central asia


Summary: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)

Top Publications

  1. Sarang A, Stuikyte R, Bykov R. Implementation of harm reduction in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Int J Drug Policy. 2007;18:129-35 pubmed
    Harm reduction (HR) interventions began in Central-Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the mid-1980s with the establishment of substitution treatment (ST) in Yugoslavia...
  2. Bobrova N, Sarang A, Stuikyte R, Lezhentsev K. Obstacles in provision of anti-retroviral treatment to drug users in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a regional overview. Int J Drug Policy. 2007;18:313-8 pubmed
    Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is currently the region with the fastest growing HIV epidemic, mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs)...
  3. Heyer E, Balaresque P, Jobling M, Quintana Murci L, Chaix R, Segurel L, et al. Genetic diversity and the emergence of ethnic groups in Central Asia. BMC Genet. 2009;10:49 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we used genetic data that we collected in Central Asia, in addition to data from the literature, to understand better the origins of Central Asian groups at a fine-grained scale, and to assess how ethnicity influences the ..
  4. Chaix R, Austerlitz F, Khegay T, Jacquesson S, Hammer M, Heyer E, et al. The genetic or mythical ancestry of descent groups: lessons from the Y chromosome. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;75:1113-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, a tribe might be a conglomerate of clans who subsequently invented a mythical ancestor to strengthen group unity. ..
  5. Zerjal T, Wells R, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Tyler Smith C. A genetic landscape reshaped by recent events: Y-chromosomal insights into central Asia. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:466-82 pubmed
    ..and 16 binary markers have been used to analyze DNA variation in 408 male subjects from 15 populations in Central Asia. Large genetic differences were found between populations, but these did not display an obvious geographical or ..
  6. Shaikenov B. Distribution and ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis in Central Asia. Parasitol Int. 2006;55 Suppl:S213-9 pubmed
    Much of Central Asia is characterized by an arid landscape. Foci of Echinococcus multilocularis have a very patchy distribution...
  7. Torgerson P, Oguljahan B, Muminov A, Karaeva R, Kuttubaev O, Aminjanov M, et al. Present situation of cystic echinococcosis in Central Asia. Parasitol Int. 2006;55 Suppl:S207-12 pubmed
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus has always been an endemic disease in central Asia. During the period of Soviet Administration up to 1991, human surgical incidence rates tended to be relatively low with ..
  8. Chaix R, Quintana Murci L, Hegay T, Hammer M, Mobasher Z, Austerlitz F, et al. From social to genetic structures in central Asia. Curr Biol. 2007;17:43-8 pubmed
    Pastoral and farmer populations, who have coexisted in Central Asia since the fourth millennium B.C., present not only different lifestyles and means of subsistence but also various types of social organization...
  9. Magalon H, Patin E, Austerlitz F, Hegay T, Aldashev A, Quintana Murci L, et al. Population genetic diversity of the NAT2 gene supports a role of acetylation in human adaptation to farming in Central Asia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:243-51 pubmed
    ..These results further support the hypothesis that a major transition in human lifestyle, such as the emergence of farming has dramatically changed human chemical environments and the selective pressures they imposed. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Segurel L, Martínez Cruz B, Quintana Murci L, Balaresque P, Georges M, Hegay T, et al. Sex-specific genetic structure and social organization in Central Asia: insights from a multi-locus study. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000200 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that in patrilineal herder groups of Central Asia, in contrast to bilineal agriculturalists, the effective number of women is higher than that of men...
  2. Wagstaff A, Moreno Serra R. Europe and central Asia's great post-communist social health insurance experiment: Aggregate impacts on health sector outcomes. J Health Econ. 2009;28:322-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that, controlling for any concurrent provider payment reforms, adoption of social health insurance increased national health spending and hospital activity rates, but did not lead to better health outcomes. ..
  3. Berkman C, Dinc H, Sekeryapan C, Togan I. Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136:11-8 pubmed
    ..The last, well-known migration was the movement of Turkic speaking, nomadic groups from Central Asia. They invaded Anatolia and then the language of the region was gradually replaced by the Turkic language...
  4. Dey M, Ripoll C, Pouleva R, Dorn R, Aranovich I, Zaurov D, et al. Plant extracts from central Asia showing antiinflammatory activities in gene expression assays. Phytother Res. 2008;22:929-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracts identified from this screen were able to reduce inflammatory symptoms in vivo, thereby validating the screening approach. ..
