far east


Summary: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.

Top Publications

  1. Tan C, Shinfuku N, Sim K. Psychotropic prescription practices in east Asia: looking back and peering ahead. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21:645-50 pubmed publisher
  2. Sobao Y, Sugi K, Tomiyama H, Saito S, Fujiyama S, Morimoto M, et al. Identification of hepatitis B virus-specific CTL epitopes presented by HLA-A*2402, the most common HLA class I allele in East Asia. J Hepatol. 2001;34:922-9 pubmed
    ..Because HLA-A*2402 is the most common allele in East Asia, a region in which there are approximately 200 million HBV carriers, these epitopes will be useful for analysis of CTL responses in patients from East Asia. ..
  3. Huang S, Hwang S, Lin T. Spatial pattern of chloroplast DNA variation of Cyclobalanopsis glauca in Taiwan and East Asia. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:2349-58 pubmed
    ..A neutrality test also suggested a demographic expansion recovered from a bottleneck. We therefore inferred that the southeastern part of Taiwan might be a potential refugium for C. glauca. ..
  4. Rees C, Wearn A, Vnuk A, Bradley P. Don't want to show fellow students my naughty bits: medical students' anxieties about peer examination of intimate body regions at six schools across UK, Australasia and Far-East Asia. Med Teach. 2009;31:921-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further qualitative research is needed employing interviews to explore in depth students' anxieties about examinations of intimate body regions and how their views are shaped by interactions with peers, patients and doctors. ..
  5. Jin L, Su B. Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east Asia. Nat Rev Genet. 2000;1:126-33 pubmed
    ..The genetic signatures present in diverse East Asian populations mark the footsteps of prehistoric migrations that occurred tens of thousands of years ago. ..
  6. Yang C. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC in East Asia: present and future. Lung Cancer. 2008;60 Suppl 2:S23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the presence of EGFR mutations is a useful tool to determine NSCLC patients' prognosis; some studies suggested that this may apply if patients are receiving first-line chemotherapy, not only if they are receiving EGFR-TKIs. ..
  7. Hirabayashi Y, Katanoda K. Comparison of time trends in multiple myeloma incidence (1973-1997) in East Asia, Europe and United States, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vols IV-VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:720-1 pubmed publisher
  8. Lu H, Zhang J, Liu K, Wu N, Li Y, Zhou K, et al. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought...
  9. Zhou W, Yamazaki S, Yamakawa A, Ohtani M, Ito Y, Keida Y, et al. The diversity of vacA and cagA genes of Helicobacter pylori in East Asia. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004;40:81-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a distinct distribution of the vacA and cagA genotypes is present in East Asia, regardless of clinical outcome. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Hongo M, Shoji T. Epidemiology of reflux disease and CLE in East Asia. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38 Suppl 15:25-30 pubmed
    ..Further observation is required because the prevalence of reflux esophagitis is increasing in Japan and East Asia. ..
  2. Iwata N, Buka S. Race/ethnicity and depressive symptoms: a cross-cultural/ethnic comparison among university students in East Asia, North and South America. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55:2243-52 pubmed
    ..e., the expression of positive affect might be enhanced in North American culture, while inhibited in Japanese culture. ..
  3. Karafet T, Xu L, Du R, Wang W, Feng S, Wells R, et al. Paternal population history of East Asia: sources, patterns, and microevolutionary processes. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69:615-28 pubmed
  4. Chong M, Tan C, Fujii S, Yang S, Ungvari G, Si T, et al. Antipsychotic drug prescription for schizophrenia in East Asia: rationale for change. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;58:61-7 pubmed
    ..The pattern of antipsychotic medication use varied from country to country and is likely to be influenced by the prevailing health-care system, the availability and cost of the drugs. ..
  5. Xu J, Hoshida Y, Yang W, Inohara H, Kubo T, Kim G, et al. Life-style and environmental factors in the development of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma: a case-control study in East Asia. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:406-10 pubmed
    ..Exposure to pesticides and chemical solvents could be causative of NKTCL. Taken together, life-style and environmental factors might be risk factors for NKTCL...
