Summary: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)

Top Publications

  1. Ti T, Lwin T, Mar T, Maung W, Noe P, Htun A, et al. National anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey, 2002, in Myanmar. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:1111-6 pubmed
    Thirty townships of Myanmar. To determine the proportions of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in new and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in Myanmar. A cross-sectional study...
  2. Smithuis F, Shahmanesh M, Kyaw M, Savran O, Lwin S, White N. Comparison of chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine and mefloquine-artesunate for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Kachin State, North Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:1184-90 pubmed
    ..In Kachin State, northern Myanmar, an area of low seasonal malaria transmission, the efficacy of CQ (25 mg base/kg) and SP (1...
  3. Shinji T, Kyaw Y, Gokan K, Tanaka Y, Ochi K, Kusano N, et al. Analysis of HCV genotypes from blood donors shows three new HCV type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar. Acta Med Okayama. 2004;58:135-42 pubmed
    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Myanmar in comparison with the rest of Southeast Asia is not well known...
  4. Parry J. Global Fund withdraws grants to Myanmar. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83:724-5 pubmed
  5. Kemmer T, Bovill M, Kongsomboon W, Hansch S, Geisler K, Cheney C, et al. Iron deficiency is unacceptably high in refugee children from Burma. J Nutr. 2003;133:4143-9 pubmed
    ..A comprehensive nutrition and public health-focused approach to combating anemia and ID is essential. Following the presentation of results to policy makers, the improvement of the micronutrient content of rations has been initiated. ..
  6. Parola P, Sanogo O, Lerdthusnee K, Zeaiter Z, Chauvancy G, Gonzalez J, et al. Identification of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in ffrom the Thai-Myanmar border. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:173-81 pubmed
    During a survey for possible rickettsial vectors in villages of the central part of the Thai-Myanmar border from September 2001 to February 2002, four species of fleas were collected from common peridomestic animals...
  7. Casson R, Newland H, Muecke J, McGovern S, Abraham L, Shein W, et al. Prevalence of glaucoma in rural Myanmar: the Meiktila Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:710-4 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in the Meiktila district of central, rural Myanmar. A cross-sectional, population-based survey of inhabitants > or =40 years of age from villages in Meiktila district, Myanmar, was performed; ..
  8. Moon S, Na B, Kang J, Kim J, Cho S, Park Y, et al. Genetic polymorphism and effect of natural selection at domain I of apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Myanmar. Acta Trop. 2010;114:71-5 pubmed publisher
    Malaria is endemic or hypoendemic in Myanmar and the country still contributes to the high level of malaria deaths in South-East Asia...
  9. Athanasiov P, Casson R, Sullivan T, Newland H, Shein W, Muecke J, et al. Cataract in rural Myanmar: prevalence and risk factors from the Meiktila Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1169-74 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cataracts in a rural region of central Myanmar. A cross-sectional, population-based survey of inhabitants >or=40 years of age from villages of central Myanmar; 2076 participated, and ..

Scientific Experts

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  1. Cho Min Naing -, Gatton M. Performance appraisal of rapid on-site malaria diagnosis (ICT malaria Pf/Pv test) in relation to human resources at village level in Myanmar. Acta Trop. 2002;81:13-9 pubmed microscopic confirmation of symptomatic diagnosis of malaria in many rural areas in endemic countries such as Myanmar. A study was conducted to evaluate a rapid on-site immunochromatographic test (ICT Malaria Pf/Pv) for detection ..
  2. Parola P, Miller R, McDaniel P, Telford S, Rolain J, Wongsrichanalai C, et al. Emerging rickettsioses of the Thai-Myanmar border. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:592-5 pubmed
    To investigate the presence of rickettsioses in rural residents of the central Thai-Myanmar border, we tested the blood of 46 patients with fever...
  3. Swaddiwudhipong W, Ngamsaithong C, Peanumlom P, Hannarong S. An outbreak of cholera among migrants living in a Thai-Myanmar border area. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:1433-40 pubmed
    To study epidemiologic characteristics of a cholera outbreak involving mainly Myanmar migrants living in overcrowded conditions with poor sanitation in a Thai-Myanmar border district, in 2007...
