middle east


Summary: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)

Top Publications

  1. Tadmouri G, Bissar Tadmouri N. Biomedical publications in an unstable region: the Arab world, 1988-2002. Lancet. 2003;362:1766 pubmed
  2. Barss P, Subait O, Ali M, Grivna M. Drowning in a high-income developing country in the Middle East: newspapers as an essential resource for injury surveillance. J Sci Med Sport. 2009;12:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Newspapers with electronic searching on health terms, including injuries, would be a national asset for surveillance...
  3. Rahim H, Wick L, Halileh S, Hassan Bitar S, Chekir H, Watt G, et al. Maternal and child health in the occupied Palestinian territory. Lancet. 2009;373:967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Urgent action from international and local decision makers is needed for sustainable access to high-quality care and basic health entitlements. ..
  4. Seimenis A. The rabies situation in the Middle East. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;131:43-53 pubmed
    ..Certain countries of the Middle East region are facing increasing problems due to wildlife rabies, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Israel, Iran ..
  5. Brandstätter A, Zimmermann B, Wagner J, Göbel T, Röck A, Salas A, et al. Timing and deciphering mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup R0 variability in Central Europe and Middle East. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:191 pubmed publisher
    ..phylogenetic structure and genetic variety of hg R0 in five European populations and one population from the Middle East. Our analysis of 1,350 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to R0, including entire control region sequences and 45 ..
  6. Wandell P, Johansson S, Gåfvels C, Hellenius M, de Faire U, Sundquist J. Estimation of diabetes prevalence among immigrants from the Middle East in Sweden by using three different data sources. Diabetes Metab. 2008;34:328-33 pubmed publisher
    To estimate diabetes prevalence in immigrants from the Middle East in Sweden compared with Swedish-born subjects. This group accounts for around 15% of Sweden's non-European immigrants...
  7. Montgomery E. Self- and parent assessment of mental health: disagreement on externalizing and internalizing behaviour in young refugees from the Middle East. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;13:49-63 pubmed
    ..Working with data from 122 refugee children, adolescents and young adults from the Middle East, the aims of this study were to analyse levels of agreement and disagreement between self- and parent ratings ..
  8. Al Kharusi W. Update on road traffic crashes: progress in the Middle East. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Globally we spend approximately US $500 billion annually. The Middle East encompasses West Asia and North Africa and is very diverse economically, culturally and socially...
  9. Mercier G, Dieterlen F, Lucotte G. Population distribution of the methionine allele at the PRNP codon 129 polymorphism in Europe and the Middle East. Hum Biol. 2008;80:181-90 pubmed
    ..M129V polymorphism was studied in 2201 normal subjects, originating from 15 populations from Europe and the Middle East. Mean heterozygosity in these populations is 38...

More Information


  1. VonHoldt B, Pollinger J, Lohmueller K, Han E, Parker H, Quignon P, et al. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication. Nature. 2010;464:898-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that dog breeds share a higher proportion of multi-locus haplotypes unique to grey wolves from the Middle East, indicating that they are a dominant source of genetic diversity for dogs rather than wolves from east Asia, as ..
  2. Gray M, Sutter N, Ostrander E, Wayne R. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves. BMC Biol. 2010;8:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there...
  3. Colacicco Mayhugh M, Masuoka P, Grieco J. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus alexandri and P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Middle East. Int J Health Geogr. 2010;9:2 pubmed publisher
    ..alexandri (Sinton), across the Middle East. Phlebotomus alexandri is a vector of visceral leishmaniasis, while P...
  4. Gresham L, Ramlawi A, Briski J, Richardson M, Taylor T. Trust across borders: responding to 2009 H1N1 influenza in the Middle East. Biosecur Bioterror. 2009;7:399-404 pubmed publisher
    Disease surveillance networks in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa are models for the kind of transnational cooperation that can mount the needed flexible and coordinated response to the spread of 2009 H1N1 influenza and future ..
  5. Azarpazhooh M, Etemadi M, Donnan G, Mokhber N, Majdi M, Ghayour Mobarhan M, et al. Excessive incidence of stroke in Iran: evidence from the Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study (MSIS), a population-based study of stroke in the Middle East. Stroke. 2010;41:e3-e10 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology of stroke and its subtypes in the Middle East is unclear. Most previous studies have been performed in Western countries, and incidence rates are unlikely to apply in the Middle East...
  6. Shawky S, Soliman C, Kassak K, Oraby D, El Khoury D, Kabore I. HIV surveillance and epidemic profile in the Middle East and North Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51 Suppl 3:S83-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases ..
