Summary: An independent state, an archipelago in the western Persian Gulf, northwest of Qatar. It comprises low-lying islands of Bahrain (the largest), Muharraq, Sitra, and several islets. It has extensive oil fields. The name comes from the Arabic al-bahrayn, "the two seas", with reference to its lying in the middle of a bay with its "two seas" east and west of it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p107 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)

Top Publications

  1. Al Khaja K, Al Ansari T, Sequeira R. An evaluation of prescribing errors in primary care in Bahrain. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005;43:294-301 pubmed the pharmacy staff during the first two weeks of September 2003 in 18 out of 20 primary care health centers in Bahrain. Prescribing errors were classified as omission (minor and major), commission and integration errors...
  2. Almawi W, Tamim H, Al Sayed N, Arekat M, Al Khateeb G, Baqer A, et al. Association of comorbid depression, anxiety, and stress disorders with Type 2 diabetes in Bahrain, a country with a very high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31:1020-4 pubmed
    This study examined the association of depression, anxiety, and stress with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Bahrain, an island-country with a very high prevalence of T2DM...
  3. Marzooq H, Lyneham J. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge among nurses working in Bahrain. Int J Nurs Pract. 2009;15:294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in a public government hospital in Bahrain; 82 of these were returned. The results indicated that cognitive knowledge was not adequately retained...
  4. Al Shaikh S, Senok A, Ismaeel A, Botta G. Invasive capabilities of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in Bahrain: molecular and phenotypic characterization. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2007;54:139-50 pubmed
    ..The pattern of association between invasiveness and molecular characterization suggests that the ciaB gene confers a more invasive capability. ..
  5. Sequeira R, Jassim K, Damanhori A, Mathur V. Prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs by family physicians and general practitioners in the primary care setting in Bahrain. J Eval Clin Pract. 2002;8:407-14 pubmed
    ..914 prescriptions of GPs, issued to patients with uncomplicated hypertension, at 15 out of 20 health centres in Bahrain. The choice of antihypertensive(s) by FPs and GPs was comparable and conformed with the WHO/ISH guidelines as ..
  6. Al Jalahma M, Fakhroo E. Teaching medical ethics: implementation and evaluation of a new course during residency training in bahrain. Educ Health (Abingdon). 2004;17:62-72 pubmed
    ..The course was developed and implemented in the Family Practice Residency Program (FPRP) in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Thirty-six family physician trainees participated in this course in May 2002 and January 2003...
  7. Hamadeh R. Smoking habits of primary health care physicians in Bahrain. J R Soc Promot Health. 1999;119:36-9 pubmed
    A survey of the smoking habits of all primary health care physicians in Bahrain was carried out to determine their smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking...
  8. Fadhil I. Tobacco education in medical schools: survey among primary care physicians in Bahrain. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:969-75 pubmed assessed the extent of tobacco education and intervention skills training among primary care physicians in Bahrain. Out of 217 family physicians in the country, 120 (55%) answered a self-administered questionnaire...
  9. Al Salman R, Al Basri H, Al Sayyad A, Hearnshaw H. Prevalence and risk factors of albuminuria in Type 2 diabetes in Bahrain. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32:746-51 pubmed
    ..among Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, who were attending diabetes clinics at primary healthcare facilities in Bahrain. This was a cross-sectional study on 712 adult T2DM Bahraini patients screened for albuminuria using albumin:..

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  1. Al Raees G, Al Amer M, Musaiger A, D Souza R. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years in Bahrain: a comparison between two reference standards. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4:414-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Shifting to the new World Health Organization child growth standards may have important implications for child health programmes. ..
  2. Mohamed L, Ebrahim S, Al Thukair A. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Waste Manag. 2009;29:2404-9 pubmed publisher waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited ..
  3. Senok A, Ismaeel A, Al Qashar F, Agab W. Pattern of upper respiratory tract infections and physicians' antibiotic prescribing practices in Bahrain. Med Princ Pract. 2009;18:170-4 pubmed publisher
    ..tract infections (URTI) and determine the associated predictors for such antibiotic use in the Kingdom of Bahrain. From March 2005 to March 2006, demographic data, clinical presentation, investigations and antibiotic ..
