Summary: A country in western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the equator, between Colombia and Peru.

Top Publications

  1. Handal A, Lozoff B, Breilh J, Harlow S. Sociodemographic and nutritional correlates of neurobehavioral development: a study of young children in a rural region of Ecuador. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007;21:292-300 pubmed
    ..among young children living in three communities in the northeastern Andean region of Cayambe-Tabacundo, Ecuador. Women in the study communities who had a child 3 to 61 months of age completed a questionnaire about maternal ..
  2. González Andrade F, Sanchez D, González Solorzano J, Gascón S, Martinez Jarreta B. Sex-specific genetic admixture of Mestizos, Amerindian Kichwas, and Afro-Ecuadorans from Ecuador. Hum Biol. 2007;79:51-77 pubmed
    Three main ethnic groups live in the South American country of Ecuador: Mestizos, Amerindian natives, and African-derived populations, or Afro-Ecuadorans...
  3. Travis E, Vargas F, Merkel J, Gottdenker N, Miller R, Parker P. Hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:625-32 pubmed
    The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is an endangered species endemic to the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. In 2003 and 2004, 195 penguins from 13 colonies on the islands of Isabela and Fernandina in the Galápagos archipelago ..
  4. Gómez Alpizar L, Hu C, Oliva R, Forbes G, Ristaino J. Phylogenetic relationships of Phytophthora andina, a new species from the highlands of Ecuador that is closely related to the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Mycologia. 2008;100:590-602 pubmed
    ..infestans described to date. All isolates of P. infestans sensu lato from Ecuador were amplified by a P...
  5. Van Droogenbroeck B, Kyndt T, Romeijn Peeters E, Van Thuyne W, Goetghebeur P, Romero motochi J, et al. Evidence of natural hybridization and introgression between Vasconcellea species (Caricaceae) from southern Ecuador revealed by chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Ann Bot. 2006;97:793-805 pubmed
    ..The aim of this paper is to examine individuals of these three taxa and of individuals from the closely related species V. parviflora and V. weberbaueri, which all inhabit a hybrid zone in southern Ecuador.
  6. Fajardo A, Recarey R, de Mora D, D Andrea L, Alvarez M, Regato M, et al. Modeling gene sequence changes over time in type 3 dengue viruses from Ecuador. Virus Res. 2009;141:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Faster population growth and greater population dispersal may have contributed to the vigorous initial transmission dynamics of this genotype in the Latin American region. ..
  7. Banyai K, Esona M, Kerin T, Hull J, Mijatovic S, Vásconez N, et al. Molecular characterization of a rare, human-porcine reassortant rotavirus strain, G11P[6], from Ecuador. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1823-9 pubmed publisher
    ..During strain surveillance in Ecuador in 2005-2006, a rare rotavirus genotype, G11P[6], was detected among common strains...
  8. Mares D, Andreotti E, Maldonado M, Pedrini P, Colalongo C, Romagnoli C. Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador). Curr Microbiol. 2008;57:222-9 pubmed publisher
    From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A...
  9. Aboutanos M, Rodas E, Aboutanos S, Mora F, Wolfe L, Duane T, et al. Trauma education and care in the jungle of Ecuador, where there is no advanced trauma life support. J Trauma. 2007;62:714-9 pubmed
    ..A trauma continuing education course was created to educate physicians of rural hospitals in the jungles of Ecuador. A basic trauma care course was designed based on local resources and location of injury, including rudimentary ..

More Information


  1. Chedraui P, van Ardenne R, Wendte J, Quintero J, Hidalgo L. Knowledge and practice of family planning and HIV-prevention behaviour among just delivered adolescents in Ecuador: the problem of adolescent pregnancies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276:139-44 pubmed
    ..Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador were surveyed in the immediate postpartum period with a structured questionnaire designed for the purpose...
  2. Calvopina M, Armijos R, Marco J, Uezato H, Kato H, Gomez E, et al. Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:139 pubmed
    ..56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) from Ecuador were analyzed...