  6. Nabeshima T, Loan H, Inoue S, Sumiyoshi M, Haruta Y, Nga P, et al. Evidence of frequent introductions of Japanese encephalitis virus from south-east Asia and continental east Asia to Japan. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data suggests that the JEVs that have remained or are circulating in Japan include a mixture of viruses that have previously migrated from south-east and continental east Asian countries. ..
  7. Masuzawa T. Terrestrial distribution of the Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in East Asia. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:229-35 pubmed
    ..It is believed that these molecular epidemiological surveys will provide useful information for the diagnoses and prevention of Lyme borreliosis in these countries...
  8. Hopkins S. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis. Health Policy. 2006;75:347-57 pubmed
    ..The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health. ..
  9. Harrison W, Marshall T. The epidemiology of blood pressure in East Asia. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:97-9 pubmed
  10. Saika K, Matsuda T. Comparison of time trends in gallbladder cancer incidence (1973-1997) in East Asia, Europe and the USA, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vols IV-VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37:974-6 pubmed publisher
  11. Kariwa H, Yoshimatsu K, Arikawa J. Hantavirus infection in East Asia. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;30:341-56 pubmed
    ..Hantaviruses cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Euro-Asia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. Here, we review the epidemiology and epizootiology of hantavirus infection in Asian countries. ..
  12. Primbs T, Simonich S, Schmedding D, Wilson G, Jaffe D, Takami A, et al. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in spring 2004. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:3551-8 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. ..
  13. Tian C, Kosoy R, Lee A, Ransom M, Belmont J, Gregersen P, et al. Analysis of East Asia genetic substructure using genome-wide SNP arrays. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3862 pubmed publisher
  14. Chan A. Aging in Southeast and East Asia: issues and policy directions. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2005;20:269-84 pubmed
    ..Asian families continue to play a major role in supporting older members, thus policies should focus on enabling Asian families to provide this support. ..
  15. Li H, Gu S, Cai X, Speed W, Pakstis A, Golub E, et al. Ethnic related selection for an ADH Class I variant within East Asia. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1881 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region. The obvious ethnicity-related distributions of ADH1B diversities suggest the existence of some culture-related selective forces that have acted on the ADH1B region. ..
  16. Dib H, Lu S, Wen S. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia with or without diarrhea in South East, South East Asia and the Far East. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..lamblia in South Asia, South East Asia and Far East, characterizing the current endemic situation within these regions...
  17. Watkins W, Rogers A, Ostler C, Wooding S, Bamshad M, Brassington A, et al. Genetic variation among world populations: inferences from 100 Alu insertion polymorphisms. Genome Res. 2003;13:1607-18 pubmed
    ..These analyses also demonstrate that markers with higher F(ST) values have greater resolving power and produce more consistent genetic distance estimates. ..
  18. Xiao W, Zhang Y, Liu H. Molecular systematics of Xenocyprinae (teleostei: cyprinidae): taxonomy, biogeography, and coevolution of a special group restricted in East Asia. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;18:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..From a perspective of parasite investigation, our data suggested that the fauna of Hexamita in Xenocyprinae could be used to infer the phylogeny of their hosts...
  19. Shinohara A, Suzuki H, Tsuchiya K, Zhang Y, Luo J, Jiang X, et al. Evolution and biogeography of talpid moles from continental East Asia and the Japanese islands inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Zoolog Sci. 2004;21:1177-85 pubmed
  20. Chen H, Li Y, Li Z, Shi J, Shinya K, Deng G, et al. Properties and dissemination of H5N1 viruses isolated during an influenza outbreak in migratory waterfowl in western China. J Virol. 2006;80:5976-83 pubmed
  21. Matsuda T, Saika K. Comparison of time trends in testicular cancer incidence (1973-97) in East Asia, Europe and USA, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vols IV-VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:578-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Qiu Y, Sun Y, Zhang X, Lee J, Fu C, Comes H. Molecular phylogeography of East Asian Kirengeshoma (Hydrangeaceae) in relation to quaternary climate change and landbridge configurations. New Phytol. 2009;183:480-95 pubmed publisher
  23. Wada T, Iwamoto T, Maeda S. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family in East Asia revealed through refined population structure analysis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;291:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reflect the singular genetic diversity and the epidemiological pattern of Beijing M. tuberculosis in Japan. ..