  5. Factor S, LaClaire L, Bronsdon M, Suleymanova F, Altynbaeva G, Kadirov B, et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type B Carriage, Central Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1476-9 pubmed
    ..Approximately 6% of children carried Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Using pneumococcal and Hib conjugate vaccines may decrease illness in the Central Asian Republics. ..
  6. Elfari M, Schnur L, Strelkova M, Eisenberger C, Jacobson R, Greenblatt C, et al. Genetic and biological diversity among populations of Leishmania major from Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:93-103 pubmed
    ..Great gerbils, Rhombomys opimus, and fat sand rats, Psammomys obesus, are the main reservoir hosts in Central Asia and the Middle East, respectively...
  7. McKee M, Figueras J, Chenet L. Health sector reform in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia. Int J Health Plann Manage. 1998;13:131-47 pubmed
    Health services in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia face many challenges, not least a rising burden of disease and severe economic constraints. Each government has developed proposals for reform...
  8. Quintana Murci L, Chaix R, Wells R, Behar D, Sayar H, Scozzari R, et al. Where west meets east: the complex mtDNA landscape of the southwest and Central Asian corridor. Am J Hum Genet. 2004;74:827-45 pubmed
    ..of these population movements on the current genetic landscape of the Iranian plateau, the Indus Valley, and Central Asia, we have analyzed 910 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 23 populations of the region...
  9. Mukherjee N, Nebel A, Oppenheim A, Majumder P. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India. J Genet. 2001;80:125-35 pubmed
    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool...
  10. Zhilina T, Zavarzin G, Rainey F, Kevbrin V, Kostrikina N, Lysenko A. Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov., Spirochaeta africana sp. nov., and Spirochaeta asiatica sp. nov., alkaliphilic anaerobes from the Continental Soda Lakes in Central Asia and the East African Rift. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996;46:305-12 pubmed
    ..asiatica sp. nov. Z-7591 (DSM 8901) from Lake Khatyn, Central Asia. These mesophilic spirochetes develop at pHs of > 9 as anaerobic saccharolytic dissipotrophs...
  11. Leforban Y, Gerbier G. Review of the status of foot and mouth disease and approach to control/eradication in Europe and Central Asia. Rev Sci Tech. 2002;21:477-92 pubmed
    ..International support is needed to prevent FMD from becoming endemic in the region. ..
  12. Zhang Y, Stöck M, Zhang P, Wang X, Zhou H, Qu L. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia. Genetica. 2008;134:353-65 pubmed publisher
    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce...
  13. Aceijas C, Hickman M, Donoghoe M, Burrows D, Stuikyte R. Access and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Addiction. 2007;102:1244-50 pubmed
    ..estimate access, activity and coverage of needle and syringe programmes (NSP) in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Two data sets ('regional' and 'high-coverage sites') were used to estimate NSP provision (availability/number ..
  14. Cox H, Kubica T, Doshetov D, Kebede Y, Rüsch Gerdess S, Niemann S. The Beijing genotype and drug resistant tuberculosis in the Aral Sea region of Central Asia. Respir Res. 2005;6:134 pubmed
    ..Further investigation around the consequences of Beijing genotype infection for both tuberculosis transmission and outcomes of standard short course chemotherapy are urgently needed. ..
  15. Riedner G, Dehne K, Gromyko A. Recent declines in reported syphilis rates in eastern Europe and central Asia: are the epidemics over?. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76:363-5 pubmed
    ..The collection of serial STI prevalence data is recommended to be able to validate trends in notifications. ..
  16. Yashina L, Petrova I, Seregin S, Vyshemirskii O, Lvov D, Aristova V, et al. Genetic variability of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Russia and Central Asia. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1199-206 pubmed
    ..2 %). In contrast, a newly described CCHFV strain from Uzbekistan, strain TI10145, clustered on the phylogenetic trees with strains from China...
  17. Gruzdev K. The rabies situation in Central Asia. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;131:37-42 pubmed
    ..More information is needed to make rabies control effective in Central Asia. It is necessary to assess the national programmes, identify the main rabies carriers, increase the number of ..
  18. Kelly J, Somlai A, Benotsch E, Amirkhanian Y, Fernandez M, Stevenson L, et al. Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. AIDS Care. 2006;18:12-21 pubmed
    ..of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in 75 countries in Africa, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean...
  19. Gleason G, Sharmanov T. Anemia prevention and control in four central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. J Nutr. 2002;132:867S-70S pubmed publisher
    ..Increased commitment and determination, by both national groups and international organizations, are required to achieve and sustain improvement in micronutrient nutrition. ..