  4. Mohapatra P, Namchoom N, Prakash A, Bhattacharya D, Goswami B, Mahanta J. Therapeutic efficacy of anti-malarials in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an Indo-Myanmar border area of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J Med Res. 2003;118:71-6 pubmed
    ..S-P) and quinine, administered sequentially to the patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection in a Myanmar bordering area of Arunachal Pradesh...
  5. Mya M, Saxena R, Soe P. Study of malaria in a village of lower Myanmar. Indian J Malariol. 2002;39:96-102 pubmed
    Malaria endemicity in lower Myanmar has been studied to identify the causes for the prevalence of malaria in Yeasitkan village of lower Myanmar...
  6. Beyrer C, Suwanvanichkij V, Mullany L, Richards A, Franck N, Samuels A, et al. Responding to AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and emerging infectious diseases in Burma: dilemmas of policy and practice. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e393 pubmed
  7. Erhart L, Yingyuen K, Chuanak N, Buathong N, Laoboonchai A, Miller R, et al. Hematologic and clinical indices of malaria in a semi-immune population of western Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:8-14 pubmed
    ..vivax infection in Maesod on Thailand's western border with Myanmar compared with febrile, non-parasitemic persons also reporting to malaria clinics...
  8. Hasegawa G, Kyaw Y, Danjuan L, Saito R, Suzuki H, Cho T, et al. Influenza virus infections in Yangon, Myanmar. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:233-4 pubmed
  9. Gunawardena S, Karunaweera N, Ferreira M, Phone Kyaw M, Pollack R, Alifrangis M, et al. Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers...
  10. Win N, Lwin A, Oo M, Aye K, Soe S, Okada S. Hemoglobin E prevalence in malaria-endemic villages in Myanmar. Acta Med Okayama. 2005;59:63-6 pubmed
    The population of Myanmar comprises 8 major indigenous races (Bamar, Kayin, Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Mon, Chin, and Kayah)...
  11. Matsuoka H, Wang J, Hirai M, Arai M, Yoshida S, Kobayashi T, et al. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mutations in Myanmar: G6PD Mahidol (487G>A) is the most common variant in the Myanmar population. J Hum Genet. 2004;49:544-7 pubmed
    We conducted a survey of malaria diagnoses and treatments in remote areas of Myanmar. Blood specimens from more than 1,000 people were collected by the finger-prick method, and 121 (11%) of these people were found to be glucose-6-..
  12. Guha Sapir D, Vogt F. Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar: lessons for public health preparedness for cyclones. Am J Disaster Med. 2009;4:273-8 pubmed
    Recent natural disasters such as the 2004 tsunami, 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and the 2008 Myanmar cyclone have killed more than 100,000 people each...
  13. MacKinnon A, McCallum J, Andrews G, Anderson I. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in older community samples in Indonesia, North Korea, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1998;53:P343-52 pubmed
    ..Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in five Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand...
  14. Soe Soe -, Khin Saw Aye -, Htay Aung -, Nay Win -, Tin Aung -, Than Swe -, et al. Premunition against Plasmodium falciparum in a malaria hyperendemic village in Myanmar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:81-4 pubmed
    ..In order to elucidate this question, a longitudinal study was undertaken in Oo-Do, a malaria endemic village in Myanmar [Burma] in 1995-97. Only 2 species, Plasmodium falciparum and P...
  15. Nuchprayoon I, Louicharoen C, Charoenvej W. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations in Mon and Burmese of southern Myanmar. J Hum Genet. 2008;53:48-54 pubmed
    ..G6PD mutations are associated with specific ethnic groups in Southeast Asia. Mon is a minority ethnic group in Myanmar, which speaks Monic, a distinct language of Mon-Khmer classification...
  16. Ellis R, Fukuda M, McDaniel P, Welch K, Nisalak A, Murray C, et al. Causes of fever in adults on the Thai-Myanmar border. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:108-13 pubmed
    A hospital-based study was conducted along the Thai-Myanmar border to provide greater knowledge of the causes of febrile illness and to determine what zoonotic and vector-borne emerging infectious diseases might be present...
