r factors


Summary: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.

Top Publications

  1. Beranek A, Zettl M, Lorenzoni K, Schauer A, Manhart M, Koraimann G. Thirty-eight C-terminal amino acids of the coupling protein TraD of the F-like conjugative resistance plasmid R1 are required and sufficient to confer binding to the substrate selector protein TraM. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6999-7006 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus provide evidence that substrate selection within the IncF plasmid group is based on TraM's capability to select the correct DNA molecule for transport and not on substrate selection by the CP...
  2. Zatyka M, Bingle L, Jones A, Thomas C. Cooperativity between KorB and TrbA repressors of broad-host-range plasmid RK2. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1022-31 pubmed
  3. Karl W, Bamberger M, Zechner E. Transfer protein TraY of plasmid R1 stimulates TraI-catalyzed oriT cleavage in vivo. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:909-14 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that, whereas TraY and TraM function may overlap to a certain extent in the R1 relaxosome, TraM additionally performs a second function that is essential for successful conjugative transmission of plasmid DNA. ..
  4. Kruse H, Sørum H. Transfer of multiple drug resistance plasmids between bacteria of diverse origins in natural microenvironments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994;60:4015-21 pubmed
  5. S rum H, L Ab e Lund T, Solberg A, Wold A. Integron-containing IncU R plasmids pRAS1 and pAr-32 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1285-90 pubmed
  6. DeNap J, Thomas J, Musk D, Hergenrother P. Combating drug-resistant bacteria: small molecule mimics of plasmid incompatibility as antiplasmid compounds. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:15402-4 pubmed
    ..The demonstration that a small molecule can mimic incompatibility, cause plasmid elimination, and resensitize bacteria to antibiotics opens up new targets for antibacterial research. ..
  7. Fernandez Lopez R, Machón C, Longshaw C, Martin S, Molin S, Zechner E, et al. Unsaturated fatty acids are inhibitors of bacterial conjugation. Microbiology. 2005;151:3517-26 pubmed
    ..Two separate compounds were identified from these fractions: linoleic acid and dehydrocrepenynic acid. Downstream analysis showed that the chemical class of unsaturated fatty acids act as true inhibitors of conjugation. ..
  8. Kolatka K, Kubik S, Rajewska M, Konieczny I. Replication and partitioning of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2. Plasmid. 2010;64:119-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on two processes indispensable for plasmid DNA maintenance. We will summarize recent understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the RK2 DNA replication and partitioning. ..
  9. Nordström K. Plasmid R1--replication and its control. Plasmid. 2006;55:1-26 pubmed
    ..The clusters are plasmid-specific and presumably based on sequence homology. ..

More Information


  1. Thomas J, DeNap J, Wong M, Hergenrother P. The relationship between aminoglycosides' RNA binding proclivity and their antiplasmid effect on an IncB plasmid. Biochemistry. 2005;44:6800-8 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the potential for targeting key RNA regions for induction of plasmid loss and the subsequent resensitization of bacteria to antibiotics. ..
  2. Dionisio F, Matic I, Radman M, Rodrigues O, Taddei F. Plasmids spread very fast in heterogeneous bacterial communities. Genetics. 2002;162:1525-32 pubmed
    ..This "amplification effect" could have an impact on the evolution of bacterial pathogens that exist in heterogeneous bacterial communities because conjugative plasmids can carry virulence or antibiotic-resistance genes. ..
  3. Todd B. Beyond MRSA: VISA and VRSA: what will ward off these pathogens in health care facilities?. Am J Nurs. 2006;106:28-30 pubmed
  4. Bujdakova H, Lausová A, Jankovicová S, Prodinger W, Kallová J, Milosovic P, et al. Study of beta-lactam resistance in ceftazidime-resistant clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1998;10:135-41 pubmed
    ..coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates expressed the presence of TEM and SHV enzymes determined by isoelectric focusing. The possible trends in the development of antimicrobial resistance in Slovakia in the future are indicated. ..