  20. Lee K, Hur S, Hou S, Hong S, Qin X, Ren J, et al. Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas. Sci Total Environ. 2008;404:171-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Veenema T. Health systems and maternal and child survival in Central Asian Republics. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2000;32:301-6 pubmed
    ..Future research should focus on improving maternal and child health indicators by enhancing resource sharing and opportunities for international collaboration. ..
  22. Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J, et al. The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:313-32 pubmed
    ..with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup...
  23. Apanaskevich D, Horak I. The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844. IX. Redescription of all parasitic stages of H. (Euhyalomma) impeltatum Schulze & Schlottke, 1930 and H. (E.) somalicum Tonelli Rondelli, 1935 (Acari: Ixodidae). Syst Parasitol. 2009;73:199-218 pubmed publisher
    ..is widely distributed in Africa north of the equator, Arabia, the Near East and south-western part of Central Asia; in contrast, H. somalicum has a more limited distribution in East Africa and possibly the Arabian Peninsular...
  24. Khamzina A, Lamers J, Vlek P. Nitrogen fixation by Elaeagnus angustifolia in the reclamation of degraded croplands of Central Asia. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..croplands, due to increasing soil salinity and depletion of soil nutrient stocks, is a major problem in Central Asia (CA), one of the largest irrigated areas in the world...
  25. Reamy J, Oreskovic S. Life expectancy in Central and Eastern European countries and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: changes by gender. Croat Med J. 1999;40:237-43 pubmed
    ..Further research is necessary to determine why effects by gender vary so greatly and whether the negative outcomes are a short-term anomaly or will persist. ..
  26. Sheraliev A, Bukharov K. [Spreading of fungi of Fusarium Lk : Fr. genus in the soil of mountain-forest reservation of Chatkala]. Mikrobiol Z. 2002;64:52-8 pubmed
    ..Representatives of Fusarium genus are an important component of phyto and agrophytocenoses; they take active part in the processes of soil formation. ..
  27. Xu H, Li Y, Xu G, Zou T. Ecophysiological response and morphological adjustment of two Central Asian desert shrubs towards variation in summer precipitation. Plant Cell Environ. 2007;30:399-409 pubmed
    ..no precipitation, respectively), in their original habitats on the southern periphery of Gurbantonggut Desert, Central Asia, during the growing season in 2005...
  28. Stepanov V, Khar kov V, Soltobaeva Z, Puzyrev V, Stegnii V. [Haplotype of Y-chromosomes in the Central Asia population]. Genetika. 2001;37:256-9 pubmed
    ..This haplotype appeared to be most frequent in Kyrgyz (78.8%) and Uzbeks (83.3%). The question on the origin and the distribution of Y-chromosome variants in Eurasia are discussed. ..
  29. Stone R. Central Asia. Caspian ecology teeters on the brink. Science. 2002;295:430-3 pubmed
  30. Sabatinelli G, Ejov M, Joergensen P. Malaria in the WHO European Region (1971-1999). Euro Surveill. 2001;6:61-5 pubmed
    ..France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom are the west European countries with the largest numbers of cases. ..
  31. Pratlong F, Dereure J, Ravel C, Lami P, Balard Y, Serres G, et al. Geographical distribution and epidemiological features of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, based on the isoenzyme analysis of 1048 strains. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:1071-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently a parasite close to L. killicki (one zymodeme, two strains) was isolated in Algeria, which lead us to revise the taxonomic status of this taxon...
  32. Glantz M, Athreya S, Ritzman T. Is Central Asia the eastern outpost of the Neandertal range? A reassessment of the Teshik-Tash child. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;138:45-61 pubmed publisher
  33. Cox H, Hargreaves S. To treat or not to treat? Implementation of DOTS in Central Asia. Lancet. 2003;361:714-5 pubmed
  34. Soldevila M, Calafell F, Andres A, Yague J, Helgason A, Stefansson K, et al. Prion susceptibility and protective alleles exhibit marked geographic differences. Hum Mutat. 2003;22:104-5 pubmed
    ..The protective 219L allele was restricted to Asian and Pacific populations. Susceptibility alleles exhibit marked geographic differences in frequency, and thus, differences in probability to develop prion diseases. ..
  35. Bhide M. Headache. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:882 pubmed
  36. Hayasaka D, Ivanov L, Leonova G, Goto A, Yoshii K, Mizutani T, et al. Distribution and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1319-28 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this study show that the 3'NCR is uniform among TBE viruses isolated from Siberia and far-eastern Asia and that the 3'NCR is essential for TBE virus growth in tick and/or rodent host cells. ..