  4. Deshmukh S, Mandeel Q, Verekar S. Keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Bahrain. Mycopathologia. 2008;165:143-7 pubmed
    Eighty soil samples were collected from various sites of Bahrain and screened for presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting techniques for isolation. Thirty-six isolates were recovered and identified...
  5. Awadallah M. Support for cancer patients: the Bahrain experience. East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12:695-9 pubmed
    Cancer, a disease people avoid talking about, is the second leading cause of death in Bahrain. The Bahrain Cancer Society established a support group in 1993 with the goals of helping patients and their families cope with this disease ..
  6. Bindayna K, Jamsheer A, Farid E, Botta G. Neonatal sepsis 1991-2001: prevalent bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities in Bahrain. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:131-6 pubmed
    ..blood culture from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Salmaniya Medical Complex between 1991 and 2001 and Bahrain Defense Force Hospital between 1999 and 2001 were reviewed. Of the 7,978 neonates in both hospitals 335 (4...
  7. Al Khaja K, P Sequeira R, Damanhori A. Evaluation of drug therapy and risk factors in diabetic hypertensives: a study of the quality of care provided in diabetic clinics in Bahrain. J Eval Clin Pract. 2005;11:121-31 pubmed
    ..retrospective analysis of the medical records of diabetic hypertensives from six primary care diabetic clinics in Bahrain. The recommended BP target <130/<85 mmHg and of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) <7% were achieved in 7...
  8. Rajab K, Mohammad A, Mustafa F. Incidence of spontaneous abortion in Bahrain before and after the Gulf War of 1991. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;68:139-44 pubmed
    ..The Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC) is the main referral hospital in Bahrain. Analysis of medical records of patients admitted with diagnosis of abortion during this period...
  9. Al Mahmeed A, Senok A, Ismaeel A, Bindayna K, Tabbara K, Botta G. Clinical relevance of virulence genes in Campylobacter jejuni isolates in Bahrain. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:839-43 pubmed
    ..Here, the molecular characterization of two virulence genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Bahrain and the relationship with clinical infection are reported...
  10. Sandhu A, Mustafa F. Maternal mortality in Bahrain 1987-2004: an audit of causes of avoidable death. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:720-30 pubmed
    The aim of this report was to establish the national maternal mortality rate in Bahrain over the period 1987-2004, to identify preventable factors in maternal deaths and to make recommendations for safe motherhood...
  11. Alnasir F, Skerman J. Schoolteachers' knowledge of common health problems in Bahrain. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:537-46 pubmed
    ..requested information on schools, teachers' demographic data, and knowledge about 5 common health problems in Bahrain: bronchial asthma, sickle-cell anaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and the dangers of smoking...
  12. Al Arrayed S, Hafadh N, Amin S, Al Mukhareq H, Sanad H. Student screening for inherited blood disorders in Bahrain. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9:344-52 pubmed
    In Bahrain and neighbouring countries inherited disorders of haemoglobin, i.e. sickle-cell disease, thalassaemias and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, are common...
  13. Al Hilli F, Malik A. Oesophageal cancer in Bahrain. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9:372-6 pubmed
    ABSTRACT Data from all 148 cases of oesophageal cancer in Bahrain during 1952-99 were analysed according to patient sex and age and site and histological pattern of tumour, and compared with other Gulf countries...
  14. Al Khaja K, Sequeira R, Al Ansari T, Damanhori A. Prescription writing skills of residents in a family practice residency programme in Bahrain. Postgrad Med J. 2008;84:198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..the prescription writing skill of final year residents in a family practice residency programme (FPRP) in Bahrain, and to compare skill of residents who have graduated from medical schools with problem based learning (PBL) ..