  5. Tauch A, Schluter A, Bischoff N, Goesmann A, Meyer F, Puhler A. The 79,370-bp conjugative plasmid pB4 consists of an IncP-1beta backbone loaded with a chromate resistance transposon, the strA-strB streptomycin resistance gene pair, the oxacillinase gene bla(NPS-1), and a tripartite antibiotic efflux system of the. Mol Genet Genomics. 2003;268:570-84 pubmed
    ..The global genetic organization of pB4 implies that its gene load might be disseminated between bacteria in different habitats by the combined action of the conjugation apparatus and the mobility of its component elements. ..
  6. Sasatsu M, Shima K, Shibata Y, Kono M. Nucleotide sequence of a gene that encodes resistance to ethidium bromide from a transferable plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:10103 pubmed
  7. Stokes H, Tomaras C, Parsons Y, Hall R. The partial 3'-conserved segment duplications in the integrons In6 from pSa and In7 from pDGO100 have a common origin. Plasmid. 1993;30:39-50 pubmed publisher
  8. Soto S, Lobato M, Mendoza M. Class 1 integron-borne gene cassettes in multidrug-resistant Yersinia enterocolitica strains of different phenotypic and genetic types. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:421-6 pubmed
    ..Integrons and some of the resistance genes are located on plasmids with sizes ranging between 65 and 140 kb. This is the first report of class 1 integrons in Y. enterocolitica. ..
  9. Smith C, Markowitz S, Macrina F. Transferable tetracycline resistance in Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981;19:997-1003 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the tetracycline resistance determinant(s) was not encoded by readily detectable plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid and may be chromosomally located. ..
  10. Mills S, Coffey A, O Sullivan L, Stokes D, Hill C, Fitzgerald G, et al. Use of lacticin 481 to facilitate delivery of the bacteriophage resistance plasmid, pCBG104 to cheese starters. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92:238-46 pubmed
    ..Indeed self-cloning which is becoming increasingly important for strain improvement has a requirement for the identification and demonstration of the utility of tools such as lacticin 481. ..
  11. Kaneti G, Sarig H, Marjieh I, Fadia Z, Mor A. Simultaneous breakdown of multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms in S. aureus. FASEB J. 2013;27:4834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data reveal a potentially useful approach for overcoming antibiotic resistance and for preventing resistance from emerging as readily as when bacteria are exposed to an antibiotic alone. ..
  12. Lioi L, Sparvoli F, Galasso I, Lanave C, Bollini R. Lectin-related resistance factors against bruchids evolved through a number of duplication events. Theor Appl Genet. 2003;107:814-22 pubmed
    ..These results, together with the evolutionary analysis, indicate that lectin loci are quite complex and confirm their origin by multiple duplication events. ..
  13. Johnson A, Burns L, Woodford N, Threlfall E, Naidoo J, Cooke E, et al. Gentamicin resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli encoded by genes of veterinary origin. J Med Microbiol. 1994;40:221-6 pubmed
    ..coli results from the spread of resistant organisms from animals to man, with subsequent inter-strain or inter-species spread, or both, of resistance genes on transferable plasmids. ..
  14. Sahin F, Karasartova D, Gerceker D, Aysev A, Erdem B. [A novel Salmonella Typhimurium plasmid, pAnkS: an example for plasmid evolution in antibiotic resistance]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2008;42:383-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of pAnkS might help better understanding of plasmid evolution. ..
  15. Arvanitidou M, Tsakris A, Sofianou D, Katsouyannopoulos V. Antimicrobial resistance and R-factor transfer of salmonellae isolated from chicken carcasses in Greek hospitals. Int J Food Microbiol. 1998;40:197-201 pubmed
    ..The high incidence of antibiotic resistant salmonellae among chicken carcasses in our hospital setting suggests the need for public health interventions and possible withdrawal of drug selective pressure. ..
  16. Fortin Y, Phoenix P, Drapeau G. Mutations conferring resistance to azide in Escherichia coli occur primarily in the secA gene. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:6607-10 pubmed
    ..That azide inhibits SecA is consistent with the fact that SecA has ATPase activity, an activity that is often prone to inhibition by azide. ..
