking...
  47. Abifadel M, Rabes J, Jambart S, Halaby G, Gannage Yared M, Sarkis A, et al. The molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia in Lebanon: spectrum of LDLR mutations and role of PCSK9 as a modifier gene. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:E682-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we characterize the spectrum of the mutations causing FH in Lebanon: we confirm the very high frequency of the LDLR p.Cys681X mutation that accounts for 81...
  48. Barbour B, Salameh P. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants. J Biosoc Sci. 2009;41:505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers...
  49. Sibai A, Tohme R, Saade G, Ghanem G, Alam S. The appropriateness of use of coronary angiography in Lebanon: implications for health policy. Health Policy Plan. 2008;23:210-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Lebanon, characterized by a free-market health care system, has one of the highest reported per capita rates of cardiac catheterization facilities and coronary angiographies in the world...
  50. Kanafani Z, Dakdouki G, El Chammas K, Eid S, Araj G, Kanj S. Bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenic patients at a tertiary care center in Lebanon: a view of the past decade. Int J Infect Dis. 2007;11:450-3 pubmed
    Previous studies from Lebanon have shown Gram-negative organisms to be the predominant agents in febrile neutropenic patients...
  51. Bitar N, Hajj H, Houmani Z, Sabbah A, Otrock Z, Mahfouz R, et al. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in the Middle East: first report of two cases from Lebanon. Transfusion. 2009;49:1859-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, the first two cases of ATL diagnosed in Lebanon are described. The first patient of Lebanese origin presented with acute ATL...
  52. Sawma Aouad G, Hashwa F, Tokajian S. Antimicrobial resistance in relation to virulence determinants and phylogenetic background among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Lebanon. J Chemother. 2009;21:153-8 pubmed
  53. Carayol M, Zein A, Ghosn N, du Mazaubrun C, Breart G. Determinants of caesarean section in Lebanon: geographical differences. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2008;22:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..and the characteristics of mothers, children, antenatal care and maternity units in two geographical zones of Lebanon (Beirut-Mount Lebanon and the rest of the country) and then looked at geographical variations...