arctic regions


Summary: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)

Top Publications

  1. Mansfield K, Racloz V, McElhinney L, Marston D, Johnson N, Rønsholt L, et al. Molecular epidemiological study of Arctic rabies virus isolates from Greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the Arctic and Baltic regions. Virus Res. 2006;116:1-10 pubmed
    ..Arctic 2 was further divided into sub-lineages: 2a/2b. Arctic 2a comprises isolates from the Arctic regions of Yakutia in northeast Siberia and Alaska...
  2. Lougheed T. The changing landscape of arctic traditional food. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:a386-93 pubmed publisher
  3. Olesen J, Bascompte J, Elberling H, Jordano P. Temporal dynamics in a pollination network. Ecology. 2008;89:1573-82 pubmed
    ..Second, we looked for the ecological properties most likely to be mediating this dynamical process and found that both abundance and phenophase length were important determinants of the number of links per species. ..
  4. Fuglei E, Ims R. Global warming and effects on the Arctic fox. Sci Prog. 2008;91:175-91 pubmed
    ..Indeed, arctic islands, becoming protected from southern species invasions as the extent of sea ice is decreasing, may become the last refuges for coastal populations of Arctic foxes...
  5. Carrie J, Wang F, Sanei H, Macdonald R, Outridge P, Stern G. Increasing contaminant burdens in an arctic fish, Burbot ( Lota lota ), in a warming climate. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:316-22 pubmed publisher
  6. Dietz R, Outridge P, Hobson K. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals--a review. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:6120-31 pubmed publisher
  7. Kelly J, Lanier A, Santos M, Healey S, Louchini R, Friborg J, et al. Cancer among the circumpolar Inuit, 1989-2003. II. Patterns and trends. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2008;67:408-20 pubmed
    ..Cancer surveillance is a basic task of the public health system; in the Arctic, it is particularly important as Inuit continue to undergo further changes in their life-styles and social environments. ..
  8. McKinney M, Peacock E, Letcher R. Sea ice-associated diet change increases the levels of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in polar bears. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:4334-9 pubmed
  9. Soininen L, Pukkola E. Mortality of the Sami in northern Finland 1979-2005. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2008;67:43-55 pubmed
    ..Reasons for their lower mortality may be related to their diet that is rich in reindeer meat and fish, their physically active way of life or their genetic background. ..

More Information


  1. Lehti V, Niemela S, Hoven C, Mandell D, Sourander A. Mental health, substance use and suicidal behaviour among young indigenous people in the Arctic: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:1194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for longitudinal comparative studies from the entire Arctic with culturally relevant instruments addressing mental health in early childhood as well. ..
  2. Kuhnlein H, Receveur O. Local cultural animal food contributes high levels of nutrients for Arctic Canadian Indigenous adults and children. J Nutr. 2007;137:1110-4 pubmed
    ..Because market foods are the major source of energy in the Arctic, traditional animal-source foods are extremely important to ensure high dietary quality of both adults and children. ..
  3. Høye T, Post E, Meltofte H, Schmidt N, Forchhammer M. Rapid advancement of spring in the High Arctic. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R449-51 pubmed
  4. Moran K, Backman J, Brinkhuis H, Clemens S, Cronin T, Dickens G, et al. The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean. Nature. 2006;441:601-5 pubmed
    ..The revised timing of the earliest Arctic cooling events coincides with those from Antarctica, supporting arguments for bipolar symmetry in climate change. ..
  5. Jenkyns H, Forster A, Schouten S, Sinninghe Damsté J. High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean. Nature. 2004;432:888-92 pubmed
  6. Parkinson A, Butler J. Potential impacts of climate change on infectious diseases in the Arctic. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005;64:478-86 pubmed
    Climate change could cause changes in the incidence of infectious diseases in Arctic regions. Higher ambient temperatures in the Arctic may result in an increase in some temperature sensitive foodborne diseases such as gastroenteritis, ..
