western asia


Summary: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)

Top Publications

  1. Brown M, Hosseini S, Torroni A, Bandelt H, Allen J, Schurr T, et al. mtDNA haplogroup X: An ancient link between Europe/Western Asia and North America?. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;63:1852-61 pubmed
    ..To date, haplogroup X has not been unambiguously identified in Asia, raising the possibility that some Native American founders were of Caucasian ancestry. ..
  2. Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J, et al. The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:313-32 pubmed
    ..tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup...
  3. Li H, Mukherjee N, Soundararajan U, Tarnok Z, Barta C, Khaliq S, et al. Geographically separate increases in the frequency of the derived ADH1B*47His allele in eastern and western Asia. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:842-6 pubmed
    ..and Southeast Asia and confirm that there is a low frequency of this allele in the region between eastern and western Asia. The distribution suggests that the derived allele increased in frequency independently in western and eastern ..
  4. Quintana Murci L, Chaix R, Wells R, Behar D, Sayar H, Scozzari R, et al. Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:827-45 pubmed
  5. Jeuland M, Cook J, Poulos C, Clemens J, Whittington D. Cost-effectiveness of new-generation oral cholera vaccines: a multisite analysis. Value Health. 2009;12:899-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Once these effects are included, use of the oral killed whole cell vaccine in programs to control endemic cholera meets the per capita GDP criterion in several developing country settings. ..
  6. Jia Q, Hong M, Minter D. Pikuroside: a novel iridoid from Picrorhiza kurroa. J Nat Prod. 1999;62:901-3 pubmed
    ..The structure of 1 was established by interpretation and full assignments of NMR spectral data. Pikuroside (1) had no antiinflammatory activity, although the crude extract and picroside II (3) demonstrated moderate activity. ..
  7. Ameyaw M, Syvanen A, Ulmanen I, Ofori Adjei D, McLeod H. Pharmacogenetics of catechol-O-methyltransferase: frequency of low activity allele in a Ghanaian population. Hum Mutat. 2000;16:445-6 pubmed
  8. Chaudhry S, Fink A, Gelberg L, Brook R. Utilization of papanicolaou smears by South Asian women living in the United States. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18:377-84 pubmed
    ..Marital status, socioeconomic status, and acculturation are all associated with Pap smear receipt. South Asian communities should be targeted for outreach to promote Pap smear utilization. ..
  9. Kulsudjarit K. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1025:446-57 pubmed
    ..Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia. ..

More Information


  1. Leshinsky Silver E, Argov Z, Rozenboim L, Cohen S, Tzofi Z, Cohen Y, et al. Dysferlinopathy in the Jews of the Caucasus: a frequent mutation in the dysferlin gene. Neuromuscul Disord. 2007;17:950-4 pubmed
    ..These findings are important for genetic counseling and also enable a molecular diagnosis of LGMD2B in Jews of the Caucasus region. ..
  2. Morris Cunnington M, Edmunds W, Miller E. Immunity and exposure to hepatitis A virus in pre-adolescent children from a multi-ethnic inner city area. Commun Dis Public Health. 2004;7:134-7 pubmed
    ..Association with the place of birth of the child, but not that of the parent indicates that infection within this group occurs mainly abroad. Larger studies among ethnic minority groups are needed to investigate this claim further. ..
  3. Patel J, Sosin M, Lim H, Chung I, Panja N, Davis R, et al. Raised leptin concentrations among South Asian patients with chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2007;122:34-40 pubmed
    ..01). Metabolic abnormalities are present in CHF, which in turn, are influenced by ethnicity. The role of adipocytokines in CHF pathophysiology and prognosis merits further study. ..
  4. Sachdev P, Chapman S. Availability of smokeless tobacco products in South Asian grocery shops in Sydney, 2004. Med J Aust. 2005;183:334 pubmed
  5. Senarath U, Gunawardena N. Women's autonomy in decision making for health care in South Asia. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2009;21:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Rural and poor women were less likely to be involved in decision making than urban or rich women. ..
  6. Tariq S, Edwards S, Nalabanda A, Ward H, Allen E, Fenton K, et al. Sexual health services for South Asians in London, UK: a case-control study. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:563-4 pubmed
    ..South Asians were significantly more likely than controls to have been referred by other medical services rather than self-referred (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.32, 3.01), which is in keeping with poorer access to GU medicine services in London. ..
  7. Jayasinghe S. Poverty, inequality and health: issues relevant to South Asia. Ceylon Med J. 2005;50:80-3 pubmed
  8. Brown T, Jones M, Powell W, Allaby R. The complex origins of domesticated crops in the Fertile Crescent. Trends Ecol Evol. 2009;24:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the evidence that has prompted this reevaluation of the origins of domesticated crops in the Fertile Crescent and highlight the impact that this new multiregional model is having on modern breeding programmes. ..
  9. Worth A, Irshad T, Bhopal R, Brown D, Lawton J, Grant E, et al. Vulnerability and access to care for South Asian Sikh and Muslim patients with life limiting illness in Scotland: prospective longitudinal qualitative study. BMJ. 2009;338:b183 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving access to palliative care for all, particularly those with non-malignant illnesses, as well as focusing on the specific needs of ethnic minority groups, is required. ..
  10. Allison T, Symmons D, Brammah T, Haynes P, Rogers A, Roxby M, et al. Musculoskeletal pain is more generalised among people from ethnic minorities than among white people in Greater Manchester. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:151-6 pubmed
    ..This may reflect social, cultural, and psychological differences. The cause of the differences in the profile of pain and the health needs that follow need further investigation. ..
  11. Huda S. Sex trafficking in South Asia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;94:374-81 pubmed
    ..Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions. ..
  12. Al Kuwari M. Epidemiology of imported malaria in Qatar. J Travel Med. 2009;16:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This group should be targeted by malaria prevention programs. ..
  13. Farrant A. Fighting back. Nurs Stand. 2003;17:20-1 pubmed
  14. Valerio L, Milozzi J, Figueredo A, Reina M, Martínez Cuevas O, Pérez Quilez O. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in young Asian Indian immigrants in Santa Coloma de Gramenet (Spain)]. Med Clin (Barc). 2006;126:53-6 pubmed
    ..In spite of this, these differences are not totally conclusive in statistical terms; further studies are needed to compare both populations. ..
  15. Srivastava R. South Asian health: what is to be done? Educated people should be champions. BMJ. 2004;328:838 pubmed
  16. Karlsen S, Nazroo J. Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:624-31 pubmed
    ..The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. ..
  17. De Meyer M, Robertson M, Mansell M, Ekesi S, Tsuruta K, Mwaiko W, et al. Ecological niche and potential geographic distribution of the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera, Tephritidae). Bull Entomol Res. 2010;100:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Field observations in Benin and Tanzania confirm relationships between seasonal occurrences of this species and humidity and temperature...
  18. Guha Sapir D, Panhuis W. Conflict-related mortality: an analysis of 37 datasets. Disasters. 2004;28:418-28 pubmed
    ..Although not entirely new, this observation is not fully understood. Further systematic epidemiological research is needed to estimate and understand the impact of armed conflict on mortality. ..
  19. Bakewell A, Higgins R, Edmunds M. Nutrition, adequacy of dialysis, and clinical outcome in Indo-Asian and White European patients on peritoneal dialysis. QJM. 2002;95:811-20 pubmed
    ..Interventions are needed to improve nutritional status in these patients, particularly the Indo-Asian patients. The long-term impact of worse social deprivation and lower transplant rates in Indo-Asians needs to be investigated further. ..
  20. Grewal S, Bottorff J, Hilton B. The influence of family on immigrant South Asian women's health. J Fam Nurs. 2005;11:242-63 pubmed
    ..Health care for immigrant South Asian women needs to take into account women's relationships with family members and the influence of family on women's health. ..
  21. Kain K, Young J, Bamford J, Bavington J, Grant P, Catto A. Determinants of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in South Asians with ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2002;14:77-83 pubmed
    ..Regression analysis with significant correlates in the model demonstrated age, gender and triglycerides in patients and fasting insulin and HDL cholesterol in reference subjects as independent predictors of PAI-1 antigen. ..