  17. Balıkçı H, Açikgöz Z, Güvenman S, Celikbilek N, Ozdem B. [Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase production in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2014;48:82-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, combined application of these phenotypic tests are necessary to screen and confirm the presence of pAmpC-mediated resistance. ..
  18. Camacho E, Serna A, Casadesus J. Regulation of conjugal transfer by Lrp and Dam methylation in plasmid R100. Int Microbiol. 2005;8:279-85 pubmed
    ..Repression of conjugal transfer in rich medium is an additional trait shared by R100 and pSLT. DNA sequence comparisons in regulatory loci support the view that R100 and pSLT are closely related. ..
  19. Popova L, Maksimova E, Lobova T, Kargatova T, Boiandin A, Krylova T, et al. [Stability of recombinant plasmids in transgenic microorganism cells under various environmental conditions]. Mikrobiologiia. 2001;70:796-803 pubmed
    ..The last factor is critical in the maintenance of recombinant plasmids in transgenic microorganisms. ..
  20. Guiney D, Hasegawa P, Davis C. Expression in Escherichia coli of cryptic tetracycline resistance genes from bacteroides R plasmids. Plasmid. 1984;11:248-52 pubmed
    ..This study identifies cryptic drug resistance determinants in Bacteroides that are expressed when inserted into an aerobically growing organism. ..
  21. Sherburne C, Lawley T, Gilmour M, Blattner F, Burland V, Grotbeck E, et al. The complete DNA sequence and analysis of R27, a large IncHI plasmid from Salmonella typhi that is temperature sensitive for transfer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:2177-86 pubmed
    ..The genes responsible for conjugation and plasmid maintenance have been identified and mechanisms responsible for thermosensitive transfer are discussed. ..
  22. Low J, Angus M, Hopkins G, Munro D, Rankin S. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica typhimurium DT104 isolates and investigation of strains with transferable apramycin resistance. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;118:97-103 pubmed
  23. Sakai D, Horiuchi T, Komano T. Atpase activity and multimer formation of Pilq protein are required for thin pilus biogenesis in plasmid R64. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17968-75 pubmed
    ..PilQ D263N monomer exhibited low ATPase activity, while PilQ D263N multimer did not. These results indicate that ATPase activity of the PilQ multimer is essential for R64 thin pilus biogenesis...
  24. Hjalt T, Wagner E. Bulged-out nucleotides protect an antisense RNA from RNase III cleavage. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:571-9 pubmed
    ..In the accompanying paper, we address the significance of bulges in CopA for binding to the target RNA in vitro and for its inhibitory efficiency in vivo. ..
  25. Silver S, Misra T. Plasmid-mediated heavy metal resistances. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1988;42:717-43 pubmed
  26. Sajnani G, Silva C, Ramos A, Pastrana M, Onisko B, Erickson M, et al. PK-sensitive PrP is infectious and shares basic structural features with PK-resistant PrP. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002547 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the sPrP(Sc) and rPrP(Sc) fractions have different resistance to PK-digestion, and have previously been shown to sediment differently, and have a different distribution of multimers, they share a common structure and phenotype. ..
  27. Ouellette M, Bissonnette L, Roy P. Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta-lactamase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7378-82 pubmed
    ..From the available sequence data a recombinational hot spot is defined at the nucleotide level 5' of the aadA gene of Tn21, and a second potential hot spot is proposed 3' of this gene...
  28. Teuber M, Schwarz F, Perreten V. Molecular structure and evolution of the conjugative multiresistance plasmid pRE25 of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from a raw-fermented sausage. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003;88:325-9 pubmed
    ..faecalis) and IS1485 (E. faecium). pRE25 demonstrates that enterococci from fermented food do participate in the molecular communication between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of the human and animal microflora. ..