  7. Chan H, Fediuk K, Hamilton S, Rostas L, Caughey A, Kuhnlein H, et al. Food security in Nunavut, Canada: barriers and recommendations. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006;65:416-31 pubmed
    ..Interventions to improve the dietary quality of Nunavut residents are discussed. ..
  8. Carmichael L, Krizan J, Nagy J, Fuglei E, Dumond M, Johnson D, et al. Historical and ecological determinants of genetic structure in arctic canids. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:3466-83 pubmed
  9. Hoberg E, Polley L, Jenkins E, Kutz S, Veitch A, Elkin B. Integrated approaches and empirical models for investigation of parasitic diseases in northern wildlife. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate...
  10. Degani N, Navarro C, Deeks S, Lovgren M. Invasive bacterial diseases in northern Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:34-40 pubmed publisher
  11. Bjerregaard P, Young T, Dewailly E, Ebbesson S. Indigenous health in the Arctic: an overview of the circumpolar Inuit population. Scand J Public Health. 2004;32:390-5 pubmed
    ..Lifestyle changes, social change, and changes in society and the environment are major determinants of health among the Inuit. ..
  12. Sitch S, McGuire A, Kimball J, Gedney N, Gamon J, Engstrom R, et al. Assessing the carbon balance of circumpolar Arctic tundra using remote sensing and process modeling. Ecol Appl. 2007;17:213-34 pubmed
  13. Lovejoy C, Massana R, Pedros Alio C. Diversity and distribution of marine microbial eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:3085-95 pubmed
    ..The cold, stable Arctic Ocean is a threatened environment, and climate change could result in significant loss of global microbial biodiversity. ..
  14. Bradley M, Kutz S, Jenkins E, O Hara T. The potential impact of climate change on infectious diseases of Arctic fauna. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005;64:468-77 pubmed
    ..Climate warming may also favor the release of persistent environmental pollutants some of which can affect the immune system and may favor increased rates of some diseases. ..
  15. Bruce M, Deeks S, Zulz T, Bruden D, Navarro C, Lovgren M, et al. International Circumpolar Surveillance System for invasive pneumococcal disease, 1999-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..IPD rates are high among indigenous persons and children in Arctic countries. After vaccine introduction, IPD caused by non-PCV7 serotypes increased in Alaska. ..
  16. Hoberg E. Coevolution and biogeography among Nematodirinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) Lagomorpha and Artiodactyla (Mammalia): exploring determinants of history and structure for the northern fauna across the holarctic. J Parasitol. 2005;91:358-69 pubmed
  17. Walker M, Wahren C, Hollister R, Henry G, Ahlquist L, Alatalo J, et al. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1342-6 pubmed
    ..These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere. ..
  18. Sluijs A, Schouten S, Pagani M, Woltering M, Brinkhuis H, Sinninghe Damsté J, et al. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature. 2006;441:610-3 pubmed
  19. Smetacek V, Nicol S. Polar ocean ecosystems in a changing world. Nature. 2005;437:362-8 pubmed
    ..Disentangling the effects of human exploitation of upper trophic levels from basin-wide, decade-scale climate cycles to identify long-term, global trends is a daunting challenge facing polar bio-oceanography. ..
  20. Salb A, Barkema H, Elkin B, Thompson R, Whiteside D, Black S, et al. Dogs as sources and sentinels of parasites in humans and wildlife, northern Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Dogs in remote settlements receive minimal veterinary care and may serve as sources and sentinels for parasites in persons and wildlife, and as parasite bridges between wildlife and humans...
  21. Hylander L, Goodsite M. Environmental costs of mercury pollution. Sci Total Environ. 2006;368:352-70 pubmed
    ..1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. ..
  22. Parkinson A, Bruce M, Zulz T. International Circumpolar Surveillance, an Arctic network for the surveillance of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:18-24 pubmed publisher
    Peoples of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions live in social and physical environments that differ substantially from those of their more southern-dwelling counterparts...
  23. Bruce M, Deeks S, Zulz T, Navarro C, Palacios C, Case C, et al. Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a, North American Arctic, 2000-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Serotype a is now the most common H. influenzae serotype in the North American Arctic; the highest rates are among indigenous children. ..
