Summary: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.

Top Publications

  1. Zordan R, Ren Y, Pan S, Rotondo G, De Las Peñas A, Iluore J, et al. Expression plasmids for use in Candida glabrata. G3 (Bethesda). 2013;3:1675-86 pubmed publisher
    We describe a series of CEN/ARS episomal plasmids containing different Candida glabrata promoters, allowing for a range of constitutive or regulated expression of proteins in C. glabrata...
  2. Dahmen S, Haenni M, Châtre P, Madec J. Characterization of blaCTX-M IncFII plasmids and clones of Escherichia coli from pets in France. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:2797-801 pubmed publisher
    To characterize bla(CTX-M) IncFII plasmids and clones of Escherichia coli from cats and dogs and to compare them with bla(CTX-M) IncFII plasmids reported in humans. From December 2006 to April 2010, 518 E...
  3. Naas T, Bonnin R, Cuzon G, Villegas M, Nordmann P. Complete sequence of two KPC-harbouring plasmids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1757-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we determined the whole-plasmid sequence of two plasmids carrying the blaKPC-2 gene from multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from Colombia...
  4. Jiang W, Maniv I, Arain F, Wang Y, Levin B, Marraffini L. Dealing with the evolutionary downside of CRISPR immunity: bacteria and beneficial plasmids. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003844 pubmed publisher
    ..CRISPR-Cas immunity can also prevent cells from acquiring plasmids and free DNA bearing genes that increase their fitness...
  5. Mitchell L, Cai Y, Taylor M, Noronha A, Chuang J, Dai L, et al. Multichange isothermal mutagenesis: a new strategy for multiple site-directed mutations in plasmid DNA. ACS Synth Biol. 2013;2:473-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MISO mutagenesis has the potential to become widely used for site-directed mutagenesis. ..
  6. Chaconas G, Norris S. Peaceful coexistence amongst Borrelia plasmids: getting by with a little help from their friends?. Plasmid. 2013;70:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These organisms contain a segmented genome with up to two dozen plasmids ranging in size from 5 kb up to about 200 kb...
  7. Oliveira C, Moura A, Henriques I, Brown C, Rogers L, Top E, et al. Comparative genomics of IncP-1? plasmids from water environments reveals diverse and unique accessory genetic elements. Plasmid. 2013;70:412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to determine and compare the complete genome sequences of three new broad-host-range conjugative plasmids. Plasmids pMLUA1, pMLUA3 and pMLUA4 were previously recovered from estuarine water by exogenous plasmid isolation ..
  8. Last A, Roberts C, Cassama E, Nabicassa M, Molina Gonzalez S, Burr S, et al. Plasmid copy number and disease severity in naturally occurring ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity. ..
  9. Beutlich J, Rodicio M, Mendoza M, Garcia P, Kirchner M, Luzzi I, et al. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence-resistance plasmids derived from the pSLT carrying nonconventional class 1 integrons with dfrA12 gene in their variable region and sul3 in the 3' conserved segment. Microb Drug Resist. 2013;19:437-45 pubmed publisher
    Drug-resistant derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids, such as pSLT, in clinically-relevant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains, represent a threat for human health. We have analysed 14 S...

More Information


  1. Sevillano L, Diaz M, Santamaría R. Stable expression plasmids for Streptomyces based on a toxin-antitoxin system. Microb Cell Fact. 2013;12:39 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to use the yefM/yoeBsl system to stabilize expression plasmids in Streptomyces, a S...
  2. Miller S, Porcella S, Raffel S, Schwan T, Barbour A. Large linear plasmids of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:3629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..of relapsing fever (RF) and Lyme disease (LD) lineages have linear chromosomes and both linear and circular plasmids. Unique to RF species, and little characterized to date, are large linear plasmids of ?160 kb, or ?10% of the ..
  3. Dobiasova H, Dolejska M, Jamborova I, Brhelova E, Blazkova L, Papousek I, et al. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes and plasmids among Escherichia coli isolates from zoo animals, Czech Republic. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013;85:604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing and ..
  4. Li J, Adams V, Bannam T, Miyamoto K, Garcia J, