Summary: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)

Top Publications

  1. De Boer M, Peters L, Aziz M, Siregar B, Cornain S, Vrede M, et al. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6, E7, and L1 variants in cervical cancer in Indonesia, Suriname, and The Netherlands. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;94:488-94 pubmed
    ..Regarding the geographical distribution of HPV variants and the lack of data from Indonesia and Suriname, we studied the prevalence of HPV 16 variants in cervical cancer in these high incidence countries...
  2. Peek R, van Gool T, Panchoe D, Greve S, Bus E, Resida L. Drug resistance and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites from suriname. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:833-8 pubmed
    Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname was studied for the presence of drug resistance and genetic variation in blood samples of 86 patients with symptomatic malaria...
  3. Kramer M, van den Hoek A, Coutinho R, Prins M. Sexual risk behaviour among Surinamese and Antillean migrants travelling to their countries of origin. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81:508-10 pubmed
    ..Additional research on risk behaviour in the homeland and the Netherlands is needed to identify migrants with high risk behaviour. ..
  4. Graafsma T, Kerkhof A, Gibson D, Badloe R, van de Beek L. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America. Crisis. 2006;27:77-81 pubmed
    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie...
  5. van der Meide W, Jensema A, Akrum R, Sabajo L, Lai A Fat R, Lambregts L, et al. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname: a study performed in 2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:192-7 pubmed
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread disease in Suriname caused by Leishmania Viannia guyanensis. It is argued that other Leishmania species are also responsible for CL and that the incidence is increasing...
  6. Wiggers L, de Wit J, Gras M, Coutinho R, van den Hoek A. Risk behavior and social-cognitive determinants of condom use among ethnic minority communities in Amsterdam. AIDS Educ Prev. 2003;15:430-47 pubmed
    ..However, contrary to predictions, the relation between consistent condom use and sociodemographic and behavioral factors was not entirely mediated by these social-cognitive factors. ..
  7. Middelkoop B, Kesarlal Sadhoeram S, Ramsaransing G, Struben H. Diabetes mellitus among South Asian inhabitants of The Hague: high prevalence and an age-specific socioeconomic gradient. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28:1119-23 pubmed
    ..In this population, the relationship between diabetes prevalence and socioeconomic status varies with age. Cohort and age effects may account for this variation. ..
  8. Manna D, Bootsma A, Lamberts S, Mackenbach J. [Relation between ethnicity and reason for referral of new patients to the Internal Medicine outpatient clinic of the Academic Hospital Rotterdam-Dijkzigt, 1997]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2000;144:1785-9 pubmed
    ..16) as reasons. Moroccans were more often referred with stomach ache (OR: 4.10) and diabetes (OR: 4.51). Ethnic minorities were referred less often with dyslipidemia (Turks: OR: 0.11; Surinamese: OR: 0.17; Moroccans: 0 patients). ..
  9. van der Meide W, Sabajo L, Jensema A, Peekel I, Faber W, Schallig H, et al. Evaluation of treatment with pentamidine for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:52-8 pubmed publisher
    In Suriname, pentamidine isethionate (PI) is the only drug available for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Recently, local dermatologists have observed an increase in CL patients not responding adequately to the standard doses...

More Information


  1. van Andel T, de Korte S, Koopmans D, Behari Ramdas J, Ruysschaert S. Dry sex in Suriname. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:84-8 pubmed
    ..The lively trade in steam-bath herbs plays a role in the rapid increase in HIV among Surinamese citizens and migrants. We also have reasons to believe that dry-sex practices are more widespread in the Caribbean than previously thought. ..
  2. Harmsen H, Meeuwesen L, van Wieringen J, Bernsen R, Bruijnzeels M. When cultures meet in general practice: intercultural differences between GPs and parents of child patients. Patient Educ Couns. 2003;51:99-106 pubmed
    ..e. a mixture of traditional and western cultures. The results are discussed in terms of methodological issues and practical implications for the health care providers. ..