  3. Paz y Mino C, López Cortés A, Arévalo M, Sánchez M. Monitoring of DNA damage in individuals exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in Ecuador. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1140:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Thus, it can be determined that populations that are exposed to hydrocarbons are susceptible to developing genetic damage. Therefore, risk groups can be determined in certain zones where the oil impact has been greater. ..
  4. Travis E, Vargas F, Merkel J, Gottdenker N, Miller R, Parker P. Hematology, plasma chemistry, and serology of the flightless cormorant (Phalacrocorax harrisi) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:133-41 pubmed
    The flightless cormorant (Phalacrocorax harrisi) is an endemic species of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Health studies of the species have not previously been conducted...
  5. Levy K, Hubbard A, Nelson K, Eisenberg J. Drivers of water quality variability in northern coastal Ecuador. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1788-97 pubmed
    ..The variability can be understood as a combination of environmental (e.g., seasonal and soil processes) and other drivers (e.g., human river use, water practices, and sanitation), each working at different time scales. ..
  6. Arana A, Arellano F. Cancer incidence near oilfields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador revisited. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:490 pubmed
  7. Grijalva M, Villacis A. Presence of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in sylvatic habitats in the southern highlands (Loja Province) of Ecuador. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:708-11 pubmed
    The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis...
  8. Kato H, Gomez E, Yamamoto Y, Calvopina M, Guevara A, Marco J, et al. Natural infection of Lutzomyia tortura with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi in an Amazonian area of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:438-40 pubmed
    Natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania parasites was surveyed in an Amazonian area in Ecuador where leishmaniasis is endemic. Seventy-one female sand flies were dissected and one was positive for Leishmania protozoa...
  9. Wolf J, Harrod C, Brunner S, Salazar S, Trillmich F, Tautz D. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:150 pubmed publisher
    ..The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations. ..
  10. Armijos R, Weigel M, Qincha M, Ulloa B. The meaning and consequences of tuberculosis for an at-risk urban group in Ecuador. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2008;23:188-97 pubmed
    To explore knowledge, beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about tuberculosis (TB) in a high-risk group in Ecuador. This included signs and symptoms, causation, transmission, treatment, treatment adherence, impact on lifestyle and role ..
  11. Benavides E, Baum R, McClellan D, Sites J. Molecular phylogenetics of the lizard genus Microlophus (squamata:tropiduridae): aligning and retrieving indel signal from nuclear introns. Syst Biol. 2007;56:776-97 pubmed
  12. Greeney H, Warren A. The immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falgo Jeconia Ombra Evans, 1955 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). J Insect Sci. 2009;9:33 pubmed publisher
    We describe the immature stages and shelter building behavior of Falga jeconia ombra Evans, 1955 from eastern Ecuador. Chusquea scandens (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant...
  13. Handal A, Lozoff B, Breilh J, Harlow S. Effect of community of residence on neurobehavioral development in infants and young children in a flower-growing region of Ecuador. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:128-33 pubmed
    ..Malnourished populations may be particularly vulnerable to neurobehavioral effects of pesticide exposure. ..
  14. Gutierrez J, Molina Yepez D, Morrison K, Samuels F, Bertozzi S. Correlates of condom use in a sample of MSM in Ecuador. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:152 pubmed
    In Ecuador, the prevalence of HIV in the general population is approximately 0.3%. However, up to 17% prevalence has been reported among specific groups of homosexual and bisexual men...
  15. Eisenberg J, Cevallos W, Ponce K, Levy K, Bates S, Scott J, et al. Environmental change and infectious disease: how new roads affect the transmission of diarrheal pathogens in rural Ecuador. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19460-5 pubmed
    ..The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provides a valuable natural experiment to examine how changes in the social and natural environment, mediated by ..
