Summary: A set of variants within a species of microorganisms that are antigenically, closely related. With bacteria, a serogroup refers to a group that shares a common antigen.

Top Publications

  1. Janapatla R, Su L, Chen H, Chang H, Tsai T, Chen P, et al. Epidemiology of culture-confirmed infections of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2012-2015) and nasopharyngeal carriage in children and households in Taiwan (2014-2015). J Med Microbiol. 2017;66:729-736 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the carriage isolates a significantly higher percentage belonged to serogroup 15 compared to serogroup 19 (26.6 vs 6.66?%, 2014-2015; P=0.003)...
  2. Hu T, Zhang H, Feng Y, Fan J, Tang T, Liu Y, et al. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of emergent dengue virus in Yunnan Province near the China-Myanmar-Laos border, 2013-2015. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:331 pubmed publisher
  3. Chen Q, Xing X, Wu Y, Liao Q, Liu G, Jiang X, et al. [Hand, foot and mouth disease in Hubei province, 2009-2015: an epidemiological and etiological study]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2017;38:441-445 pubmed publisher
    ..5~5????????????????????6~11???????2009?2015???????????ev71?cox a16?cox a16?cox a16?ev71?cox a16??????????????????4?6??11?12??????????????? ??? 2009?2015???????????????0.5~5??????????????????6~11?????????????????????????????????. ..
  4. Gioia C, Lemos A, Gorla M, Mendoza Sassi R, Figueredo B, Ballester T, et al. Seroprevalence of bactericidal antibodies against serogroup B and C Meningococci in a University Hospital. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;50:e5590 pubmed publisher
    Meningococcus serogroup B (MenB), clonal complex 32 (cc 32), was the Brazilian epidemic strain of meningococcal disease (MD) in the 1990's...
  5. Xu Y, Bai X, Jin Y, Hu B, Wang H, Sun H, et al. High Prevalence of Virulence Genes in Specific Genotypes of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:109 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty-six O serogroups were identified. Serogroup O51 was the most prevalent, followed by O119, O26 and O76...
  6. Sittivicharpinyo T, Wonnapinij P, Surat W. Complete coding sequence of dengue virus serotype 4 isolated from field-caught mosquitoes in Thailand. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017;112:580-582 pubmed publisher
    ..The C4279T variant located in the NS2B gene can indirectly affect the proteolytic activity of the NS3 protein. The sequence provided in this study might be useful for the epidemiological study of DENV-4. ..
  7. Huang J, Patrick M, Manners J, Sapkota A, Scherzinger K, Tobin D Angelo M, et al. Association between wetland presence and incidence of Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana infections in selected US sites, 2005-2011. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2991-2997 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that environmental habitats may support reservoirs or contribute to the persistence of serotype Javiana, and may frequently contribute to the transmission of infection compared with other Salmonella serotypes...
  8. Tohya M, Arai S, Tomida J, Watanabe T, Kawamura Y, Katsumi M, et al. Defining the taxonomic status of Streptococcus suis serotype 33: the proposal for Streptococcus ruminantium sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3660-3665 pubmed publisher
    ..suis serotype 33 should be classified into the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus ruminantium sp. nov. with the type strain GUT-187T (=DSM 104980T=JCM 31869T). ..
  9. Rao J, Agrawal P, Mohammad R, Rao S, Reddy G, Dechamma H, et al. Expression of VP1 protein of serotype A and O of foot-and-mouth disease virus in transgenic sunnhemp plants and its immunogenicity for guinea pigs. Acta Virol. 2012;56:91-9 pubmed
    ..foot-and-mouth disease; sunnhemp; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; FMDV-VP1 gene; serotype O and A; in planta transformation; transgenic plants; bivalent vaccine. ..

More Information


  1. Chowdhury F, Rahman M, Sarkar M, Rabbi F, Khan S, Ahsan C, et al. Protection against shigellosis caused by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 4 in guinea pigs using Escherichia albertii DM104 as a live vaccine candidate strain. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2017;64:151-164 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results reconfirm our previous findings and additionally point out that the intranasal immunization of the environmental E. albertii strain DM104 in guinea pig model can be a better live vaccine candidate against shigellosis. ..