  3. Hasrat J, Pieters L, Vlietinck A. Medicinal plants in Suriname: hypotensive effect of Gossypium barbadense. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004;56:381-7 pubmed
    ..Although it is still not known which compound(s) in G. barbadense is (are) the active substance(s), the results obtained may explain the use of this plant in traditional medicine in Suriname.
  4. Pouliquen J, Hardy L, Lavergne A, Kafiludine E, Kazanji M. High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana). J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2020-6 pubmed
    ..phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of HTLV-1 strains in Guyana and compared them with those identified in Suriname and French Guiana...
  5. van Wieringen J, Harmsen J, Bruijnzeels M. Intercultural communication in general practice. Eur J Public Health. 2002;12:63-8 pubmed
    ..Mutual understanding has a strong correlation with compliance. Mutual understanding and consequently compliance is more often poor in consultations with ethnic-minority parents than with native-born parents. ..
  6. Abdel Kader M, Hoch J, Berger J, Evans R, Miller J, Wisse J, et al. Two bioactive saponins from Albizia subdimidiata from the Suriname rainforest. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:536-9 pubmed
    ..The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, and GC--MS analysis of the sugar units. Both isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxicity against the A2780 cell line. ..
  7. Cao S, Guza R, Wisse J, Miller J, Evans R, Kingston D. Ipomoeassins A-E, cytotoxic macrocyclic glycoresins from the leaves of Ipomoea squamosa from the Suriname rainforest. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:487-92 pubmed
    ..All the isolates were active in the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line assay, and 4 showed the highest activity with an IC(50) value of 35 nM...
  8. van Spijker B, Graafsma T, Dullaart H, Kerkhof A. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, Suriname. Crisis. 2009;30:102-5 pubmed publisher
    ..psychological autopsy study was conducted among 19 survivors of 13 suicides in the Nickerie district in Suriname. Impulsivity plays an important role in self-poisonings, as well as aggression and easy accessibility of ..
  9. Hiwat H, Issaly J, Gaborit P, Somai A, Samjhawan A, Sardjoe P, et al. Behavioral heterogeneity of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria transmission dynamics along the Maroni River, Suriname, French Guiana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:207-13 pubmed publisher
    The border area between Suriname and French Guiana is considered the most affected malaria area in South America...
  10. Zijlmans W, van Kempen A, Ackermans M, de Metz J, Kager P, Sauerwein H. Very young children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria have higher risk of hypoglycaemia: a study from Suriname. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:626-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on glucose kinetics are feasible in very young children with malaria and give more insight in the pathophysiology of hypoglycaemia. ..
  11. Peplow D, Augustine S. Community-directed risk assessment of mercury exposure from gold mining in Suriname. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007;22:202-10 pubmed
    The overarching objective of this project was to support the indigenous people in Kwakoegron, Suriname, in self-diagnosis of public and environmental health problems...
  12. Oostburg B, Anijs J, Oehlers G, Hiwat H, Burke Hermelijn S. Case report: the first parasitologically confirmed autochthonous case of acute Chagas disease in Suriname. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:166-7 pubmed
    We present a case report from 2001 of the first parasitologically confirmed case of acute Chagas disease in Suriname. The patient had never left Suriname, and was probably infected by an adventitious species of Panstrongylus in his house ..
  13. Dijkstra S, Klok M, van Hoogenhuyze D, Sauerwein H, Berghout A. Ischaemic heart disease in Turkish migrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in The Netherlands: wait for the next generation?. Neth J Med. 2002;60:434-7 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in young migrant Asians with diabetes is confirmed. ..
  14. Bickham J, Hanks B. Diploid-triploid mosaicism and tissue ploidy diversity within Platemys platycephala from Suriname. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;127:280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that mosaics occur in Suriname and French Guiana but only diploids are known from Bolivia and Brazil...
  15. Reijneveld S. Reported health, lifestyles, and use of health care of first generation immigrants in The Netherlands: do socioeconomic factors explain their adverse position?. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:298-304 pubmed
    ..The pressure on various health services will increase in future because of the relatively high increase in immigrants' needs at older ages and their presently low mean age. ..