  16. Bass M, Finer M, Jenkins C, Kreft H, Cisneros Heredia D, McCracken S, et al. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8767 pubmed publisher
    The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas...
  17. Janzac B, Fabre M, Palloix A, Moury B. Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting pepper crops in Ecuador. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the 3' proximal region of the genome of a potyvirus isolate collected from Capsicum pubescens (rocoto) pepper in Ecuador revealed that this was the first representative of a new species tentatively named Ecuadorian rocoto virus (ERV)...
  18. Arbogast B, Drovetski S, Curry R, Boag P, Seutin G, Grant P, et al. The origin and diversification of Galapagos mockingbirds. Evolution. 2006;60:370-82 pubmed
    ..America, northern South America, and the Caribbean, rather than the geographically nearest species in continental Ecuador. Thus, propensity for over-water dispersal may have played a more important role than geographic proximity in the ..
  19. Bernstein A. Emerging patterns in overweight and obesity in Ecuador. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2008;24:71-4 pubmed
  20. Maslov D, Westenberger S, Xu X, Campbell D, Sturm N. Discovery and barcoding by analysis of spliced leader RNA gene sequences of new isolates of Trypanosomatidae from Heteroptera in Costa Rica and Ecuador. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:57-65 pubmed
    ..Investigations of trypanosomatid diversity, host-specificity, and biogeography have become feasible using the approach described herein...
  21. Ebeling J, Yasué M. The effectiveness of market-based conservation in the tropics: forest certification in Ecuador and Bolivia. J Environ Manage. 2009;90:1145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews in Ecuador and Bolivia to identify key framework conditions that influence the costs and benefits for companies to switch ..
  22. Proaño Perez F, Benitez Ortiz W, Celi Erazo M, Ron Garrido L, Benitez Capistros R, Portaels F, et al. Comparative intradermal tuberculin test in dairy cattle in the north of Ecuador and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:1103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Mejia canton, the major dairy cattle production area in northern Ecuador. Twenty dairy herds comprising 2,022 cattle were selected...
  23. Gutierrez J, Molina Yepez D, Samuels F, Bertozzi S. [Inconsistent condom use among sexual workers in Ecuador: results from a behavior survey]. Salud Publica Mex. 2006;48:104-12 pubmed
    Whilst existing data suggests that the HIV epidemic in Ecuador is concentrated amongst men who have sex with men (MSM), there is very little available information on the situation of key populations, i.e...
  24. Paz y Mino C, Sánchez M, Sarmiento I, Leone P. Genetics and congenital malformations: interpretations, attitudes and practices in suburban communities and the shamans of ecuador. Community Genet. 2006;9:268-73 pubmed
    ..It is important that the community councils, the medical doctors and the shamans work together to set up community programs on medical education, particularly on genetics. ..
  25. Bates S, Trostle J, Cevallos W, Hubbard A, Eisenberg J. Relating diarrheal disease to social networks and the geographic configuration of communities in rural Ecuador. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:1088-95 pubmed these effects might develop, the authors analyzed social network and geographic data from northern coastal Ecuador and examined associations with diarrhea prevalence...
  26. Pinto C, Ocaña Mayorga S, Lascano M, Grijalva M. Infection by trypanosomes in marsupials and rodents associated with human dwellings in Ecuador. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1251-5 pubmed
    Small mammals trapped in domestic and peridomestic environments of rural Ecuador were screened for trypanosome infection by direct microscopy and hemoculture...
  27. Medina W, Hurtig A, San Sebastian M, Quizhpe E, Romero C. Dental caries in 6-12-year-old indigenous and non-indigenous schoolchildren in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Braz Dent J. 2008;19:83-6 pubmed
    ..and non-indigenous (recent settlers of mixed ethnic origin) schoolchildren, living in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1,449 clinical exams according to the World Health Organization criteria...
  28. Shaw S, Jones G. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador. J Insect Sci. 2009;9:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus...