  7. Bingley A, Clark D. A comparative review of palliative care development in six countries represented by the Middle East Cancer Consortium (MECC). J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009;37:287-96 pubmed publisher
    Palliative care development and services were reviewed in the region represented by the six members of the Middle East Cancer Consortium: Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, and Turkey...
  8. El Jardali F, Makhoul J, Jamal D, Ranson M, Kronfol N, Tchaghchagian V. Eliciting policymakers' and stakeholders' opinions to help shape health system research priorities in the Middle East and North Africa region. Health Policy Plan. 2010;25:15-27 pubmed publisher
    ..there has been no previous priority-setting exercise in health policy and systems research in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region...
  9. Al Hashel J, Besterman A, Wolfson C. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Middle East. Neuroepidemiology. 2008;31:129-37 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Middle East has been reported to be low to medium. To verify this assertion we conducted a review of published data on the occurrence of MS in the Middle East...
  10. Williams R, Peterson A. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:47 pubmed publisher
    ..of HPAI-H5N1 cases are related consistently and predictably to coarse-scale environmental features in the Middle East and northeastern Africa...
  11. Bohlega S, Al Shammri S, Al Sharoqi I, Dahdaleh M, Gebeily S, Inshasi J, et al. Biosimilars: opinion of an expert panel in the Middle East. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008;24:2897-903 pubmed
    ..A consensus group of experts from the Near and Middle East discussed the currently available guidelines for registration of biosimilars--including those produced by the ..
  12. Kaniewski D, Paulissen E, Van Campo E, Al Maqdissi M, Bretschneider J, Van Lerberghe K. Middle East coastal ecosystem response to middle-to-late Holocene abrupt climate changes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13941-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2050 B.C. The impact of the 3.5 to 2.5 cal kyr BP ACC on human occupation and cultural development is important along the Syrian coast with the destruction of Ugarit and the collapse of the Ugarit kingdom at ca. 1190 to 1185 B.C. ..
  13. El Menyar A, Amin H, Rashdan I, Souliman K, Deleu D, Saadat K, et al. Ankle-brachial index and extent of atherosclerosis in patients from the Middle East (the AGATHA-ME study): a cross-sectional multicenter study. Angiology. 2009;60:329-34 pubmed publisher
    To assess the extent of atherothrombosis and the use of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in populations from the Middle East, we conducted a multicenter study similar to AGATHA (a Global Atherothrombosis Assessment), AGATHA-ME, which ..
  14. Hoffman D, Sadosky A, Alvir J. Cross-national burden of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Pain Pract. 2009;9:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Study sample is: 401 patients (163 in Asia, 110 in Latin America and 128 in the Middle East), mostly female (61%) (+/- standard deviation, SD), age of 57 +/- 10 years...
  15. Najafi I. Peritoneal dialysis in iran and the middle East. Perit Dial Int. 2009;29 Suppl 2:S217-21 pubmed
    The countries of the Middle East have a cumulative population of 261.1 million and a mean gross national income per capita of US$9500...
  16. Wang A, Yu Z, Ding Y. Genetic diversity analysis of wild close relatives of barley from Tibet and the Middle East by ISSR and SSR markers. C R Biol. 2009;332:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..of barley from the Tibet region of China and 45 wild accessions from different countries throughout the Middle East, were carried out using ISSR and SSR markers...
  17. Motlagh B, O DONNELL M, Yusuf S. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the Middle East: a systematic review. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009;16:268-80 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of key cardiovascular risk factors in the Middle East region...
  18. Sugimoto M, Zali M, Yamaoka Y. The association of vacA genotypes and Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases in the Middle East. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..whether these vacA genotypes are associated with the development of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the Middle East. The aim was to identify the prevalence of vacA genotypes in the Middle East and the association with ..
  19. Babaeekho L, Zakeri S, Djadid N. Genetic mapping of the duffy binding protein (DBP) ligand domain of Plasmodium vivax from unstable malaria region in the Middle East. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:112-8 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that to develop polyvalent vaccine against P. vivax infection, it is better to incorporate the common and high prevalent allelic variants of the antigen that were reported from different malaria endemic regions. ..
  20. Engelbrecht J, McDonald E, Gillies J, Jayanty R, Casuccio G, Gertler A. Characterizing mineral dusts and other aerosols from the Middle East--Part 1: ambient sampling. Inhal Toxicol. 2009;21:297-326 pubmed
    ..In all instances, quartz grains had rounded edges and mineral grains were generally coated by clay minerals and iron oxides. ..
  21. Karamustafalioglu O. Major depressive disorder, mental health care, and the use of guidelines in the Middle East. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71 Suppl E1:e07 pubmed publisher
    ..the number of people needing treatment and the number of people receiving treatment for depression in the Middle East. Barriers to mental health care in the region have included the lack of education for primary health care ..