  15. Al Ansari A, Hamadeh R, Ali M, El Offi A. Suicide in Bahrain in the last decade. Crisis. 2007;28:11-5 pubmed
    A combination of social, legal, and religious factors make reporting of suicide difficult in Bahrain, an Islamic country. Limited available data indicates a very low incidence rate of 3 per 100,000...
  16. Hajjaj A, Senok A, Al Mahmeed A, Issa A, Arzese A, Botta G. Human papillomavirus infection among women attending health facilities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:487-91 pubmed
    To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population...
  17. Rajab K, Issa A, Mohammed A, Ajami A. Sickle cell disease and pregnancy in Bahrain. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;93:171-5 pubmed
    To determine the morbidity and outcome of pregnancies complicated by homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD) in Bahrain. A controlled study was conducted of all the pregnancies of women with SCD who were delivered at Salmaniya Medical ..
  18. Al Sendi A, Shetty P, Musaiger A. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of Bahraini adolescents. Ann Hum Biol. 2003;30:367-79 pubmed
    ..Therefore, programmes to prevent the development of obesity in children and adolescents should be given a high priority. ..
  19. Al Sayed H, Ghanem E, Saleh K. Bacterial community and some physico-chemical characteristics in a subtropical mangrove environment in Bahrain. Mar Pollut Bull. 2005;50:147-55 pubmed
    ..bacterial communities and some physico-chemical parameters of a subtropical mangrove habitat in the Arabian Gulf (Bahrain) was carried out in 1993-1994. Six stations at different parts of the tidal channel were selected for sampling...
  20. George S, Malik A, Al Arrayed S, Rajagopalan S, Al Arrayed A, Sharqawi S, et al. The spectrum of glomerular diseases in the kingdom of bahrain: an epidemiological study based on renal biopsy interpretation. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:1792-5 pubmed
    ..2%. The miscellaneous group including inadequate biopsies, which constituted 7.2% of all the tissues. The results of this analysis were compared with surveys from other parts of the world. ..
  21. Al Mahroos S, Nagalla D, Yousif W, Sanad H. A population-based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in non-diabetic women in Bahrain. Ann Saudi Med. 2005;25:129-33 pubmed
    ..Since there is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the population of Bahrain, we conducted a prospective population-based study of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in non-diabetic ..
  22. al Arrayed S. Review of the spectrum of genetic diseases in Bahrain. East Mediterr Health J. 1999;5:1114-20 pubmed
    This paper looks at some of the studies on genetic disorders conducted in Bahrain. The disorders covered include: genetic blood disorders, metabolic disorders, chromosomal disorders, including Down syndrome, and cystic fibrosis...
  23. Al Hajeri A, Al Sayyad J, Eisinga A. Handsearching the EMHJ for reports of randomized controlled trials by U.K. Cochrane Centre (Bahrain). East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12 Suppl 2:S253-7 pubmed
    ..Reports identified were sent to the UK Cochrane Centre for verification and publication in The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). ..
  24. Al Haddad N, Hamadeh R. Smoking among secondary-school boys in Bahrain: prevalence and risk factors. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9:78-86 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Bahrain and to identify their risk factors for smoking, we surveyed a random sample of students by questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was 26.6%, 25...
  25. Al Mahroos F, Al Roomi K. Diabetic neuropathy, foot ulceration, peripheral vascular disease and potential risk factors among patients with diabetes in Bahrain: a nationwide primary care diabetes clinic-based study. Ann Saudi Med. 2007;27:25-31 pubmed
    ..and potential risk factors for these complications among patients attending primary care diabetes clinics in Bahrain. We studied 1477 diabetic patients (Type 2 diabetes 93%); to, including 635 men and 842 women, with ages ranging ..
  26. Musaiger A, Abdulkhalek N. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in Bahrain: the role of mothers' education. Nutr Health. 2000;14:257-63 pubmed
    This rapid assessment survey was undertaken to find out the current practices of infant feeding in Bahrain and the impact of educational level of the mothers on these practices...