  24. Kuno G. Research on dengue and dengue-like illness in East Asia and the Western Pacific during the First Half of the 20th century. Rev Med Virol. 2007;17:327-41 pubmed
  25. Rosenberg N, Mahajan S, Gonzalez Quevedo C, Blum M, Nino Rosales L, Ninis V, et al. Low levels of genetic divergence across geographically and linguistically diverse populations from India. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e215 pubmed
  26. Okumura N, Kurosawa Y, Kobayashi E, Watanobe T, Ishiguro N, Yasue H, et al. Genetic relationship amongst the major non-coding regions of mitochondrial DNAs in wild boars and several breeds of domesticated pigs. Anim Genet. 2001;32:139-47 pubmed
    ..This time of divergence would predate the historical period when the pig is thought to have been domesticated from the wild boar. ..
  27. Leong F, Okazaki S, Tak J. Assessment of depression and anxiety in East Asia. Psychol Assess. 2003;15:290-305 pubmed
    ..The review concludes with recommendations for future research. ..
  28. Chung J, Honda Y, Hong Y, Pan X, Guo Y, Kim H. Ambient temperature and mortality: an international study in four capital cities of East Asia. Sci Total Environ. 2009;408:390-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of effects of AT and city-specific threshold temperatures suggests that analyses of the impact of climate change should take regional differences into consideration. ..
  29. Serizawa K, Suzuki H, Iwasa M, Tsuchiya K, Pavlenko M, Kartavtseva I, et al. A spatial aspect on mitochondrial DNA genealogy in Apodemus peninsulae from East Asia. Biochem Genet. 2002;40:149-61 pubmed
  30. Nga P, del Carmen Parquet M, Cuong V, Ma S, Hasebe F, Inoue S, et al. Shift in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype circulating in northern Vietnam: implications for frequent introductions of JEV from Southeast Asia to East Asia. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1625-31 pubmed
    ..Hence this genotype shift phenomenon may be occurring throughout all East Asia. Further studies on JEV ecology are needed to clarify the mechanism of JEV genotype 1 spread to new territories. ..
  31. Sim K, Su A, Leong J, Yip K, Chong M, Fujii S, et al. High dose antipsychotic use in schizophrenia: findings of the REAP (research on east Asia psychotropic prescriptions) study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004;37:175-9 pubmed
    ..This survey revealed that high antipsychotic dosing is not an uncommon practice in East Asia. It behooves the prescribing clinicians to constantly reevaluate the rationale for such a practice. ..
  32. Takada M, Tachihara K, Kon T, Yamamoto G, Iguchi K, Miya M, et al. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..An overall phylogenetic framework obtained from the present study will be of use for estimating the phylogenetic relationships of Carassius fishes on the Eurasian continent. ..
  33. Sim K, Su H, Fujii S, Yang S, Chong M, Ungvari G, et al. High-dose antipsychotic use in schizophrenia: a comparison between the 2001 and 2004 Research on East Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;67:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should provide impetus for clinicians to constantly monitor the drug regimes and to foster rational, evidence-based prescribing practices. ..
  34. Morita K. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in East Asia. Vaccine. 2009;27:7131-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Possibly, this subgroup distribution is due to bird migration and/or infected mosquitoes which carry viruses for long distances. While in Japan, a small population of genotype 1 is circulating locally. ..
  35. Yip S, Sim H. Robotic radical prostatectomy in east Asia: development, surgical results and challenges. Curr Opin Urol. 2010;20:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Future robotic systems with smaller footprint, leaner instrument arms and lower costs will help to accelerate its integration into more Asian hospitals. ..
  36. Chuang S, Chen W, Hashibe M, Li G, Zhang Z. Survival rates of invasive breast cancer among ethnic Chinese women born in East Asia and the United States. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:221-6 pubmed
  37. Harrison S, Yu G, Takahara H, Prentice I. Palaeovegetation. Diversity of temperate plants in east Asia. Nature. 2001;413:129-30 pubmed
  38. Chiu H, Takahashi Y, Suh G. Elderly suicide prevention in East Asia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18:973-6 pubmed
  39. Tanaka M, Cabrera V, Gonzalez A, Larruga J, Takeyasu T, Fuku N, et al. Mitochondrial genome variation in eastern Asia and the peopling of Japan. Genome Res. 2004;14:1832-50 pubmed
    ..All the theories that have been proposed up to now to explain the peopling of Japan seem insufficient to accommodate fully this complex picture. ..