  2. Vaddadi K, Gandikota C, Jain P, Prasad V, Venkataramana M. Co-circulation and co-infections of all dengue virus serotypes in Hyderabad, India 2014. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2563-2574 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent...
  3. Diawara I, Barguigua A, Katfy K, Nayme K, Belabbes H, Timinouni M, et al. Molecular characterization of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2017;16:23 pubmed publisher
    ..PFGE clustering combined with pbp genotyping revealed that vaccination can change the population structure of PNSP. ..
  4. Barbuddhe S, Doijad S, Goesmann A, Hilker R, Poharkar K, Rawool D, et al. Presence of a widely disseminated Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b clone in India. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e55 pubmed publisher
  5. Villanueva Uy M, Wongsiridej P, Sangtawesin V, Chiu V, Tallo V, Nazaire Bermal N, et al. THE BURDEN OF INVASIVE NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL (GBS) DISEASE IN THAILAND AND THE PHILIPPINES. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2015;46:728-37 pubmed
    ..The low number of cases precluded analysis of serotype distribution and case fatality rates. Large epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the factors influencing GBS infection incidence in Asia. ..
  6. Ubukata K, Chiba N, Hanada S, Morozumi M, Wajima T, Shouji M, et al. Serotype Changes and Drug Resistance in Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Adults after Vaccinations in Children, Japan, 2010-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1956-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Respective vaccine coverage rates for 13-valent PCV and PPSV23 differed by disease: 73.9% and 84.3% for patients with pneumonia, 56.4% and 69.2% for patients with bacteremia and sepsis, and 45.7% and 69.3% for patients with meningitis. ..
  7. Cao Lormeau V, Roche C, Musso D, Mallet H, Dalipanda T, Dofai A, et al. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1034-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence. ..
  8. Ye J, Liang G, Zhang J, Wang W, Song N, Wang P, et al. Outbreaks of serotype 4 fowl adenovirus with novel genotype, China. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e50 pubmed publisher
  9. Donkor E, Annan J, Badoe E, Dayie N, Labi A, Slotved H. Pneumococcal carriage among HIV infected children in Accra, Ghana. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:133 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of respiratory symptoms appears to be a major determinant of pneumococcal carriage among the study population. ..
  10. Guo Y, Wang S, Zhan L, Jin Y, Duan J, Hao Z, et al. Microbiological and Clinical Characteristics of Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Associated with Invasive Infections in China. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:24 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition of ST types and PFGE clusters among K. pneumoniae K2 isolates was more diverse than K1 isolates. K1 and K2 HMKP isolates had respective specific profiles of virulence-associated genes. ..
  11. Aviv G, Elpers L, Mikhlin S, Cohen H, Vitman Zilber S, Grassl G, et al. The plasmid-encoded Ipf and Klf fimbriae display different expression and varying roles in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in mouse vs. avian hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006559 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that physiological differences between host species, such as the body temperature, can confer differences in fimbriome expression, affecting Salmonella colonization and other host-pathogen interplays. ..
  12. Gentile J, Franciss M, Brasil H. NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS PERITONITIS SEROTYPE C: CASE REPORT. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2016;29:67 pubmed publisher
  13. Wang W, Baloch Z, Peng Z, Hu Y, Xu J, Fanning S, et al. Genomic characterization of a large plasmid containing a bla NDM-1 gene carried on Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana C629 isolate from China. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:479 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bla NDM-1 gene being identified from a plasmid in a S. Indiana isolate cultured from chicken carcass in China. ..
  14. Stuart J, Holm G, Boehme K. Differential Delivery of Genomic Double-Stranded RNA Causes Reovirus Strain-Specific Differences in Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Activation. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, differences in events during the late stages of viral entry determine the capacity of reovirus to activate host IFN-I responses. Together, our work provides insight into mechanisms of IFN-I induction by nonenveloped viruses. ..