  22. Torroni A, Bandelt H, Macaulay V, Richards M, Cruciani F, Rengo C, et al. A signal, from human mtDNA, of postglacial recolonization in Europe. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69:844-52 pubmed
    ..Mass screening of a few markers identified using complete mtDNA sequences promises to be an efficient strategy for inferring features of human prehistory. ..
  23. Ahmad W, Atkin K, Jones L. Being deaf and being other things: young Asian people negotiating identities. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55:1757-69 pubmed
    ..Instead, young people's identifications were multiple, complex and contingent. However, resources and structures remained important for identifications to be cultivated and gaining legitimisation. ..
  24. Burr J. Cultural stereotypes of women from South Asian communities: mental health care professionals' explanations for patterns of suicide and depression. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55:835-45 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, it is argued that these stereotypes become incorporated as 'fact' and have the potential to misdirect diagnosis and therefore, also misdirect treatment pathways. ..
  25. Senaratne M, MacDonald K, de Silva D. Possible ethnic differences in plasma homocysteine levels associated with coronary artery disease between south Asian and east Asian immigrants. Clin Cardiol. 2001;24:730-4 pubmed
    ..The relative contribution of homocysteine in the development of CAD appears to be less in EA immigrants. In contrast, the association between CAD and PH in SA immigrants appears to be similar to that of Caucasians. ..
  26. Osmani S, Sen A. The hidden penalties of gender inequality: fetal origins of ill-health. Econ Hum Biol. 2003;1:105-21 pubmed
    ..Gender inequality thus leads to a double jeopardy-simultaneously aggravating both regimes of diseases and thus raising the economic cost of overlapping health transition. ..
  27. Netto G, McCloughan L, Bhatnagar A. Effective heart disease prevention: lessons from a qualitative study of user perspectives in Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani communities. Public Health. 2007;121:177-86 pubmed
    ..It is important for specific prevention initiatives to be linked into wider CHD frameworks to ensure transferability of learning and integration within wider service provision. ..
  28. Basnyat B. South Asian health: what is to be done? Better understanding is achievable. BMJ. 2004;328:839 pubmed
  29. Karlsen S. 'Black like Beckham'? Moving beyond definitions of ethnicity based on skin colour and ancestry. Ethn Health. 2004;9:107-37 pubmed
    ..This aspect of ethnic affiliation has been ignored by current definitions of ethnicity and this imbalance should be redressed. ..
  30. Malaspina P, Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Torroni A, Pangrazio A, Akar N, et al. Patterns of male-specific inter-population divergence in Europe, West Asia and North Africa. Ann Hum Genet. 2000;64:395-412 pubmed
    ..By sectioning the entire data set according to geographic and linguistic criteria, we found higher Fst-on-distance slopes within Europe than in West Asia or across the two continents. ..
  31. Ivandic V, Hackett C, Nevo E, Keith R, Thomas W, Forster B. Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in wild barley from the Fertile Crescent: associations with ecology, geography and flowering time. Plant Mol Biol. 2002;48:511-27 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the analyses of SSR variation by allele class and repeat length are complementary, and that some SSRs are not necessarily selectively neutral. ..
  32. Abbas B, Agab H. A review of camel brucellosis. Prev Vet Med. 2002;55:47-56 pubmed
    ..We suggest whole-herd vaccination in low-prevalence countries and test-and-slaughter followed by vaccination in high-prevalence countries. ..
  33. Padma T. Tsunami aid spending draws fire over public health. Nat Med. 2005;11:237 pubmed
  34. Heymann D, Aylward R. Eradicating polio. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1275-7 pubmed
  35. Anees K, Bedi R, Rule D, Lewsey J. Perceptions of vocational trainees on gender and racial disadvantage within the Thames vocational training programme. Br Dent J. 2001;191:208-12 pubmed
    ..It is clear that the perception of disadvantage is greater than the reality within the experience of most trainees. ..
  36. Molzahn A, Starzomski R, McDonald M, O Loughlin C. Indo-Canadian beliefs regarding organ donation. Prog Transplant. 2005;15:233-9 pubmed
    ..Beliefs varied considerably among participants, and one should not make assumptions about the beliefs of any one individual based primarily on that individual's membership in an ethnocultural community. ..