  40. Kong Q, Bandelt H, Sun C, Yao Y, Salas A, Achilli A, et al. Updating the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny: a prerequisite for the identification of pathogenic mutations. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2076-86 pubmed
    ..g. appropriate association studies. Following a guideline based on the phylogenetic knowledge as proposed here could help avoiding similar problems in the future. ..
  41. Marugame T, Hirabayashi Y. Comparison of time trends in ovary cancer incidence (1973-1997) in East Asia, Europe, and the USA, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vols IV VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37:802-3 pubmed
  42. Pybus O, Barnes E, Taggart R, Lemey P, Markov P, Rasachak B, et al. Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in East Asia. J Virol. 2009;83:1071-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis explains the generation and maintenance of HCV diversity in Asia and could provide a template for further investigations of HCV spread in other regions. ..
  43. Zhang F, Su B, Zhang Y, Jin L. Genetic studies of human diversity in East Asia. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007;362:987-95 pubmed
    ..e. Central Asia, the Sub-continent, America and the Pacific Islands), the origin of Sino-Tibetan populations and expansion of the Chinese. ..
  44. Tomitaka Y, Ohshima K. A phylogeographical study of the Turnip mosaic virus population in East Asia reveals an 'emergent' lineage in Japan. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:4437-57 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that the recent Chinese and Japanese TuMV isolates are part of the same population but are discrete lineages. ..
  45. Wu G, Yao Y, Qu K, Ding Z, Li H, Palanichamy M, et al. Population phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in wild boars and domestic pigs revealed multiple domestication events in East Asia. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R245 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that pig domestication in East Asia mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River...
  46. Lu Y, Kobayashi K, Ushikai M, Tabata A, Iijima M, Li M, et al. Frequency and distribution in East Asia of 12 mutations identified in the SLC25A13 gene of Japanese patients with citrin deficiency. J Hum Genet. 2005;50:338-46 pubmed
    ..We detected many carriers in Chinese (64/4169 = 1/65), Japanese (20/1372 = 1/69) and Korean (22/2455 = 1/112) populations, suggesting that over 80,000 East Asians are homozygotes with two mutated SLC25A13 alleles...
  47. Kivisild T, Tolk H, Parik J, Wang Y, Papiha S, Bandelt H, et al. The emerging limbs and twigs of the East Asian mtDNA tree. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:1737-51 pubmed
  48. Yamaoka K. Social capital and health and well-being in East Asia: a population-based study. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66:885-99 pubmed
    ..001), but life satisfaction was worse in men (p=0.017). The analyses provide evidence that dimensions of social capital are positively associated with self-reported somatic symptoms and overall well-being in East Asian countries. ..
  49. Yako Suketomo H, Marugame T. Comparison of time trends in lip cancer incidence (1973-97) in East Asia, Europe and USA, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vols IV-VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:456-7 pubmed publisher
  50. Azuma A, Kudoh S. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in East Asia. Respirology. 2006;11:249-61 pubmed
  51. Zhu R, Potts R, Pan Y, Yao H, Lu L, Zhao X, et al. Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia. J Hum Evol. 2008;55:1075-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. ..
  52. Matsumura M, Takeuchi H, Satoh M, Sanada Morimura S, Otuka A, Watanabe T, et al. Species-specific insecticide resistance to imidacloprid and fipronil in the rice planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera in East and South-east Asia. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:1115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Insecticide resistance in BPH against imidacloprid occurred in East Asia and Indochina, but not in the Philippines. In contrast, insecticide resistance in WBPH against fipronil occurred widely in East and South-east Asia. ..
  53. Sakamoto K, Yoshida K. Recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in countries of east Asia. Rev Sci Tech. 2002;21:459-63 pubmed
    ..The authors present the recent situations and the characteristics of FMD in countries of east Asia. ..