  15. Chandy S, Kirubanandhan L, Hemavathy P, Khadeeja A, Kurian S, Venkataraman K, et al. Serovar prevalence of Leptospira in semirural India and the development of an IgM-based indirect ELISA. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2017;11:234-241 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding Leptospira serovars circulating in leptospirosis-endemic areas will help to formulate better vaccines. LipL32-based ELISA may serve as a valuable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. ..
  16. Wang L, Fu J, Liang Z, Chen J. Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:765 pubmed publisher
    ..Conjugate vaccination coverage was slightly affected by the introduction of PCV7 into China because of low vaccination rate. The government should implement timely adjusted conjugate vaccination strategies based on our findings. ..
  17. Vu L, Long N, Brito B, Stenfeldt C, Phuong N, Hoang B, et al. First detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/Ind-2001d in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177361 pubmed publisher
    ..This incursion has substantial implications for epidemiology and control of FMD in Southeast Asia. ..
  18. Whitehorn J, Kien D, Quyen N, Wills B, Van Vinh Chau N, Tam D, et al. Genetic variants of MICB and PLCE1 and associations with the laboratory features of dengue. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:412 pubmed publisher
    ..The study findings mean that the functional basis of these mutations remains unclear. ISRCTN ISRCTN03147572 . Registered 24th July 2012. ..
  19. Boumart Z, Velge P, Wiedemann A. Multiple invasion mechanisms and different intracellular Behaviors: a new vision of Salmonella-host cell interaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2014;361:1-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the aim of this review is to show the evolution of Salmonella-host cell interaction paradigms by summarizing the different strategies used by Salmonella serotypes to invade and proliferate into eukaryotic cells. ..
  20. Teatero S, Mcgeer A, Li A, Gomes J, Seah C, Demczuk W, et al. Population structure and antimicrobial resistance of invasive serotype IV group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated antimicrobial drug resistance and found that ST-459 strains were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, whereas strains of other STs were, for the most part, susceptible to these antimicrobial drugs. ..
  21. Usein C, Ciontea A, Militaru C, Condei M, Dinu S, Oprea M, et al. Molecular characterisation of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains: results of an outbreak investigation, Romania, February to August 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..The virulence content of most strains highlighted a high risk for severe outcome in infected patients. Improving the national surveillance strategy for STEC infections in Romania needs to be further considered...
  22. Tang Y, Liu I, Li P, Chiu C, Lin C, Huang C, et al. Generation and Characterization of Antinonstructural Protein 1 Monoclonal Antibodies and Development of Diagnostics for Dengue Virus Serotype 2. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1049-1061 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results indicate that these newly generated mAbs are suitable for detection of NS1 protein of DENV-2 in clinical samples. ..
  23. Radó J, Kaszab E, Petrovics T, Pászti J, Kriszt B, Szoboszlay S. Characterization of environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa using multilocus sequence typing scheme. J Med Microbiol. 2017;66:1457-1466 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the determination of other clinically important virulence factors are needed to confirm these findings. ..
  24. Wang S, Chang K, Lu R, Wang W, Chen Y, Chen M, et al. Large Dengue virus type 1 outbreak in Taiwan. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015;4:e46 pubmed publisher
  25. Wang J, Feng Y, Wang C, Zheng F, Hassan B, Zhi L, et al. Genome-wide analysis of an avirulent strain that induces protective immunity against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that analysis genome of the avirulent strains are instrumental in the development of vaccines and for the functional characterization of important of genetic determinants. ..
  26. Aubry M, Teissier Y, Mapotoeke M, Teissier A, Giard M, Musso D, et al. High risk of dengue type 2 outbreak in French Polynesia, 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..As DENV-2 has not been circulating in French Polynesia since December 2000, there is high risk for an outbreak to occur. ..
  27. Felten A, Guillier L, Radomski N, Mistou M, Lailler R, Cadel Six S. Genome Target Evaluator (GTEvaluator): A workflow exploiting genome dataset to measure the sensitivity and specificity of genetic markers. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182082 pubmed publisher
    ..In one in silico experiment it was possible to test 64 markers onto 134 genomes corresponding to 14 different serotypes. ..