  37. Mahajan K. South Asian health: what is to be done? Amalgamation of South Asia's medical community will benefit all. BMJ. 2004;328:837 pubmed
  38. Ahmed M, Raja A, Nundy S. Surgery in South Asia. BMJ. 2004;328:782 pubmed
  39. Pollard T, Carlin L, Bhopal R, Unwin N, White M, Fischbacher C. Social networks and coronary heart disease risk factors in South Asians and Europeans in the UK. Ethn Health. 2003;8:263-75 pubmed
    ..Future work should acknowledge variation in sources of social support between ethnic groups, and should explore the possibility that different mechanisms link social support and health in different ethnic groups. ..
  40. Ng C, Northcott H, Abu Laban S. Housing and living arrangements of Western Asian immigrant seniors in Edmonton, Alberta. Can J Aging. 2007;26:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Most respondents were satisfied with their living arrangements, housing, and perceived safety at home and in their neighbourhood. Theoretical implications are discussed. ..
  41. Lanktree M, Anand S, Yusuf S, Hegele R. Comprehensive analysis of genomic variation in the LPA locus and its relationship to plasma lipoprotein(a) in South Asians, Chinese, and European Caucasians. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, both SNPs and KIV-2 copy number should be included in future genetic epidemiology studies of Lp(a). ..
  42. Mukherjee N, Nebel A, Oppenheim A, Majumder P. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India. J Genet. 2001;80:125-35 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India. ..
  43. Guerin P, Olliaro P, Sundar S, Boelaert M, Croft S, Desjeux P, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:494-501 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the current situation and perspectives for diagnosis, treatment, and control of visceral leishmaniasis, and lists some priorities for research and development. ..
  44. Aspinall P. Who is Asian? A category that remains contested in population and health research. J Public Health Med. 2003;25:91-7 pubmed
  45. Apanaskevich D. [Differentiation of closely related species Hyalomma anatolicum and H. excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on a study of all life cycle stages, throughout entire geographical range]. Parazitologiia. 2003;37:259-80 pubmed
    ..excavatum parasitize smaller mammals (rodents, hares); presence of sympatry areas: almost entire area of H. excavatum include in area of H. anatolicum and cattle help to mix its populations. ..
  46. Quinn G. Diabetes in South Asian communities. Nurs Stand. 2006;20:67 pubmed
  47. Lovejoy N, Mullen S, Sword G, Chapman R, Harrison R. Ancient trans-Atlantic flight explains locust biogeography: molecular phylogenetics of Schistocerca. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:767-74 pubmed
    ..Schistocerca gregaria occurs throughout Africa, the Middle East and Western Asia, but all other species in the genus Schistocerca are found in the New World. Because S...
  48. Mullan F. The metrics of the physician brain drain. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1810-8 pubmed
    ..Reliance on international medical graduates in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia is reducing the supply of physicians in many lower-income countries. ..
  49. Dale J, Al Ghusein H, Al Hashmi S, Butcher P, Dickens A, Drobniewski F, et al. Evolutionary relationships among strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with few copies of IS6110. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2555-62 pubmed
    ..These lineages appear to be quite distinct from M. tuberculosis isolates with multiple copies of IS6110. ..
  50. Maca Meyer N, Gonzalez A, Pestano J, Flores C, Larruga J, Cabrera V. Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography. BMC Genet. 2003;4:15 pubmed
    ..The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent. ..
  51. Parmar M. South Asian health: what is to be done? Peace is a must. BMJ. 2004;328:838 pubmed
  52. Corlett R. Frugivory and seed dispersal by vertebrates in the Oriental (Indomalayan) Region. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 1998;73:413-48 pubmed
    ..Larger, bigger-seeded fruits are consumed by progressively fewer dispersers, and the largest depend on a few species of mammals and birds which are highly vulnerable to hunting, fragmentation and habitat loss. ..
  53. Chan E, Ahmed T, Wang M, Chan J. History of medicine and nephrology in Asia. Am J Nephrol. 1994;14:295-301 pubmed
    ..Throughout these eras, Chinese medicine profited from contact with western Asia. In ancient Chinese medicine, the excretory function of the kidney was attributed to the bladder...