  16. Agyemang C, Oudeman E, Zijlmans W, Wendte J, Stronks K. Blood pressure and body mass index in an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents in Paramaribo, Suriname. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009;9:19 pubmed publisher BP, and the association of BP with body mass index (BMI) among adolescents aged 12-17 years in Paramaribo, Suriname. Cross-sectional study with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements...
  17. Agyemang C, Bindraban N, Mairuhu G, Montfrans G, Koopmans R, Stronks K. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Black Surinamese, South Asian Surinamese and White Dutch in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: the SUNSET study. J Hypertens. 2005;23:1971-7 pubmed
    ..These findings underscore the urgent need to develop strategies aimed at improving the prevention and control of hypertension, especially among Black people, in The Netherlands. ..
  18. Stronks K, Ravelli A, Reijneveld S. Immigrants in the Netherlands: equal access for equal needs?. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55:701-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that ethnic background in itself may account for patterns of consumption, potentially because of limited access. ..
  19. Gunatilaka A, Berger J, Evans R, Miller J, Wisse J, Neddermann K, et al. Isolation, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of bioactive benzoquinones from Miconia lepidota from the Suriname rainforest. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:2-5 pubmed
    ..In the M109 tumor cell lines, quinones 1, 2, and 6 had an IC(50) value of 10 microg/mL. In the A2780 cell line, compounds 1, 2 and 5 had IC(50) values of 7.9, 2.9, and 3.2 microg/mL, respectively. ..
  20. van der Meide W, de Vries H, Pratlong F, van der Wal A, Sabajo L. Leishmaniasis, Suriname. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:857-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Gras M, Van Benthem B, Coutinho R, van den Hoek A. Determinants of high-risk sexual behavior among immigrant groups in Amsterdam: implications for interventions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;28:166-72 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it should be taken into account that immigrant men use condoms less frequently with women of their own ethnic group than with Dutch women. ..
  22. Bindraban N, Stronks K, Klazinga N. [Cardiovascular risk factors for Surinamese in the Netherlands: a literature review]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:1591-4 pubmed
    ..This difference justifies further research into the differentiation of prevention and treatment according to ethnic origin. ..
  23. Ruysschaert S, van Andel T, Van de Putte K, Van Damme P. Bathe the baby to make it strong and healthy: plant use and child care among Saramaccan Maroons in Suriname. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:148-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that plant use is highly valued and practiced within the Saramaccan Maroon Society in Suriname to maintain the general health and well-being of children...
  24. Mol J, Ramlal J, Lietar C, Verloo M. Mercury contamination in freshwater, estuarine, and marine fishes in relation to small-scale gold mining in Suriname, South America. Environ Res. 2001;86:183-97 pubmed
    ..39 microg x g(-1)) from the Central Suriname Nature Reserve...
  25. Chaturvedula V, Schilling J, Malone S, Wisse J, Werkhoven M, Kingston D. New cytotoxic triterpene acids from aboveground parts of Manihot esculenta from the Suriname rainforest. Planta Med. 2003;69:271-4 pubmed
    ..The two new compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line. ..
  26. Kamperman A, Komproe I, de Jong J. Migrant mental health: a model for indicators of mental health and health care consumption. Health Psychol. 2007;26:96-104 pubmed
    ..Mental health care professionals should be aware of these. However, ignoring common ground for interventions unnecessarily creates distance between migrant groups and between migrant and indigenous Dutch groups. ..
  27. Brewster L, Mairuhu G, Bindraban N, Koopmans R, Clark J, van Montfrans G. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure. Circulation. 2006;114:2034-9 pubmed
    ..Creatine kinase is associated with blood pressure. Further studies are needed to explore the nature of this association, including how variation in cardiovascular creatine kinase activity may affect pressor responses. ..
  28. Oei W, Lieshout Krikke R, Kretzschmar M, Zaaijer H, Coutinho R, Eersel M, et al. Estimating the risk of dengue transmission from Dutch blood donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean. Vox Sang. 2016;110:301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance data on notified dengue cases in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean islands (Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St...
