Summary: Country located in southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, and east of Iran. The capital is Kabul.

Top Publications

  1. Reithinger R, Coleman P. Treating cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Kabul, Afghanistan: cost-effectiveness of an operational program in a complex emergency setting. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:3 pubmed
    Although Kabul city, Afghanistan, is currently the worldwide largest focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an estimated 67,500 cases, donor interest in CL has been comparatively poor because the disease is non-fatal...
  2. Jakupcak M, Conybeare D, Phelps L, Hunt S, Holmes H, Felker B, et al. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20:945-54 pubmed
    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were grouped by level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and compared on self-report measures of trait anger, hostility, and aggression...
  3. Todd C, Abed A, Scott P, Botros B, Safi N, Earhart K, et al. Correlates of receptive and distributive needle sharing among injection drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2008;34:91-100 pubmed
    We describe receptive and distributive needle/syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan. In this cross-sectional study, IDUs completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire...
  4. Calhoun J, Murray C, Manring M. Multidrug-resistant organisms in military wounds from Iraq and Afghanistan. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..More research is required to give military physicians the tools they require to reduce the infection rate and defeat multidrug-resistant organisms. ..
  5. Catani C, Schauer E, Neuner F. Beyond individual war trauma: domestic violence against children in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. J Marital Fam Ther. 2008;34:165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Research conducted in Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, two long-standing war-torn societies, found that in addition to multiple exposure to war or disaster-related ..
  6. Schneiderman A, Braver E, Kang H. Understanding sequelae of injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury incurred during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan: persistent postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:1446-52 pubmed publisher
    A cross-sectional study of military personnel following deployment to conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan ascertained histories of combat theater injury mechanisms and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and current prevalence of ..
  7. Ciminera P, Brundage J. Malaria in U.S. military forces: a description of deployment exposures from 2003 through 2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:275-9 pubmed
    ..Seventy-eight cases had documented service in Afghanistan; only 4 had off-season exposure and no other documented exposures...
  8. Miller K, Omidian P, Quraishy A, Quraishy N, Nasiry M, Nasiry S, et al. The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2006;76:423-433 pubmed publisher
    ..A mixed-method design was used in Kabul, Afghanistan, to identify local indicators of distress and develop the 22-item Afghan Symptom Checklist (ASCL)...
  9. Hansen P, Peters D, Edward A, Gupta S, Arur A, Niayesh H, et al. Determinants of primary care service quality in Afghanistan. Int J Qual Health Care. 2008;20:375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..factors associated with service quality provided by agencies implementing a basic package of health services in Afghanistan. Cross-sectional survey of outpatient health facilities, health workers, patients and caretakers...

More Information


  1. Kassi M, Kassi M, Afghan A, Rehman R, Kasi P. Marring leishmaniasis: the stigmatization and the impact of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan and Afghanistan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e259 pubmed publisher
  2. Smith J, Currie S, Azfar P, Rahmanzai A. Establishment of an accreditation system for midwifery education in Afghanistan: maintaining quality during national expansion. Public Health. 2008;122:558-67 pubmed publisher
    To establish a mechanism for ensuring and regulating quality of pre-service midwifery education in Afghanistan during a period of intense expansion. Case study of public health practice in health workforce development...
  3. Ventevogel P, De Vries G, Scholte W, Shinwari N, Faiz H, Nassery R, et al. Properties of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) as screening instruments used in primary care in Afghanistan. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42:328-35 pubmed
    Recent epidemiological studies in Afghanistan using mental health questionnaires yielded high prevalence rates for anxiety and depression...
  4. Woodrow J, Hartzell J, Czarnik J, Brett Major D, Wortmann G. Cutaneous and presumed visceral leishmaniasis in a soldier deployed to Afghanistan. MedGenMed. 2006;8:43 pubmed
    ..who suffered both visceral and cutaneous manifestations of leishmaniasis after returning from deployment in Afghanistan. Overlap of cutaneous and visceral involvement is rare and has not been reported in our cohort...
  5. Friedman M. Posttraumatic stress disorder among military returnees from Afghanistan and Iraq. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:586-93 pubmed
  6. Yun H, Branstetter J, Murray C. Osteomyelitis in military personnel wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Trauma. 2008;64:S163-8; discussion S168 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe demographics and microbiology of OIF/OEF casualties with primary and recurrent osteomyelitis...
  7. Steinhardt L, Waters H, Rao K, Naeem A, Hansen P, Peters D. The effect of wealth status on care seeking and health expenditures in Afghanistan. Health Policy Plan. 2009;24:1-17 pubmed publisher
    This paper analyses the effect of wealth status on care-seeking patterns and health expenditures in Afghanistan, based on a national household survey conducted within public health facility catchment areas...