  29. Benavides E, Baum R, Snell H, Snell H, Sites J. Island biogeography of Galápagos lava lizards (Tropiduridae: Microlophus): species diversity and colonization of the archipelago. Evolution. 2009;63:1606-26 pubmed publisher
  30. Bernal J, Briceno I. Genetic and other diseases in the pottery of Tumaco-La Tolita culture in Colombia-Ecuador. Clin Genet. 2006;70:188-91 pubmed
    The people of Tumaco-La Tolita culture inhabited the borders of present-day Colombia and Ecuador. Already extinct by the time of the Spaniards arrival, they left a huge collection of pottery artifacts depicting everyday life; among these,..
  31. Hidalgo L, Chedraui P, Morocho N, Alvarado M, Chavez D, Huc A. The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in Ecuador. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:447-54 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related risk determinants among postmenopausal women in Ecuador. Postmenopausal women >or=40 years of age, non-users of hormone therapy and with an intact uterus, were asked ..
  32. Calvopina M, Uezato H, Gomez E, Korenaga M, Nonaka S, Hashiguchi Y. Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis due to Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis in subtropical Ecuador: isoenzymatic characterization. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:116-20 pubmed
    ..are the first reported evidence of LRC within the clinical spectrum of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Ecuador, and of its causative agent...
  33. Chang X, Chedraui P, Ross M, Hidalgo L, Peñafiel J. Vacuum assisted delivery in Ecuador for prolonged second stage of labor: maternal-neonatal outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20:381-4 pubmed
    In South America, and particularly Ecuador, cesarean section rates have risen markedly over the past five years. The associated increases in maternal morbidity and healthcare costs indicate the need for alternative strategies...
  34. Sequeira A, Lanteri A, Albelo L, Bhattacharya S, Sijapati M. Colonization history, ecological shifts and diversification in the evolution of endemic Galápagos weevils. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:1089-107 pubmed publisher
  35. Naumova E, Yepes H, Griffiths J, Sempertegui F, Khurana G, Jagai J, et al. Emergency room visits for respiratory conditions in children increased after Guagua Pichincha volcanic eruptions in April 2000 in Quito, Ecuador observational study: time series analysis. Environ Health. 2007;6:21 pubmed
    ..visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections and asthma-related conditions in the children of Quito, Ecuador associated with the eruption of Guagua Pichincha in April of 2000...
  36. Johnson B, Cruz C, Felices V, Espinoza W, Manock S, Guevara C, et al. Ilheus virus isolate from a human, Ecuador. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:956-8 pubmed
  37. Russello M, Beheregaray L, Gibbs J, Fritts T, Havill N, Powell J, et al. Lonesome George is not alone among Galápagos tortoises. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R317-8 pubmed
  38. Brachtl M, Durant J, Perez C, Oviedo J, Sempertegui F, Naumova E, et al. Spatial and temporal variations and mobile source emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Quito, Ecuador. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:528-36 pubmed publisher
    Motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in Quito, Ecuador; however, little work has been done to characterize spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related pollutants, or to measure pollutants in vehicle emissions...
  39. Oxlade O, Vaca J, Romero E, Schwartzman K, Graham B, Hernandez L, et al. The long-term health and economic benefits of DOTS implementation in Ecuador. Can J Public Health. 2006;97:14-9 pubmed
    ..National Tuberculosis control program, with assistance from the Canadian Lung Association, in three provinces of Ecuador, where 52% of the population of the country reside...
  40. Grandjean P, Harari R, Barr D, Debes F. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children. Pediatrics. 2006;117:e546-56 pubmed
    ..In a community of Northern Ecuador with intensive floriculture and a high female employment rate, we invited 79 children attending the 2 lowest ..
  41. Tene V, Malagón O, Finzi P, Vidari G, Armijos C, Zaragoza T. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:63-81 pubmed
    ..The present study reports a total of 275 plant species, having 68 different therapeutical uses. ..