  29. Dijkstra S, Berghout A, Sauerwein H. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease among immigrants from Turkey and Morocco and the indigenous Dutch population]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:2146-7 pubmed
  30. Troe E, Kunst A, Bos V, Deerenberg I, Joung I, Mackenbach J. The effect of age at immigration and generational status of the mother on infant mortality in ethnic minority populations in The Netherlands. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:134-8 pubmed
    ..The direction of these trends however differs between ethnic populations. This may be related to acculturation and selective migration. ..
  31. Uiters E, van Dijk L, Deville W, Foets M, Spreeuwenberg P, Groenewegen P. Ethnic minorities and prescription medication; concordance between self-reports and medical records. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:115 pubmed
    ..At least for Moroccans and Turks, compliance with the prescribed medication by the GP is suggested not to be optimal. ..
  32. Veling W, Mackenbach J, van Os J, Hoek H. Cannabis use and genetic predisposition for schizophrenia: a case-control study. Psychol Med. 2008;38:1251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2 (95% CI 0.4-3.8)]. Cannabis use was associated with schizophrenia but there was no evidence for genotype-environment correlation. ..
  33. Odonne G, Bourdy G, Beauchene J, Houel E, Stien D, Chevolot L, et al. From Tonic-cups to Bitter-cups: Kwasi bita beker from Suriname Determination, past and present use of an ancient galenic artefact. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110:318-22 pubmed
    In the main markets of Paramaribo (Suriname), many stands offer what is locally called "Bitter-cups", or "Kwasi bita beker", small footed-cups, roughly carved from a whitish wood...
  34. Seo Y, Hoch J, Abdel Kader M, Malone S, Derveld I, Adams H, et al. Bioactive saponins from Acacia tenuifolia from the suriname rainforest. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:170-4 pubmed
    ..The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data on the intact saponins, and GC-MS analyses of the sugars. Compounds 1,2 and 5,6 showed cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines. ..
  35. Dekker J, Peen J, Heijnen H, Kwakman H, Sanders H. [Psychiatric admissions in Amsterdam according to ethnic background and diagnosis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1996;140:368-71 pubmed
    ..Earlier findings of two-to-five-fold increased incidence of schizophrenia in first-generation migrants from Surinam, The Netherlands Antilles and Morocco, were in Amsterdam only partly confirmed. ..
  36. Cao S, Norris A, Wisse J, Miller J, Evans R, Kingston D. Ipomoeassin F, a new cytotoxic macrocyclic glycoresin from the leaves of Ipomoea squamosa from the Suriname rainforest. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:872-6 pubmed
    ..The structure was elucidated by the interpretation of spectral data. Compound 6 was strongly active in the A2780 (human ovarian cancer cell line) assay with an IC(50) value of 0.036 microM. ..
  37. De Vlas S, Engels D, Rabello A, Oostburg B, van Lieshout L, Polderman A, et al. Validation of a chart to estimate true Schistosoma mansoni prevalences from simple egg counts. Parasitology. 1997;114 ( Pt 2):113-21 pubmed
  38. Vermeulen C, Boon M, Grunberg A, van der Linden Narain I, Vrede M, Dekker F, et al. Decreased prevalence of dysplasia in high-risk population immigrants in a low-risk area for cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:646-50 pubmed
    ..The age-adjusted ORs of having dysplasia were higher for Surinamese women living in Suriname versus Surinamese immigrant women and increased with increasing P-scores: 0.77 (0.31-1...
  39. De Boer M, Peters L, Aziz M, Siregar B, Cornain S, Vrede M, et al. Human papillomavirus type 18 variants: histopathology and E6/E7 polymorphisms in three countries. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:422-5 pubmed
    ..The findings described here stress the biologic significance of intratypic HPV variants and might help explaining differences in the pathogenesis of cervical ADCs and SCCs. ..
  40. Zupan Kajcovski B, Simonian H, Keller J, Faber W. [Cutaneous myiasis caused by a double infestation with larvae of Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004;148:2086-9 pubmed
    ..The larvae were removed from the ulcers by hand and by rinsing with physiological saline, after which the wounds healed rapidly. Myiasis is seen in the Netherlands mostly in people returning from a holiday in myiasis-endemic areas...