  8. Hemat S, Takano T, Kizuki M, Mashal T. Health-care provision factors associated with child immunization coverage in a city centre and a rural area in Kabul, Afghanistan. Vaccine. 2009;27:2823-9 pubmed publisher
    A total of 1327 households were surveyed in Kabul province, Afghanistan to evaluate child immunization coverage and its association with distance to health facilities, attendance at antenatal care, the place of delivery and contact by ..
  9. Manaseki Holland S, Zulf Mughal M, Bhutta Z, Qasem Shams M. Vitamin D status of socio-economically deprived children in Kabul, Afghanistan. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2008;78:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that this population of children living in Kabul to be at great risk of developing vitamin D deficiency, rickets, and other possible immunological effects of deficiency. ..
  10. Armstrong J, Ager A. Physiotherapy in Afghanistan: an analysis of current challenges. Disabil Rehabil. 2006;28:315-22 pubmed
    b>Afghanistan has high levels of disability due to prolonged conflict. An important part of the reconstruction process in Afghanistan is strengthening health service capacity and, within this, rehabilitation services...
  11. Kandasamy T, Merialdi M, Guidotti R, Betrán A, Harris Requejo J, Hakimi F, et al. Cesarean delivery surveillance system at a maternity hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;104:14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..deliveries were evaluated between April 1 and June 30 2006 at a large public maternity hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan. The perinatal mortality rate was 89 per 1000 births: 57% antepartum and 37% intrapartum stillbirths...
  12. Miller K, Omidian P, Rasmussen A, Yaqubi A, Daudzai H. Daily stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan. Transcult Psychiatry. 2008;45:611-38 pubmed publisher
    Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of daily stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally ..
  13. Brooker S, Leslie T, Kolaczinski K, Mohsen E, Mehboob N, Saleheen S, et al. Spatial epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, Afghanistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1600-2 pubmed
    Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. Geographic analysis helped highlight areas of malaria risk and clarified ecologic risk factors for transmission...
  14. Maguire J, Fenton M, Susanti A, Walker J. Plasmodium vivax-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome after extended travel in Afghanistan. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:301-5 pubmed
    ..vomiting, diarrhea and fever 10 days after returning to the United States from an 8-month deployment in Afghanistan. His symptoms persisted over the next 5 days until he presented in respiratory failure with a partial pressure ..
  15. Erbes C, Westermeyer J, Engdahl B, Johnsen E. Post-traumatic stress disorder and service utilization in a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Mil Med. 2007;172:359-63 pubmed
    ..Mental health service utilization is limited, even among returnees enrolled for Veterans Affairs health care. ..
  16. Beitler A, Wortmann G, Hofmann L, Goff J. Operation Enduring Freedom: the 48th Combat Support Hospital in Afghanistan. Mil Med. 2006;171:189-93 pubmed
    To examine the experience of the 48th Combat Support Hospital (CSH) while deployed to Afghanistan, with an emphasis on trauma care.
  17. Pourkarim M, Zandi K, Davani N, Pourkarim H, Amini Bavil Olyaee S. An aberrant high prevalence of hepatitis B infection among Afghans residing in one of the Bushehr refugee camps (Dalaki camp) in the southwest of Iran. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:101-2 pubmed
  18. Faulde M, Schrader J, Heyl G, Amirih M, Hoerauf A. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in Mazar-e Sharif, northern Afghanistan: an epidemiological evaluation. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:543-50 pubmed
    ..Data indicate the existence of high-density, anthropogenically induced ZCL in Afghanistan.
  19. Kang H, Bullman T. Risk of suicide among US veterans after returning from the Iraq or Afghanistan war zones. JAMA. 2008;300:652-3 pubmed publisher
  20. Todd C, Ahmadzai M, Atiqzai F, Smith J, Miller S, Azfar P, et al. Prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis knowledge among intrapartum patients and health care providers in Kabul, Afghanistan. AIDS Care. 2009;21:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..about blood-borne infection awareness and knowledge among obstetric populations and health care providers in Afghanistan. HIV and hepatitis B awareness and knowledge are described among 4452 intrapartum patients completing an ..
  21. Peters D, Noor A, Singh L, Kakar F, Hansen P, Burnham G. A balanced scorecard for health services in Afghanistan. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:146-51 pubmed
    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) in Afghanistan has developed a balanced scorecard (BSC) to regularly monitor the progress of its strategy to deliver a basic package of health services...
  22. Stuart T, Mulvey M, Simor A, Tien H, Battad A, Taylor G, et al. Acinetobacter baumannii in casualties returning from Afghanistan. Can J Infect Control. 2007;22:152-4 pubmed
    Military personnel returning from Afghanistan and entering Canadian hospitals may be infected with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii...