  29. Golub E, Panzer H. The F factor of Escherichia coli carries a locus of stable plasmid inheritance stm, similar to the parB locus of plasmid RI. Mol Gen Genet. 1988;214:353-7 pubmed
    ..3-63.9) with extensive homology to the parB locus of plasmid RI and, probably like the parB region, ensures the presence of plasmids in bacterial populations by killing those cells which have lost the plasmid. ..
  30. Seol S, Kim Y, Jeong Y, Oh J, Kang H, Moon D, et al. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella sonnei isolates in Korea. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:871-7 pubmed
  31. Martin C, Timm J, Rauzier J, Gomez Lus R, Davies J, Gicquel B. Transposition of an antibiotic resistance element in mycobacteria. Nature. 1990;345:739-43 pubmed publisher
    ..smegmatis. The characterization of this element should permit transposon mutagenesis in the analysis of mycobacterial virulence and related problems...
  32. Gabant P, Newnham P, Taylor D, Couturier M. Isolation and location on the R27 map of two replicons and an incompatibility determinant specific for IncHI1 plasmids. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:7697-701 pubmed
    ..In this communication, we present the mapping of these maintenance elements on the R27 genome. ..
  33. Furuya N, Komano T. NikAB- or NikB-dependent intracellular recombination between tandemly repeated oriT sequences of plasmid R64 in plasmid or single-stranded phage vectors. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3871-7 pubmed
    ..coli cells, whereas such a reaction in double-stranded oriT DNA requires collaboration of the two relaxosome proteins, NikA and NikB. ..
  34. Ratnakar P, Mohanty B, Lobert M, Bastia D. The replication initiator protein pi of the plasmid R6K specifically interacts with the host-encoded helicase DnaB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5522-6 pubmed
    ..In a subsequent step, the helicase probably gets delivered from ori gamma to ori alpha and ori beta by pi-mediated DNA looping. ..
  35. Macartney D, Williams D, Stafford T, Thomas C. Divergence and conservation of the partitioning and global regulation functions in the central control region of the IncP plasmids RK2 and R751. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 7):2167-77 pubmed
    ..This may indicate that the Ctl plays an especially important role in partitioning of IncP beta plasmids, since they lack the second stability region (parlmrs) found in IncP alpha plasmids. ..
  36. Moghadasi M, Siavashpour S. The effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on hormones of bone formation in young sedentary women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results suggest that resistance training with specific intensity and duration utilized in this study increases the hormones of bone formation in young sedentary women. ..
  37. Norman A, Hansen L, She Q, Sørensen S. Nucleotide sequence of pOLA52: a conjugative IncX1 plasmid from Escherichia coli which enables biofilm formation and multidrug efflux. Plasmid. 2008;60:59-74 pubmed publisher
  38. Hunter J, Shelley J, Walton J, Hart C, Bennett M. Apramycin resistance plasmids in Escherichia coli: possible transfer to Salmonella typhimurium in calves. Epidemiol Infect. 1992;108:271-8 pubmed
    ..coli to S. typhimurium, and hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the gene encoding aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 3-IV (AAC(3)-IV) which confers resistance to apramycin, gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin. ..
  39. Mejean A, Bodenreider C, Schuerer K, Goldberg M. Kinetic characterization of the pH-dependent oligomerization of R67 dihydrofolate reductase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8169-79 pubmed
    ..Detailed analysis of the biphasic kinetics led to an original model, in which protonation of the tetramer is the triggering event for the dissociation process while the association involves primarily the unprotonated dimers. ..
  40. Chinault A, Blakesley V, Roessler E, Willis D, Smith C, Cook R, et al. Characterization of transferable plasmids from Shigella flexneri 2a that confer resistance to trimethoprim, streptomycin, and sulfonamides. Plasmid. 1986;15:119-31 pubmed
    ..The third plasmid from the set could not be correlated with a drug-resistance phenotype, but does appear to play a crucial role in plasmid mobilization. ..
  41. Eltringham I. Mupirocin resistance and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). J Hosp Infect. 1997;35:1-8 pubmed
    ..Any strategy to limit the increase of mupirocin resistance in MRSA should emphasize the importance of controlled antibiotic use both for mupirocin and other agents. ..