  24. Parkinson A. The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. ..
  25. Oyugi J, Qiu H, Safronetz D. Global warming and the emergence of ancient pathogens in Canada's arctic regions. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68:709 pubmed
  26. Bhatia M, Sharp M, Foght J. Distinct bacterial communities exist beneath a high Arctic polythermal glacier. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5838-45 pubmed
    ..Whereas the potential exists for common bacterial types to be broadly distributed throughout the glacial system, we have observed distinct bacterial communities in physically and chemically different glacial environments. ..
  27. Mueter F, Litzow M. Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea continental shelf. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:309-20 pubmed
    ..Variability among taxa in their response to temperature was not explained by commercial status or life history traits, suggesting that species-specific responses to future warming will be difficult to predict. ..
  28. Engelhaupt E. Ecology and wildlife: climate change and the Arctic diet. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:A292 pubmed
  29. Tomy G, Pleskach K, Ferguson S, Hare J, Stern G, MacInnis G, et al. Trophodynamics of some PFCs and BFRs in a western Canadian Arctic marine food web. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:4076-81 pubmed
    ..04) and in beluga (1.4) and suggests that, in part, there are differences in the efficacy of biotransforming PFOSA by whale and seal top predators that both preferentially feed on Arctic cod. ..
  30. Kelly B, Whiteley A, Tallmon D. The Arctic melting pot. Nature. 2010;468:891 pubmed publisher
  31. Zaborska A, Mietelski J, Carroll J, Papucci C, Pempkowiak J. Sources and distributions of 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu radionuclides in the north-western Barents Sea. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The 137Cs concentrations are highest in an area of intensive melting of sea ice formed along the Siberian coast. Thus, sea ice and supplies from Svalbard may be important source of 137Cs to the Barents Sea seafloor. ..
  32. Drost H, Fisher J, Randall F, Kent D, Carmack E, Farrell A. Upper thermal limits of the hearts of Arctic cod Boreogadus saida: adults compared with larvae. J Fish Biol. 2016;88:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in a rapidly warming Arctic Ocean, the upper temperature limit for larval rather than adult B. saida appears more likely to dictate the southern range of the species. ..
  33. Huntsman B, Falke J, Savereide J, Bennett K. The role of density-dependent and -independent processes in spawning habitat selection by salmon in an Arctic riverscape. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177467 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are surprising, given salmon commonly defend spawning resources, and are likely due to competition occurring at finer spatial scales than addressed in this study. ..
  34. Petersen D, Reichenberg F, Dahllof I. Phototoxicity of pyrene affects benthic algae and bacteria from the Arctic. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:1371-6 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that phototoxicity of PAHs may be relevant for sediment communities from shallow marine arctic areas at environmentally relevant pyrene concentrations. ..
  35. Gewurtz S, Gandhi N, Christensen G, Evenset A, Gregor D, Diamond M. Use of a food web model to evaluate the factors responsible for high PCB fish concentrations in Lake Ellasjøen, a high arctic lake. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2009;16:176-90 pubmed publisher
  36. Verde C, Vergara A, Mazzarella L, Di Prisco G. The hemoglobins of fishes living at polar latitudes - current knowledge on structural adaptations in a changing environment. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2008;9:578-90 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of bis-histidyl and penta-coordinate states in ferric forms of polar fish hemoglobins suggests additional redox properties. ..
  37. Bach L, Forbes V, Dahllof I. The amphipod Orchomenella pinguis--a potential bioindicator for contamination in the Arctic. Mar Pollut Bull. 2009;58:1664-70 pubmed publisher
    ..pinguis is a suitable bioindicator for the Arctic, but that endpoints such as reproductive effects and phenotypic and genotypic responses are needed together with population characteristics to assess impacts of contamination. ..