  23. Yusufzai A. Poor medical facilities in Afghanistan mean patients turn to hospitals in Pakistan. BMJ. 2008;337:a2291 pubmed publisher
  24. Zakeri S, Safi N, Afsharpad M, Butt W, Ghasemi F, Mehrizi A, et al. Genetic structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from two malaria endemic areas in Afghanistan. Acta Trop. 2010;113:12-9 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Afghanistan have been investigated by analyzing three genetic markers: csp, msp-1, and msp-3 alpha...
  25. van Thiel P, Leenstra T, Kager P, de Vries H, van Vugt M, van der Meide W, et al. Miltefosine treatment of Leishmania major infection: an observational study involving Dutch military personnel returning from northern Afghanistan. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:80-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty patients experienced cure after receipt of miltefosine, 3 after receipt of additional ilSb(v), and 1 after 28 daily intravenous injections of antimony. Temporary diminution of ejaculate volume was reported by 21 patients...
  26. Endo Y, Horinishi A, Vorgerd M, Aoyama Y, Ebara T, Murase T, et al. Molecular analysis of the AGL gene: heterogeneity of mutations in patients with glycogen storage disease type III from Germany, Canada, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey. J Hum Genet. 2006;51:958-63 pubmed
    ..We investigated nine GSD III patients from Germany, Canada, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey and identified six novel AGL mutations: one nonsense (W255X), three deletions (1019delA, 3202-..
  27. Faulde M, Hoffmann R, Fazilat K, Hoerauf A. Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria endemic in northern Afghanistan. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2008;38:679-92 pubmed
    In 2002, the total malaria burden in Afghanistan was estimated to be 3 million cases annually, mainly from Takhar and Kunduz Provinces. Field investigations from 2001 to 2007 revealed a rapid resurgence of Plasmodium falciparum & P...
  28. Kolaczinski K, Durrani N, Rahim S, Rowland M. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate compared with chloroquine for the treatment of vivax malaria in areas co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax: a randomised non-inferiority trial in eastern Afghanistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1081-7 pubmed
    ..In areas co-endemic for falciparum and vivax malaria incorrect differential diagnosis is always a risk. In Afghanistan the adoption of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP+AS) as first-line falciparum treatment raises the ..
  29. Sanghvi H, Ansari N, Prata N, Gibson H, Ehsan A, Smith J. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage at home birth in Afghanistan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;108:276-81 pubmed publisher and distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage at home birth in Afghanistan. A nonrandomized experimental control design in rural Afghanistan...
  30. Loevinsohn B, Sayed G. Lessons from the health sector in Afghanistan: how progress can be made in challenging circumstances. JAMA. 2008;300:724-6 pubmed publisher
  31. Palmer N, Strong L, Wali A, Sondorp E. Contracting out health services in fragile states. BMJ. 2006;332:718-21 pubmed
  32. Todd C, Ahmadzai M, Smith J, Siddiqui H, Ghazanfar S, Strathdee S. Attitudes and practices of obstetric care providers in Kabul, Afghanistan regarding antenatal testing for sexually transmitted infection. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008;37:607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..toward and utilization of testing for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B among obstetric care providers in Kabul, Afghanistan. Cross-sectional survey. Three public maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan...
  33. Zakeri S, Afsharpad M, Ghasemi F, Raeisi A, Safi N, Butt W, et al. Molecular surveillance of Plasmodium vivax dhfr and dhps mutations in isolates from Afghanistan. Malar J. 2010;9:75 pubmed publisher
    ..vivax clinical isolates circulating in two malaria endemic areas in Afghanistan. P...
  34. Marié J, Fournier P, Rolain J, Briolant S, Davoust B, Raoult D. Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana, B. Elizabethae, B. Koehlerae, B. Doshiae, B. Taylorii, and Rickettsia felis in rodent fleas collected in Kabul, Afghanistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:436-9 pubmed
    ..using molecular methods in 77 rodent fleas collected in November 2002 by the French forces detachment in Kabul, Afghanistan. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 15.5% of gerbil fleas and 40...
  35. Bilukha O, Brennan M, Anderson M. The lasting legacy of war: epidemiology of injuries from landmines and unexploded ordnance in Afghanistan, 2002-2006. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2008;23:493-9 pubmed
    Due to several decades of armed conflict and civil unrest, Afghanistan is one of the countries most affected by landmines and unexploded ordnance worldwide...
  36. Arur A, Peters D, Hansen P, Mashkoor M, Steinhardt L, Burnham G. Contracting for health and curative care use in Afghanistan between 2004 and 2005. Health Policy Plan. 2010;25:135-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Afghanistan has used several approaches to contracting as part of its national strategy to increase access to basic health services...
  37. Todd C, Stibich M, Stanekzai M, Rasuli M, Bayan S, Wardak S, et al. A qualitative assessment of injection drug use and harm reduction programmes in Kabul, Afghanistan: 2006-2007. Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20:111-20 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this paper was to examine the context of injection drug use in Kabul, Afghanistan among injection drug users (IDUs) utilising and not utilising needle and syringe programmes (NSPs)...