  27. Moosa K, Abdul Wahab A, Al Sayyad J, Baig B. National study on the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders among schoolchildren 8-12 years of age in Bahrain. East Mediterr Health J. 2001;7:609-16 pubmed
    A cross-sectional survey of primary-school children in Bahrain was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goitre and iodine deficiency according to age, sex and area of residence...
  28. Udo E, Panigrahi D, Jamsheer A. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in a Bahrain hospital. Med Princ Pract. 2008;17:308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained at the Salmaniya Medical Complex in Bahrain. A total of 53 consecutive MRSA isolates obtained from 53 patients were studied using antibacterial resistance ..
  29. Gharib N, Shah P. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain. Ann Saudi Med. 2009;29:258-69 pubmed
    ..children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2...
  30. Bader Z, Musaiger A, Al Roomi K, D Souza R. Overweight and obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. Anthropol Anz. 2008;66:401-7 pubmed
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst adolescents in Bahrain. The subjects consisted of grades 1-3 secondary school students (336 males and 396 females) between the ages 15-18 ..
  31. Al Hajeri A, Fedorowicz Z, Amin F, Eisinga A. The handsearching of 2 medical journals of Bahrain for reports of randomized controlled trials. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:526-30 pubmed
    To identify reports of randomized trials by handsearching 2 Bahrain medical journals, which are indexed in the biomedical database EMBASE and to determine any added value of the handsearching by comparing the reports found by ..
  32. Tabbara K, Saleh F. Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in Bahrain. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:1383-7 pubmed
    ..immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) measurements reported from the Central Laboratory of Bahrain over a period of 3 years and 9 months...
  33. Musaiger A. Recommendations of the First Conference on Obesity and Physical Activity in the Arab countries. Held in Bahrain, 24-26 September, 2002. Nutr Health. 2003;17:117-21 pubmed
  34. Qadi A, Tamim H, Ameen G, Bu Ali A, Al Arrayed S, Fawaz N, et al. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus prevalence among dialysis patients in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia: a survey by serologic and molecular methods. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32:493-5 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on viral hepatitis in Bahrain and the first to compare HBV/HCV among dialysis patients in the Eastern Arabian Peninsula.
  35. Amin F, Fedorowicz Z, Montgomery A. A study of knowledge and attitudes towards the use of evidence-based medicine among primary health care physicians in Bahrain. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1394-6 pubmed
    A study of perceptions and attitudes towards the use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) among family physicians in Bahrain. A systematically developed, anonymous, self administered 13 item questionnaire was mailed to 124 Bahraini family ..
  36. Jassim Al Khaja K, Sequeira R, Wahab A, Mathur V. Antihypertensive drug prescription trends at the primary health care centres in Bahrain. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2001;10:219-27 pubmed
    ..patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension was conducted in seven out of a total of 18 health centres in Bahrain. The relevant data for our study was collected using cards, designed for chronically-ill patients...
  37. Ismaeel A, Al Khaja K, Damanhori A, Sequeira R, Botta G. Management of acute diarrhoea in primary care in Bahrain: self-reported practices of doctors. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:205-11 pubmed
    ..therapy (ORT), antimicrobials, and prescribing of other drugs used in treating symptoms of acute diarrhoea in Bahrain. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out in primary-care health centres...
  38. Al Mahroos F, Abdulla F, Kamal S, Al Ansari A. Child abuse: Bahrain's experience. Child Abuse Negl. 2005;29:187-93 pubmed
  39. Almawi W, Qadi A, Tamim H, Ameen G, Bu Ali A, Arrayid S, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus among dialysis patients in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:1824-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among hamodialysis patients in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia...
  40. Musaiger A, Al Mannai M. Weight, height, body mass index and prevalence of obesity among the adult population in Bahrain. Ann Hum Biol. 2001;28:346-50 pubmed
    ..Anthropometrics provided in this study can be used as baseline data for the adult population of Bahrain.
  41. Al Mosawi Z, Al Hermi B, Al Saad K, Farid E, Makki H. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in Bahrain. A tertiary referral center experience. Saudi Med J. 2009;30:667-72 pubmed
    ..and serological features of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a major referral center in Bahrain and to assess the comorbidity, its morbidity, and mortality...