  41. van Wouwe J, Mattiazzo G, el Mokadem N, Reeser H, Hirasing R. [The incidence and initial symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 1 in 0-14-year-olds in the Netherlands, 1996-1999]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004;148:1824-9 pubmed
    ..The clinical condition at time of diagnosis, however, was better. The incidence and clinical characteristics differed between children of different ethnic origin. ..
  42. van Crevel R, van Doorninck D, van Ams J, Fat H, Vreden S, van der Meer J. [Tuberculosis among Trio-Indians in Surinam]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004;148:425-9 pubmed
    ..This isolated tribe may have a genetic predisposition for tuberculosis, but their lifestyle and limited access to health care certainly play a role as well. ..
  43. Harteveld C, Van Delft P, Wijermans P, Kappers Klunne M, Weegenaar J, Losekoot M, et al. A novel 7.9 kb deletion causing alpha+-thalassaemia in two independent families of Indian origin. Br J Haematol. 2003;120:364-6 pubmed of the duplicated alpha-globin genes, causing an alpha+-thalassaemia phenotype in two independent carriers of Suriname-Indian origin...
  44. Mesquita B. Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001;80:68-74 pubmed
  45. Nierkens V, Stronks K, de Vries H. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations across different motivational stages among immigrant smokers: replication of the Ø pattern. Prev Med. 2006;43:306-11 pubmed
    ..However, the items constituting the factors are culturally sensitive. Furthermore, many Surinamese smokers were unmotivated to quit smoking. ..
  46. Bindraban N, van Valkengoed I, Mairuhu G, Holleman F, Hoekstra J, Michels B, et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the performance of a risk score among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: a cross-sectional population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:271 pubmed publisher
    ..If selective screening is indicated, our ethnicity based risk score performs well as a screening test for DM among these groups, particularly compared to the criteria based on age and/or body mass index derived from current guidelines. ..
  47. Giordano P, Dihal A, Harteveld C. Estimating the attitude of immigrants toward primary prevention of the hemoglobinopathies. Prenat Diagn. 2005;25:885-93 pubmed
    ..The wish for selective abortion among informed members of the patients' organization was more than 80%. ..
  48. Alexander H, Breden F. Sexual isolation and extreme morphological divergence in the Cumana guppy: a possible case of incipient speciation. J Evol Biol. 2004;17:1238-54 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that divergent sexual selection has contributed to differentiation of the Cumana guppy, and this may be the first example of incipient speciation in the guppy...
  49. Fransen M, Wildschut H, Vogel I, Mackenbach J, Steegers E, Essink Bot M. Ethnic differences in considerations whether or not to participate in prenatal screening for Down syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 2009;29:1262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Women from ethnic minorities should not be stereotyped as being uninterested in prenatal screening, but should be better informed about the consequences of prenatal screening and Down syndrome. ..
  50. Mendes D, Oliveira J, Alves Oliveira J, Rafael J. New species and new behavioral data of <i>Phlugiola</i> Karny, 1907 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) from the Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest. Zootaxa. 2017;4243:503-520 pubmed publisher
    ..a genus of small predatory katydids with six included species distributed in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Suriname. In this paper two new Brazilian species are described, Phlugiola longipedes sp. nov...
  51. Kurt R. [Ethnic differences in suicidal behavior]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150:2621-2; author reply 2622 pubmed
  52. Troe E, Bos V, Deerenberg I, Mackenbach J, Joung I. Ethnic differences in total and cause-specific infant mortality in The Netherlands. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20:140-7 pubmed
    ..Marital status and age of the mother are important other risk factors of infant mortality. ..
  53. Nellen J, Nieuwkerk P, Burger D, Wibaut M, Gras L, Prins J. Which method of adherence measurement is most suitable for daily use to predict virological failure among immigrant and non-immigrant HIV-1 infected patients?. AIDS Care. 2009;21:842-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Interventions should be aimed at preventing patients to stop medication. A DM/PM below 0.85 can be indicative for patients who did stop medication and are at risk for virological failure. ..