  37. Aris B. Avian influenza remains a cause for concern. Lancet. 2005;366:798 pubmed
  38. Agnew B. HIV/AIDS surges in Eastern Europe--Asia-Pacific next?. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:78 pubmed
  39. Ghys P, Saidel T, Vu H, Savtchenko I, Erasilova I, Mashologu Y, et al. Growing in silence: selected regions and countries with expanding HIV/AIDS epidemics. AIDS. 2003;17 Suppl 4:S45-50 pubmed
  40. Gnutova R, Tolkach V. [Phytopathogenic viruses and their strains found in the Asian territory of Russia]. Mikrobiol Z. 2004;66:48-55 pubmed
    ..Taking into account significant differences of plant virus strains as to biological properties there are reasonable proposition to include a strain as an independent taxonomic unit into the present day classification of plant viruses...
  41. Aceijas C, Stimson G, Hickman M, Rhodes T. Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users. AIDS. 2004;18:2295-303 pubmed
    ..2 million. Over ten million (78%) live in developing and transitional countries (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 3.1 million; South and South-east Asia, 3.3 million; East-Asia and Pacific, 2.3 million)...
  42. Borkin L, Pashkova I, Litvinchuk S. [Differences in muscle thermostability between diploid and tetraploid species of green toads (Bufo viridis complex) of Middle Asia]. Tsitologiia. 2002;44:259-62 pubmed
    ..danatensis) toad species in their skeletal muscle thermostability. The lower muscle thermostability in tetraploids may be associated with the adaptation of B. danatensis to colder conditions of arid mountain area in the Middle Asia. ..
  43. Alexeeva T. Anthropoecological investigations in Central Asia. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2005;24:285-7 pubmed
    The results of anthropoecological investigations in Central Asia are described. From 1976 to 1991 about 6,000 individuals of both sexes were examined. 2,500 of them were children from 7 to 17 years...
  44. Nagatsu A, Isaka K, Kojima K, Ondognii P, Zevgeegiin O, Gombosurengyin P, et al. New sesquiterpenes from Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korovin. VI. Isolation and identification of three new dihydrofuro[2,3-b]chromones. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:675-7 pubmed
    ..The structures were established by comprehensive spectral analysis. The biosynthetic pathway leading to these 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoids is proposed based on their structures. ..
  45. Pruett L, Kreutz K, Wadleigh M, Aizen V. Assessment of sulfate sources in high-elevation Asian precipitation using stable sulfur isotopes. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:4728-33 pubmed
  46. Kazancigil A, Karliga B. [Obstetrics and gynecology in "Liber Regius" the famous book of Haly Abbas, physisian of Xth. century]. Tip Tarihi Arastirmalari. 2003;11:190-208 pubmed
    ..Obstetrics and gynecology in "Liber Regius" the famous book of Haly Abbas, physician of Xth century. ..
  47. Lawler A. Archaeology. Middle Asia takes center stage. Science. 2007;317:586-90 pubmed
  48. Yusup A, Upur H, Umar A, Moore N. Protective effects of Munziq and Mushil of abnormal Savda to mitochondrial oxidative damage. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2004;18:471-6 pubmed
    ..Munziq and Mushil of Abnormal Savda can reduce the oxidative damage induced by hydroxyl radical and protect the mitochondrial membrane structure and its functions. ..
  49. Bingham J. Services for sexually transmitted infections in Europe and central Asia. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78:320-1 pubmed
  50. Turnbull P. Introduction: anthrax history, disease and ecology. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;271:1-19 pubmed
  51. Gray R, Hoffman L. Tracking coverage on the silk road: time to turn theory into practice. Int J Drug Policy. 2008;19 Suppl 1:S15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This article presents a narrative of how one program in Central Asia developed a simple M&E system to track the extent and frequency of contacts among clients...
  52. Kilmarx P. Global epidemiology of HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009;4:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..some of the most heavily affected countries in Africa, but climbing elsewhere such as in eastern Europe and central Asia. Recent HIV epidemiologic research findings include new insights into the role of HIV viral load, co-infection ..
  53. Ataniyazova O, Adrian S, Mazhitova Z, Moshammer H, Prindull G, Zetterstrom R. Continuing progressive deterioration of the environment in the Aral Sea Region: disastrous effects on mother and child health. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:589-91 pubmed
    ..There is an urgent request that the international community assists local scientists to develop programmes to improve the health of the population in the Aral Sea Region. ..