  42. Al Khaja K, Sequeira R, Al Ansari T, Damanhori A, James H, Handu S. Pediatric iron preparations for infants in Bahrain: some therapeutic concerns. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010;48:200-5 pubmed
    ..type and prevalence of prescribing errors related to pediatric iron preparations prescribed in primary care in Bahrain. Prescriptions issued for infants and collected at 20 health center pharmacies for 2 weeks were audited, ..
  43. Al Arrayed S. Campaign to control genetic blood diseases in Bahrain. Community Genet. 2005;8:52-5 pubmed
    Genetic blood diseases are frequent in Bahrain as in all Middle Eastern countries. Previous neonatal screening in 1984-1985 showed that the birth prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD) was 2...
  44. Behbehani N, Hamadeh R, Macklai N. Knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco control among smoking and non-smoking physicians in 2 Gulf Arab states. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:585-91 pubmed
    ..This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001...
  45. Golbahar J, Al Khayyat H, Hassan B, Agab W, Hassan E, Darwish A. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism: a retrospective hospital based study from Bahrain. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010;23:39-44 pubmed
    ..Cord blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was evaluated for the incidence of CH in Bahrain Defense Force hospital. Those neonates with cord blood TSH values >25 mU/l were recalled...
  46. Lori A, al Ansari S. Relations of some sociocultural variables and attitudes and motivations of young Arab students learning English as a second language. Psychol Rep. 2001;88:91-101 pubmed
    ..Having some sort of English games had the highest correlations (.25 to .41). Potential pedagogical implications of these results were discussed. ..
  47. Hamdy H, Prasad K, Williams R, Salih F. Reliability and validity of the direct observation clinical encounter examination (DOCEE). Med Educ. 2003;37:205-12 pubmed
    The College of Medicine and Medical Sciences at the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain, replaced the traditional long case/short case clinical examination on the final MD examination with a direct observation clinical encounter examination ..
  48. Benjamin S, Al Darazi F. A quality approach for conducting training needs assessments in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain. World Hosp Health Serv. 2000;36:2-5, 44-5 pubmed
    ..which stresses the importance of customer- and service-orientations to organizing and measuring organizational and individual performance. ..
  49. Radhi A, Lynch C, Hannigan A. Quality of written communication and master impressions for fabrication of removable partial prostheses in the Kingdom of Bahrain. J Oral Rehabil. 2007;34:153-7 pubmed
    ..instructions and choice of impression trays and materials for removable partial dentures (RPDs) in the Kingdom of Bahrain. All six private dental laboratories in Bahrain were contacted and invited to participate in the study...
  50. Al Absi I, Al Subaie A, Ameen G, Mahdi N, Mohammad A, Fawaz N, et al. Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C but not the C677T single nucleotide polymorphism with sickle cell disease in Bahrain. Hemoglobin. 2006;30:449-53 pubmed homocysteine (Hcy) levels was investigated in 106 sickle cell disease patients and 156 healthy controls from Bahrain. The mutation analysis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR)...
  51. Skartveit L, Riordan P, al Dallal E. Effect of fluoride in amalgam on secondary caries incidence. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994;22:122-5 pubmed
    ..adjacent to fluoride-containing amalgam with that adjacent to a conventional amalgam under field conditions in Bahrain. Children (n = 415) aged 6-14 yr who required occlusal restorations in two homologous contralateral permanent ..
  52. Shulman S. Uppers and downers. Pediatr Ann. 2006;35:531-2 pubmed
  53. Marchenkov A, Boxshall G. Three new species of Enterocola van Beneden, 1860 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from ascidian hosts. Syst Parasitol. 2005;61:223-33 pubmed
    ..monnioti n. sp., from the ascidian host Polyclinum constellatum Savigny collected in Bahrain, and E. parapterophorus n. sp., from the ascidian host Didemnum granulatum Tokioka taken in Djibouti...