  22. Knowles N, Nazem Shirazi M, Wadsworth J, Swabey K, Stirling J, Statham R, et al. Recent spread of a new strain (A-Iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A in the Middle East. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009;56:157-69 pubmed publisher
    ..of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A responsible for recent FMD outbreaks in the Middle East. Initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from Iran, during 2005 and 2006 this FMDV lineage (proposed ..
  23. Tiller R, De B, Boshra M, Huynh L, Van Ert M, Wagner D, et al. Comparison of two multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis methods for molecular strain typing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from the Middle East. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..melitensis strains. ..
  24. Atinmo T, Mirmiran P, Oyewole O, Belahsen R, Serra Majem L. Breaking the poverty/malnutrition cycle in Africa and the Middle East. Nutr Rev. 2009;67 Suppl 1:S40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although strategies are underway to address certain problems in Africa and the Middle East, much remains to be done...
  25. Khealani B, Wasay M, Saadah M, Sultana E, Mustafa S, Khan F, et al. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a descriptive multicenter study of patients in Pakistan and Middle East. Stroke. 2008;39:2707-11 pubmed publisher
    The natural history, causative factors, and outcomes of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis from Asia and Middle East have not been well described...
  26. McGirk J. Religious leaders key in the Middle East's HIV/AIDS fight. Lancet. 2008;372:279-80 pubmed
  27. Manzini M, Gleason D, Chang B, Hill R, Barry B, Partlow J, et al. Ethnically diverse causes of Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS): FCMD mutations are a more common cause of WWS outside of the Middle East. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:E231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the FCMD gene was a more common cause of WWS than previously expected in the European/American subset of our cohort, including all Ashkenazi Jewish cases, who carried the same founder mutation. ..
  28. Endrikat J, Milchev N, Kapamadzija A, Georgievska J, Gerlinger C, Schmidt W, et al. Bleeding pattern, tolerance and patient satisfaction with a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive evaluated in 3488 women in Europe, the Middle East and Canada. Contraception. 2009;79:428-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to assess the bleeding pattern, tolerance and patient satisfaction associated with an oral contraceptive (OC) containing 3 mg of drospirenone and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol under real-life conditions...
  29. Einollahi B, Taheri S. Renal transplantation practice in Iran and the Middle East: report from Iran and a review of the literature. Ann Transplant. 2008;13:5-14 pubmed
    ..The Iranian transplant program is the most active in the Middle East region in providing equitable, quick, and intermediary-free access to affordable kidney transplantation for ..
  30. Baroncelli G, Bereket A, El Kholy M, Audi L, Cesur Y, Ozkan B, et al. Rickets in the Middle East: role of environment and genetic predisposition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1743-50 pubmed publisher
    The Middle East has a high incidence of rickets, and it is also common in Europe-dwelling children of Middle Eastern origin. The objective of the study was to explore the mechanisms leading to rickets in children of the Middle East...
  31. Masri M, Haberal M, Shaheen F, Stephan A, Ghods A, Al Rohani M, et al. Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation (MESOT) Transplant Registry. Exp Clin Transplant. 2004;2:217-20 pubmed
    ..Costs for transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy are either totally or heavily supported by governmental agencies. ..
  32. Pappas G, Memish Z. Brucellosis in the middle East: a persistent medical, socioeconomic and political issue. J Chemother. 2007;19:243-8 pubmed
    ..In the Middle East, more pronouncedly than elsewhere, brucellosis exhibits significant socioeconomic and political correlations, ..
  33. Quintana Murci L, Chaix R, Wells R, Behar D, Sayar H, Scozzari R, et al. Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:827-45 pubmed
  34. Tanner S, Li Z, Bisson R, Acar C, Oner C, Oner R, et al. Genetically heterogeneous selective intestinal malabsorption of vitamin B12: founder effects, consanguinity, and high clinical awareness explain aggregations in Scandinavia and the Middle East. Hum Mutat. 2004;23:327-33 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in both regions, physician awareness of this disease causes it to be more readily diagnosed than elsewhere; thus, it may well be more common worldwide than previously thought. ..
  35. Akala F, El Saharty S. Public-health challenges in the Middle East and North Africa. Lancet. 2006;367:961-4 pubmed
  36. Elfari M, Schnur L, Strelkova M, Eisenberger C, Jacobson R, Greenblatt C, et al. Genetic and biological diversity among populations of Leishmania major from Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:93-103 pubmed
    ..Rhombomys opimus, and fat sand rats, Psammomys obesus, are the main reservoir hosts in Central Asia and the Middle East, respectively...