  28. Cano Gómez C, Fernandez Pinero J, García Casado M, Zell R, Jimenez Clavero M. Characterization of PTV-12, a newly described porcine teschovirus serotype: in vivo infection and cross-protection studies. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1636-1645 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on phylogenetic analysis and serological data, we propose CC25 as the prototype strain of a new teschovirus serotype, PTV-12. ..
  29. Klima C, Zaheer R, Briggs R, McAllister T. A multiplex PCR assay for molecular capsular serotyping of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, and 6. J Microbiol Methods. 2017;139:155-160 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the gene targets identified in this study can be used in silico to identify serotype 1, 2, and 6 strains in sequenced M. haemolytica isolates without the need for culture based analysis. ..
  30. Nadugala M, Jeewandara C, Malavige G, Premaratne P, Goonasekara C. Natural antibody responses to the capsid protein in sera of Dengue infected patients from Sri Lanka. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178009 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss our results in the context of the known structure of C protein and recent work on the human B-cell response to DENV infection. ..
  31. Dominguez A, Ciruela P, Hernández S, Garcia Garcia J, Soldevila N, Izquierdo C, et al. Effectiveness of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged 7-59 months. A matched case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183191 pubmed publisher
  32. Mitobe J, Sinha R, Mitra S, Nag D, Saito N, Shimuta K, et al. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005728 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin. ..
  33. Comstedt P, Schüler W, Meinke A, Lundberg U. The novel Lyme borreliosis vaccine VLA15 shows broad protection against Borrelia species expressing six different OspA serotypes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184357 pubmed publisher
    ..These new data provide further promise for the clinical development of VLA15 and supports our efforts to provide a new Lyme borreliosis vaccine available for global use. ..
  34. Dube F, Kaba M, Whittaker E, Zar H, Nicol M. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68097 pubmed publisher
    ..005). Flocked swabs released more S. pneumoniae compared to both Dacron and rayon swabs from mock specimens. Similarly, higher bacterial loads were detected by qPCR from flocked swabs compared with Dacron swabs from healthy children. ..
  35. Choudhary M, Gupta E, Sharma S, Hasnain N, Agarwala P. Genetic signatures coupled with lineage shift characterise endemic evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 during 2015 outbreak in Delhi, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2017;22:871-880 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed evolution of a distinct lineage of DENV-2 strains on the Indian subcontinent with possible changes in endemic circulating dengue strains that might give rise to more pathogenic strains. ..
  36. Zhu B, Xu Z, Du P, Xu L, Sun X, Gao Y, et al. Sequence Type 4821 Clonal Complex Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in China, 1978-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:925-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis strains belonging to sequence type 4821 clonal complex (CC4821), a hyperinvasive lineage first identified for serogroup C in 2003, have been increasingly isolated in China...
  37. Wang Y, Jiao Y, Lan R, Xu X, Liu G, Wang X, et al. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from human Listeriosis cases in China. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015;4:e50 pubmed publisher
  38. Usha K, Kumar E, Kalawat U, Kumar B, Chaudhury A, Gopal D. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian J Med Res. 2016;144:597-603 pubmed publisher
    ..The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region. ..
  39. Gangopadhyay A, Chakraborty H, Datta A. Targeting the dengue β-OG with serotype-specific alkaloid virtual leads. J Mol Graph Model. 2017;73:129-142 pubmed publisher
    ..The study proposes the serotype-specific inhibition of the β-OG for an effective inhibition of virus-host fusion, in contrast to a pan inhibitor. ..
  40. Burckhardt I, Panitz J, Burckhardt F, Zimmermann S. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Development of a Standardized Protocol for Optochin Susceptibility Testing Using Total Lab Automation. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4174168 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Conclusions. Shortening incubation time from 24?h to 12?h for optochin susceptibility testing is feasible. Agar and incubation time have to be chosen carefully to avoid false-negative results. ..