  17. Wuthiekanun V, Langa S, Swaddiwudhipong W, Jedsadapanpong W, Kaengnet Y, Chierakul W, et al. Short report: Melioidosis in Myanmar: forgotten but not gone?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:945-6 pubmed
    A serologic survey of adults resident in Myanmar was conducted to define the presence of antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of melioidosis...
  18. Henning J, Khin A, Hla T, Meers J. Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2006;38:611-8 pubmed
    ..involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay ..
  19. Durkin S, Casson R, Newland H, Aung T, Shein W, Muecke J, et al. Prevalence of trachoma-related trichiasis and corneal opacity in rural Myanmar: the Meiktila Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:e7-11 pubmed
    To describe the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity (CO) within central Myanmar.
  20. Montresor A, Zin T, Padmasiri E, Allen H, Savioli L. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar and approximate costs for countrywide control. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:1012-5 pubmed
    Previous surveys in Myanmar indicate that soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are a significant public health problem. However the majority of these surveys are small scale or hospital based...
  21. Win N, Harano T, Harano K, Myint T, Mra R, Okada S, et al. A wider molecular spectrum of beta-thalassaemia in Myanmar. Br J Haematol. 2002;117:988-92 pubmed
    Two hundred and nine beta-thalassaemia (beta-Thal) alleles of 158 unrelated Myanmar patients (107 HbE-beta-Thal; 51 beta-Thal major) were analysed for beta-globin gene mutations...
  22. Attlmayr B, Kollaritsch H, Wernsdorfer W, Miller R, Sirichaisinthop J, Noedl H. Drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border using the new field-deployable HRP2 in vitro assay. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005;117 Suppl 4:35-8 pubmed
    ..The HRP2 field test was found to be highly sensitive and simple enough to be entirely performed in the field. ..
  23. Moon S, Lee H, Kim J, Na B, Cho S, Lin K, et al. High frequency of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax field isolates in Myanmar. Acta Trop. 2009;109:30-6 pubmed publisher
    Malaria is one of the most serious problems threatening human health in Myanmar. Although the morbidity and mortality rates due to malaria have been gradually declining, Myanmar still contributes to a large proportion of malarial death ..
  24. Mullany L, Richards A, Lee C, Suwanvanichkij V, Maung C, Mahn M, et al. Population-based survey methods to quantify associations between human rights violations and health outcomes among internally displaced persons in eastern Burma. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61:908-14 pubmed
    ..Population-level associations can be quantified using standard epidemiological methods. This approach requires further validation and refinement elsewhere. ..
  25. Bajracharya D. Myanmar experiences in sanitation and hygiene promotion: lessons learned and future directions. Int J Environ Health Res. 2003;13 Suppl 1:S141-52 pubmed
    ..This approach will contribute further towards improved hygienic practices and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality. ..
  26. Panvisavas S. Poverty and malaria: a study in a Thai-Myanmar border area. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001;32:608-14 pubmed
    ..was conducted in 1999 in four villages of Bong Tee subdistrict, Kanchanaburi Province located along the Thai-Myanmar border area using in-depth interviews of key informants and malaria survey as research methodologies...
  27. Li F, Awale S, Tezuka Y, Kadota S. Cytotoxic constituents of propolis from Myanmar and their structure-activity relationship. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:2075-8 pubmed
    ..cycloartane-type tritepenes (1-13) and four prenylated flavanones (14-17) isolated from propolis collected in Myanmar, were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of six different cancer cell lines; three murine ..
  28. Athanasiov P, Casson R, Newland H, Shein W, Muecke J, Selva D, et al. Cataract surgical coverage and self-reported barriers to cataract surgery in a rural Myanmar population. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:521-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the barriers to cataract surgery as reported by those with cataract-induced visual impairment in rural Myanmar. A cross-sectional, population-based survey of inhabitants 40 years of age and over from villages in the Meiktila ..
  29. Oo T, Storch V, Becker N. Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles dirus (Culicidae: Diptera) in Mudon, Mon State, Myanmar. J Vector Ecol. 2002;27:44-54 pubmed
    ..some environmental factors influencing the larval habitats of Anopheles dirus (breeding in wells) in Mudon, Myanmar, from May 1998 to March 2000...