  42. Santos Sierra S, Giraldo R, Diaz Orejas R. Functional interactions between chpB and parD, two homologous conditional killer systems found in the Escherichia coli chromosome and in plasmid R1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;168:51-8 pubmed
  43. Tomosawa H, Fukuyama M, Furuhata K, Dogasaki C, Kiuchi A, Hara M, et al. [Drug sensitivity, conjugative R plasmids and plasmid profiles of Salmonella isolated from humans with infectious enteritis]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2000;74:816-23 pubmed
    ..These isolated were classified by the plasmid profiles into types H1 to H7. 5) Regarding the plasmid profiles of the S. Enteritidis isolates, a position corresponding to 60 Kbp was the most frequently detected in 90.5%. ..
  44. Wang Q, Xu G, Li J. [Assay of R-plasmid and antibiotic resistance spectrum in 286 strains of gram-negative bacteria]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 1994;15:357-9 pubmed
    ..2%). One-hundred and fifty-one of 286 strains carried R-plasmid in resistant bacteria (53.3%). 13.3% resistance markers were transferred with the whole R-factor. But 86.7% resistance markers were transferred with only a part of R-factor. ..
  45. Ko K, Song J. Evolution of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from Asian countries that contains erm(B) and mef(A) genes. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:739-47 pubmed
    ..Data suggest that the high prevalence of erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae in the Asian region is partly due to the clonal spread of a few multidrug-resistant clones. ..
  46. Weigel L, Clewell D, Gill S, Clark N, McDougal L, Flannagan S, et al. Genetic analysis of a high-level vancomycin-resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Science. 2003;302:1569-71 pubmed
    ..Genetic analyses suggest that the long-anticipated transfer of vancomycin resistance to a methicillin-resistant S. aureus occurred in vivo by interspecies transfer of Tn1546 from a co-isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. ..
  47. Cuzon G, Naas T, Nordmann P. [KPC carbapenemases: what is at stake in clinical microbiology?]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore critical to implement efficient infection control measures to detect patients who are colonized or infected with these pathogens in order to limit their spread. ..
  48. Hicks S, Smiley R, Hamilton J, Howell E. Role of ionic interactions in ligand binding and catalysis of R67 dihydrofolate reductase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10569-78 pubmed
    ..To reach the transition state, an ionic interaction between K32 and the pyrophosphate bridge is broken. This unusual scenario likely arises from the constraints imposed by the 222 symmetry of the enzyme. ..
  49. López Villarejo J, Diago Navarro E, Hernández Arriaga A, Díaz Orejas R. Kis antitoxin couples plasmid R1 replication and parD (kis,kid) maintenance modules. Plasmid. 2012;67:118-27 pubmed publisher
  50. Gayathri P, Fujii T, Møller Jensen J, van den Ent F, Namba K, Lowe J. A bipolar spindle of antiparallel ParM filaments drives bacterial plasmid segregation. Science. 2012;338:1334-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles. ..
  51. Carattoli A. Plasmids and the spread of resistance. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics of the most successful plasmids that were at the origin of the spread of carbapenemase, expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes are discussed in this review. ..
  52. Mabilat C, Lourençao Vital J, Goussard S, Courvalin P. A new example of physical linkage between Tn1 and Tn21: the antibiotic multiple-resistance region of plasmid pCFF04 encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamase TEM-3. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;235:113-21 pubmed
    ..The presence of an integron can account for the various assortments of aminoglycoside resistance genes found associated with blaTEM-3. ..
  53. R dstr m P, Sk ld O, Swedberg G, Flensburg J, Roy P, Sundstr m L. Transposon Tn5090 of plasmid R751, which carries an integron, is related to Tn7, Mu, and the retroelements. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3257-68 pubmed
    ..The data presented here suggest that Tn5090, Tn7, Tn552, and Mu form a subfamily of bacterial transposons which in parallel to many insertion sequences are related to the retroelements...