  38. Quddus A, Luby S, Jamal Z, Jafar T. Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in Balochistan, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:242-7 pubmed
    Continued civil war and political instability in Afghanistan have lead to a huge influx of refugees into the neighboring provinces in Pakistan...
  39. Todd C, Ahmadzai M, Atiqzai F, Miller S, Smith J, Ghazanfar S, et al. Seroprevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C virus among intrapartum patients in Kabul, Afghanistan. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:119 pubmed publisher
    ..and hepatitis B and C infection among obstetric patients and model hepatitis B vaccination approaches in Kabul, Afghanistan. This cross-sectional study was conducted at three government maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan from ..
  40. Calhoun P, Elter J, Jones E, Kudler H, Straits Troster K. Hazardous alcohol use and receipt of risk-reduction counseling among U.S. veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1686-93 pubmed
    Military service in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) has been associated with high rates of mental health problems...
  41. Todd C, Abed A, Scott P, Safi N, Earhart K, Strathdee S. A cross-sectional assessment of utilization of addiction treatment among injection drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan. Subst Use Misuse. 2009;44:416-30 pubmed publisher
    ..prior use of detoxification and addiction-treatment programs among injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan. From 2005-2006, IDUs (n = 464) recruited into this cross-sectional study completed an interviewer-administered ..
  42. Warden D. Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21:398-402 pubmed
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important source of morbidity in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Although penetrating brain injuries are more readily identified, closed brain injuries occur more commonly...
  43. Hansen P, Peters D, Viswanathan K, Rao K, Mashkoor A, Burnham G. Client perceptions of the quality of primary care services in Afghanistan. Int J Qual Health Care. 2008;20:384-91 pubmed publisher
    To identify factors associated with client perceptions of the quality of primary care services in Afghanistan. Cross-sectional survey of outpatient health facilities, health workers, patients and caretakers...
  44. Dunbar J, Cooper B, Hodgetts T, Yskandar H, van Thiel P, Whelan S, et al. An outbreak of human external ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus ovis in southern Afghanistan. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:e124-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it typically occurs in shepherds and farmers, O. ovis ophthalmomyiasis has also been reported in urban areas. We report the first case study of O. ovis infection from Afghanistan.
  45. Leslie T, Mayan M, Hasan M, Safi M, Klinkenberg E, Whitty C, et al. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, chlorproguanil-dapsone, or chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Afghanistan and Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;297:2201-9 pubmed
    ..The antifolates are an important and affordable antimalarial class to which it is often assumed P vivax malaria is intrinsically resistant...
  46. Khorrami H, Karzai F, Macri C, Amir A, Laube D. Maternal healthcare needs assessment survey at Rabia Balkhi Hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;101:259-63 pubmed publisher
    Since the Department of Health and Human Services chose Rabia Balkhi Hospital (RBH) in Kabul, Afghanistan, as a site for intervention in 2002, the status of women's health there has been of interest...
  47. Stansbury L, Lalliss S, Branstetter J, Bagg M, Holcomb J. Amputations in U.S. military personnel in the current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. J Orthop Trauma. 2008;22:43-6 pubmed publisher
    To determine rates of major limb amputation in U.S. military casualties in the current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, to correlate these with mechanism of injury, and compare the rate with that seen in U.S...
  48. Sabri B, Siddiqi S, Ahmed A, Kakar F, Perrot J. Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:712-8 pubmed
    Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor ..
  49. Garvey Wilson A, Messer S, Hoge C. U.S. military mental health care utilization and attrition prior to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009;44:473-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The research indicates that in the military population the burden of mental illness in outpatient clinics is significantly greater when V-code diagnoses are included along with conventional mental disorder diagnostic codes. ..
  50. Panter Brick C, Eggerman M, Mojadidi A, McDade T. Social stressors, mental health, and physiological stress in an urban elite of young Afghans in Kabul. Am J Hum Biol. 2008;20:627-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Afghanistan provides a unique setting in which to appraise psychosocial stress, given the context of persistent insecurity and widening economic inequality...
  51. Hansen P, Peters D, Niayesh H, Singh L, Dwivedi V, Burnham G. Measuring and managing progress in the establishment of basic health services: the Afghanistan health sector balanced scorecard. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2008;23:107-17 pubmed publisher
    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) of Afghanistan has adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a tool to measure and manage performance in delivery of a Basic Package of Health Services...
  52. Kondro W. Where's the health in Afghanistan's reconstruction?. CMAJ. 2007;177:233, 235 pubmed
  53. Saif ur Rehman -, Rasoul M, Wodak A, Claeson M, Friedman J, Sayed G. Responding to HIV in Afghanistan. Lancet. 2007;370:2167-9 pubmed