  38. Provencher J, Forbes M, Hennin H, Love O, Braune B, Mallory M, et al. Implications of mercury and lead concentrations on breeding physiology and phenology in an Arctic bird. Environ Pollut. 2016;218:1014-1022 pubmed publisher
  39. Bagshaw E, Wadham J, Tranter M, Perkins R, Morgan A, Williamson C, et al. Response of Antarctic cryoconite microbial communities to light. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2016;92:fiw076 pubmed publisher
  40. Lysnes K, Thorseth I, Steinsbu B, Øvreås L, Torsvik T, Pedersen R. Microbial community diversity in seafloor basalt from the Arctic spreading ridges. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004;50:213-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic and physiological diversity of the seafloor basalt microorganisms differed from those previously reported from deep-sea hydrothermal systems. ..
  41. Palkopoulou E, Baca M, Abramson N, Sablin M, Socha P, Nadachowski A, et al. Synchronous genetic turnovers across Western Eurasia in Late Pleistocene collared lemmings. Glob Chang Biol. 2016;22:1710-21 pubmed publisher
  42. Caldeira K, Wood L. Global and Arctic climate engineering: numerical model studies. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2008;366:4039-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These two effects largely cancel each other, making the global mean temperature response per unit top-of-atmosphere albedo change relatively insensitive to latitude. Implementing insolation modulation appears to be feasible. ..
  43. Lin X, Yang B, Shen J, Du N. Biodegradation of crude oil by an Arctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudoalteromomas sp. P29. Curr Microbiol. 2009;59:341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed a possible exploitation of the strain in future biotechnological processes especially in cold contaminated environments. ..
  44. Parks N. Arctic marine mammals: a tenuous future. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:4624 pubmed
  45. Jia G, Epstein H, Walker D. Vegetation greening in the Canadian Arctic related to decadal warming. J Environ Monit. 2009;11:2231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The decadal increases of greenness reflect increasing vegetation production during the peak of the growing season, and were likely driven by the recent warming. ..
  46. Jung J, Choi A, Lee Y, Lee H, Jung K. Spectroscopic and photochemical analysis of proteorhodopsin variants from the surface of the Arctic Ocean. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:1679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..They showed a slower photocycle, more blue-shifted absorption maxima at pH 10, and relatively larger DeltaH and DeltaS of activation of the transition between the O intermediate and the ground state compared to GPR. ..
  47. Moore S, Huntington H. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:s157-165 pubmed
    ..The means to track and assess Arctic ecosystem change using sentinel marine mammal species are suggested to offer a framework for scientific investigation and responsible resource management. ..
  48. Cho K, Hong S, Cho H, Lee Y, Chun J, Lee H. Maribacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from Arctic marine sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:1300-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore strain KOPRI 20941(T) represents a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KOPRI 20941(T) (=KCTC 22053(T)=JCM 14790(T))...
  49. Weider L, Frisch D, Hebert P. Long-term changes in metapopulation genetic structure: a quarter-century retrospective study on low-Arctic rock pool Daphnia. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the use of rock pool habitats as 'sentinel' systems for examining long-term environmental changes in the ecological genetics of aquatic organisms in the Arctic. ..
  50. Davey M, Nybakken L, Kauserud H, Ohlson M. Fungal biomass associated with the phyllosphere of bryophytes and vascular plants. Mycol Res. 2009;113:1254-60 pubmed publisher
  51. Iosjpe M, Reistad O, Amundsen I. Radioecological consequences of a potential accident during transport of spent nuclear fuel along an Arctic coastline. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:184-91 pubmed publisher
  52. Rochefort S, Wheeler T. Diversity of Piophilidae (Diptera) in northern Canada and description of a new Holarctic species of Parapiophila McAlpine. Zootaxa. 2015;3925:229-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Species richness was highest in mainland subarctic sites (16 species, 246 specimens). Five species (13 specimens) were collected in boreal sites, and five species (701 specimens) were collected on the high arctic island sites. ..
  53. Yergeau E, Arbour M, Brousseau R, Juck D, Lawrence J, Masson L, et al. Microarray and real-time PCR analyses of the responses of high-arctic soil bacteria to hydrocarbon pollution and bioremediation treatments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study demonstrates the value of molecular tools for the monitoring of polar bacteria and their associated functions during bioremediation. ..