  30. Motomura K, Kusagawa S, Lwin H, Thwe M, Kato K, Oishi K, et al. Different subtype distributions in two cities in Myanmar: evidence for independent clusters of HIV-1 transmission. AIDS. 2003;17:633-6 pubmed
    A molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted in two major cities in Myanmar (Yangon and Mandalay)...
  31. Nuchprayoon S, Porksakorn C, Junpee A, Sanprasert V, Poovorawan Y. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2003;21:253-7 pubmed ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study...
  32. Maung M, Kluge H, Aye T, Maung W, Noe P, Zaw M, et al. Private GPs contribute to TB control in Myanmar: evaluation of a PPM initiative in Mandalay Division. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:982-7 pubmed
    Mandalay Division, Myanmar. To assess the effect of an initiative to involve private general practitioners (GPs) in the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) and to identify lessons learnt for public-private mix scale-up...
  33. Hatabu T, Kawazu S, Kojima S, Sato K, Singhasivanon P, Looareesuwan S, et al. In vitro susceptibility and genetic variations for chloroquine and mefloquine in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thai-Myanmar border. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36 Suppl 4:73-9 pubmed
    ..falciparum isolates from the Thai-Myanmar border area...
  34. Dapat C, Saito R, Kyaw Y, Naito M, Hasegawa G, Suzuki Y, et al. Epidemiology of human influenza A and B viruses in Myanmar from 2005 to 2007. Intervirology. 2009;52:310-20 pubmed publisher
    To perform genetic analysis of influenza A and B viruses in Myanmar from 2005 to 2007 and to determine the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses...
  35. Intarapuk A, Kalambaheti T, Thammapalerd N, Mahannop P, Kaewsatien P, Bhumiratana A, et al. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR assay of fecal specimens obtained from Thai/Myanmar border region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:425-34 pubmed
    ..suspected Entamoeba cells were detected in 30 out of 455 fecal samples obtained from individuals residing at Thai/Myanmar border region...
  36. Richards A, Banek K, Mullany L, Lee C, Smith L, Oo E, et al. Cross-border malaria control for internally displaced persons: observational results from a pilot programme in eastern Burma/Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:512-21 pubmed publisher based integrated malaria control programme implemented by internally displaced persons in eastern Burma/Myanmar. This pilot study was conducted from February 2003 through January 2005 in seven villages of displaced ethnic ..
  37. Ool T, Storch V, Becker N. Review of the anopheline mosquitoes of Myanmar. J Vector Ecol. 2004;29:21-40 pubmed
    This study examined the species of anopheline mosquitoes in Myanmar. Out of 36 species of anophelines distributed throughout the country, ten species were found to be infected with the malaria parasite...
  38. Wu H, Gupta A, Newland H, Selva D, Aung T, Casson R. Association between stature, ocular biometry and refraction in an adult population in rural Myanmar: the Meiktila eye study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;35:834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cross-sectional ophthalmic survey of 2418 adults (> or = 40 years old) living in the rural villages in central Myanmar, height and weight were measured using a standardized protocol, and body mass index was calculated...
  39. Soe S, Theisen M, Roussilhon C, Aye K, Druilhe P. Association between protection against clinical malaria and antibodies to merozoite surface antigens in an area of hyperendemicity in Myanmar: complementarity between responses to merozoite surface protein 3 and the 220-kilodalton glutamate-rich prot. Infect Immun. 2004;72:247-52 pubmed
    ..The complementarity of the responses to the two main targets of antibody-dependent cellular inhibition identified to date provides the first rational basis for combining these two antigens in a hybrid vaccine formulation. ..
  40. Imwong M, Pukrittayakamee S, Pongtavornpinyo W, Nakeesathit S, Nair S, Newton P, et al. Gene amplification of the multidrug resistance 1 gene of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2657-9 pubmed publisher
    ..02). Five coding mutations in pvmdr1, independent of gene amplification, were also found. ..
  41. Win T, Lin K, Mizuno S, Zhou M, Liu Q, Ferreira M, et al. Wide distribution of Plasmodium ovale in Myanmar. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7:231-9 pubmed
    The presence of Plasmodium ovale has never been previously reported in Myanmar. Using blood samples obtained in many villages across the country between 1996 and 2000, molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium species was made with semi- or full-..