  41. Da Silva L, de Mello Santos A, Silva R. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity islands and other ExPEC virulence genes may contribute to the genome variability of enteroinvasive E. coli. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:68 pubmed publisher
    ..EIEC strains were distributed mainly in three phylogroups in a serogroup-dependent manner...
  42. Pipkins H, Bradshaw J, Keller L, Swiatlo E, McDaniel L. Polyamine transporter potABCD is required for virulence of encapsulated but not nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179159 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, NESp virulence regulation needs to be further established to identify potential NESp therapeutic targets. ..
  43. Dumre S, Bhandari R, Shakya G, Shrestha S, Cherif M, Ghimire P, et al. Dengue Virus Serotypes 1 and 2 Responsible for Major Dengue Outbreaks in Nepal: Clinical, Laboratory, and Epidemiological Features. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1062-1069 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a country with recent dengue introduction, like Nepal, urgently requires a systematic surveillance and appropriate control measures in place to respond to any disastrous outbreaks...
  44. Ardanuy C, de la Campa A, Garcia E, Fenoll A, Calatayud L, Cercenado E, et al. Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 8-ST63 multidrug-resistant recombinant Clone, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1848-56 pubmed publisher
    ..One recombination point was upstream of pbp2x and another was within pbp1a. A serotype 8-ST63 clone was identified as a cause of invasive disease in Spain. ..
  45. Burall L, Grim C, Datta A. A clade of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant strains linked to recent listeriosis outbreaks associated with produce from a defined geographic region in the US. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176912 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a high degree of relatedness among these 4bV strains linked to a defined geographic region and also highlight the possibility of alterations related to adaptation and virulence. ..
  46. Pearce D, McCaw J, McVernon J, Mathews J. Influenza as a trigger for cardiovascular disease: An investigation of serotype, subtype and geographic location. Environ Res. 2017;156:688-696 pubmed publisher
    ..236) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. This ecological study provides further evidence that severe respiratory infections may trigger the onset of cardiovascular events, implicating the influenza virus as a contributing factor. ..
  47. Delannoy S, Beutin L, Mariani Kurkdjian P, Fleiss A, Bonacorsi S, Fach P. The Escherichia coli Serogroup O1 and O2 Lipopolysaccharides Are Encoded by Multiple O-antigen Gene Clusters. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:30 pubmed publisher
    ..coli (STEC) strains. ..
  48. Geno K, Saad J, Nahm M. Discovery of Novel Pneumococcal Serotype 35D, a Natural WciG-Deficient Variant of Serotype 35B. J Clin Microbiol. 2017;55:1416-1425 pubmed publisher
    ..As this isolate expresses a unique serology with unique biochemistry and a stable genetic basis, we named its novel capsule serotype 35D. ..
  49. Megawati D, Masyeni S, Yohan B, Lestarini A, Hayati R, Meutiawati F, et al. Dengue in Bali: Clinical characteristics and genetic diversity of circulating dengue viruses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005483 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlights the role of this tourist destination as a potential source of dengue transmission in the region. ..
  50. Wernery U, Corman V, Wong E, Tsang A, Muth D, Lau S, et al. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1019-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk. ..
  51. Gray M, Lampel K, Strockbine N, Fernández R, Melton Celsa A, Maurelli A. Clinical isolates of Shiga toxin 1a-producing Shigella flexneri with an epidemiological link to recent travel to Hispañiola. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, all patients who reported foreign travel had recently been to Hispañiola, suggesting that emergence of these novel strains is associated with that region. ..
  52. Takano T, Nakaguchi M, Doki T, Hohdatsu T. Antibody-dependent enhancement of serotype II feline enteric coronavirus infection in primary feline monocytes. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3339-3345 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, infection of monocytes by FECV was enhanced by antibodies, but the efficiency of infection was lower than that of FIPV. ..
  53. Wagenvoort G, Sanders E, Vlaminckx B, de Melker H, van der Ende A, Knol M. Sex differences in invasive pneumococcal disease and the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the Netherlands, 2004 to 2015. Euro Surveill. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing surveillance of IPD incidence by sex is important to evaluate the long-term effects of PCV implementation. ..