  42. Tzika A, Rosa S, Fabiani A, Snell H, Snell H, Marquez C, et al. Population genetics of Galápagos land iguana (genus Conolophus) remnant populations. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:4943-52 pubmed publisher
  43. Medina M, Moya W, Hidalgo L, Calle A, Teran E, Chedraui P. Molecular identification of endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among gestations at risk for preterm birth in Ecuador. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:9-10 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred fifty eight (n = 158) gestations of Guayaquil (63.3%) and Quito (36.7%) Ecuador, at risk for preterm birth: threatened preterm labor (TPL, 60...
  44. Goicolea I, Wulff M, Ohman A, San Sebastian M. Risk factors for pregnancy among adolescent girls in Ecuador's Amazon basin: a case-control study. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2009;26:221-8 pubmed
    To examine risk factors for pregnancy among adolescent girls in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. A matched case-control study with cases and controls identified within a community-based demographic and health survey was conducted in Orellana,..
  45. Chaves J, Pollinger J, Smith T, LeBuhn G. The role of geography and ecology in shaping the phylogeography of the speckled hummingbird (Adelomyia melanogenys) in Ecuador. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;43:795-807 pubmed
    ..Results highlight the role of both isolation and ecology in diversification in Ecuadorian montane regions, while suggesting the two may not always act in concert to produce divergence in adaptive traits. ..
  46. Wolf J, Trillmich F. Beyond habitat requirements: individual fine-scale site fidelity in a colony of the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) creates conditions for social structuring. Oecologia. 2007;152:553-67 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implication of observed fine-scale site fidelity patterns on habitat use, dispersal decisions and social structure in colonial breeding pinnipeds. ..
  47. Pyrcz T, Wojtusiak J, Garlacz R. Diversity and distribution patterns of Pronophilina butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) along an altitudinal transect in north-western Ecuador. Neotrop Entomol. 2009;38:716-26 pubmed
    ..a species-rich group of neotropical montane butterflies, were carried out along an elevational transect in Ecuador to assess the effect of altitude on their distribution patterns, diversity and community structure...
  48. Greeney H, Warren A. The life history and shelter building behavior of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae). J Insect Sci. 2009;9:32 pubmed publisher
    Abstract We describe all life-stages of Vettius coryna coryna Hewitson, 1866 in eastern Ecuador. The details of larval shelter structure and associated shelter building behavior are described and illustrated, as observed on two grass ..
  49. Kato H, Caceres A, Gomez E, Mimori T, Uezato H, Marco J, et al. Molecular mass screening to incriminate sand fly vectors of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador and Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:719-21 pubmed
    Sand flies from the Andean areas of Ecuador and Peru were examined for Leishmania infections by using our recently established molecular mass screening method...
  50. Terayama Y, Kato H, Gomez E, Uezato H, Calvopina M, Iwata H, et al. Molecular typing of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from areas endemic for Leishmaniasis in Ecuador by PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA gene. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:907-13 pubmed
    ..present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ..
  51. Zarrillo S, Pearsall D, Raymond J, Tisdale M, Quon D. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5006-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P...
  52. Avilés L, Agnarsson I, Salazar P, Purcell J, Iturralde G, Yip E, et al. Altitudinal patterns of spider sociality and the biology of a new midelevation social Anelosimus species in Ecuador. Am Nat. 2007;170:783-92 pubmed
    ..We refer to these as the "maternal survival" and "prey size" hypotheses, respectively, and suggest that both in combination may explain the geographical distribution of sociality in the genus. ..
  53. Whiteman N, Sanchez P, Merkel J, Klompen H, Parker P. Cryptic host specificity of an avian skin mite (Epidermoptidae) vectored by louseflies (Hippoboscidae) associated with two endemic Galapagos bird species. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1218-28 pubmed
    ..Mites of hawk flies were more abundant than those of cormorant flies. Within the Myialges clade associated with hawks, genetic differentiation between 2 island populations mirrored its host's patterns of differentiation. ..