  42. Cho Min Naing -, Lertmaharit S, Kamol ratanakul P, Saul A. Ex post and ex ante willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit in Myanmar. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2000;31:104-11 pubmed
    ..Pf/Pv test kit was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in two villages in Myanmar. Kankone (KK) village has a rural health center (RHC) and Yae-Aye-Sann (YAS) is serviced by community health ..
  43. Petersen H, Worm L, Olsen M, Ussing B, Hartling O. Human rights violations in Burma/Myanmar. A two year follow-up examination. Dan Med Bull. 2000;47:359-63 pubmed
    The aim was to describe recent exposure to human rights violations among refugees from Burma/Myanmar. The study includes the Mon people, an ethnic group whose human rights situation hitherto has not been documented thoroughly...
  44. Reichart P, Way T. Oral cancer and pre-cancer in Myanmar: a short review. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:193-6 pubmed
    Cancer in Myanmar is one of the 10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In 1974, the Yangon Cancer Registry was established. From 1974 to 2001 a total of 85 298 cancer cases were registered...
  45. Oo T, Kaiser A, Becker N. Illustrated keys to the anopheline mosquitoes of Myanmar. J Vector Ecol. 2006;31:9-16 pubmed
    ..and illustrated keys to 4th instar larvae and adult female mosquitoes, the following 36 Anopheles species from Myanmar are included: Anopheles aconitus, An. aitkenii, An. annularis, An. argyropus, An. barbirostris, An...
  46. Prazuck T, Falconi I, Morineau G, Bricard Pacaud V, Lecomte A, Ballereau F. Quality control of antibiotics before the implementation of an STD program in Northern Myanmar. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:624-7 pubmed
    ..recommended for treatment of STDs that were locally available in the capital of a province of Northern Myanmar. In addition to the hospital pharmacy, we selected at random 5 of the 41 drug sellers and 5 of the 40 general ..
  47. Hebert K. Global Fund to give a 7m dollars grant to Myanmar to combat tuberculosis. BMJ. 2004;329:420 pubmed
  48. Ejov M, Tun T, Aung S, Lwin S, Sein K. Hospital-based study of severe malaria and associated deaths in Myanmar. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:310-4 pubmed
    ..factors that contribute to malaria deaths in township hospitals reporting large numbers of such deaths in Myanmar. Between July and December 1995, we identified a total of 101 patients with severe and complicated malaria by ..
  49. Li F, Awale S, Zhang H, Tezuka Y, Esumi H, Kadota S. Chemical constituents of propolis from Myanmar and their preferential cytotoxicity against a human pancreatic cancer cell line. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1283-7 pubmed publisher
    A methanolic extract of propolis obtained in Myanmar was found to inhibit PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells preferentially under nutrient-deprived conditions (NDM), with a PC(50) value of 9.3 microg/mL...
  50. Warrier S, Wu H, Newland H, Muecke J, Selva D, Aung T, et al. Ocular biometry and determinants of refractive error in rural Myanmar: the Meiktila Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1591-4 pubmed publisher
    To describe the ocular biometry and determinants of refractive error in an adult population in Myanmar. A cross-sectional, population-based survey of the inhabitants 40 years of age and over from villages in the Meiktila District was ..
  51. Awale S, Tezuka Y, Banskota A, Kouda K, Tun K, Kadota S. Five novel highly oxygenated diterpenes of Orthosiphon stamineus from Myanmar. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:592-6 pubmed
    ..All the isolated compounds showed mild to weak antiproliferative activities toward highly liver metastatic colon 26-L5 carcinoma and human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell lines. ..
  52. Stover E, Vinck P. Cyclone Nargis and the politics of relief and reconstruction aid in Burma (Myanmar). JAMA. 2008;300:729-31 pubmed publisher
  53. Nagatsuka Y, Kawasaki H, Seki T. Pichia myanmarensis sp. nov., a novel cation-tolerant yeast isolated from palm sugar in Myanmar. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:1379-82 pubmed
    ..The type strain is M21(T) (= NBRC 11090(T) = JCM 12922(T) = CBS 9786(T)). ..