  37. Brown I, Banks J, Manvell R, Essen S, Shell W, Slomka M, et al. Recent epidemiology and ecology of influenza A viruses in avian species in Europe and the Middle East. Dev Biol (Basel). 2006;124:45-50 pubmed
    ..outbreaks of LPAI or HPAI in poultry caused by H5 or H7 viruses in the last eight years in Europe and the Middle East. There appears to be an increased occurrence of such episodes consistent with global trends...
  38. Habibzadeh F. A snapshot of medical journals from the Middle East. Lancet. 2006;367:978 pubmed
  39. Galal O. Nutrition-related health patterns in the Middle East. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12:337-43 pubmed
    Nutritionally-related health patterns in the Middle East have changed significantly during the last two decades...
  40. Matsuoka H, Jichun W, Hirai M, Yoshida S, Arai M, Ishii A, et al. Two cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Nepalese belonging to the G6PD Mediterranean-type, not India-Pakistan sub-type but Mediterranean-Middle East sub-type. J Hum Genet. 2003;48:275-7 pubmed
    ..replacement pattern of G6PD Mediterranean is described from persons living in Mediterranean countries and Middle East countries. However, G6PD Mediterranean found in India and Pakistan has no replacement at nucleotide 1311...
  41. Maziak W. Health in the middle East. BMJ. 2006;333:815-6 pubmed
  42. Rosenberg N, Mahajan S, Gonzalez Quevedo C, Blum M, Nino Rosales L, Ninis V, et al. Low levels of genetic divergence across geographically and linguistically diverse populations from India. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e215 pubmed
  43. Boy A, Kulczycki A. What we know about intimate partner violence in the Middle East and North Africa. Violence Against Women. 2008;14:53-70 pubmed
    Little is known about intimate partner violence in the Middle East and North Africa. This review synthesizes and critically evaluates the literature...
  44. Gray R, Atkinson Q. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature. 2003;426:435-9 pubmed
    ..These results were robust to changes in coding procedures, calibration points, rooting of the trees and priors in the bayesian analysis. ..
  45. Hamdan M, Defever M, Abdeen Z. Organizing health care within political turmoil: the Palestinian case. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2003;18:63-87 pubmed
    ..The patterns of accessibility to health care services in terms of insurance coverage and provision (physical allocation) of services are discussed. Finally, the major health care policy changes in this transitional period are examined. ..
  46. Lev E. Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:107-18 pubmed
    ..The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton...
  47. Abu Rabia A. Herbs as a food and medicine source in Palestine. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005;6:404-7 pubmed
    ..Their potential application as cancer chemopreventive agents needs to be a focus of research attention. ..
  48. Sadjjadi S. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Parasitol Int. 2006;55 Suppl:S197-202 pubmed
    Echinococcosis is one of the major zoonotic parasitic diseases in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. Both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis has been reported from these areas...
  49. Ramia S, Eid Fares J. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Middle East. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:272-7 pubmed
    ..Accumulated data show that there are two main patterns for the distribution of HCV genotypes in the Middle East: in the first pattern, genotype 4 is prevalent in most of the Arab countries, and in the second pattern, ..
  50. Kislev M, Hartmann A, Bar Yosef O. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Science. 2006;312:1372-4 pubmed
    ..Hence, fig trees could have been the first domesticated plant of the Neolithic Revolution, which preceded cereal domestication by about a thousand years. ..
  51. Abboud O. Incidence, prevalence, and treatment of end-stage renal disease in the Middle East. Ethn Dis. 2006;16:S2-2-4 pubmed
    This article reviews the status of end-stage renal disease in the Middle East, with emphasis on its incidence, prevalence, and treatment...
  52. Giacaman R, Abu Rmeileh N, Wick L. The limitations on choice: Palestinian women's childbirth location, dissatisfaction with the place of birth and determinants. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:86-91 pubmed
    ..These findings need to be taken into consideration when planning for maternity services in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. ..
  53. Cleaton Jones P, Fatti P, Bonecker M. Dental caries trends in 5- to 6-year-old and 11- to 13-year-old children in three UNICEF designated regions--Sub Saharan Africa, Middle East and North Africa, Latin America and Caribbean: 1970-2004. Int Dent J. 2006;56:294-300 pubmed
    ..01 to <0.0001) and period (P<0.05 to <0.0001). The common perception that dental caries rates are increasing in developing countries was not supported in this systematic review. ..
  54. Lindencrona F, Ekblad S, Hauff E. Mental health of recently resettled refugees from the Middle East in Sweden: the impact of pre-resettlement trauma, resettlement stress and capacity to handle stress. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008;43:121-31 pubmed
    ..A person's capacity to handle stress plays significant, direct and mediating roles in both models. The impact of resettlement stressors in the context of the whole migration process for different mental health outcomes is discussed. ..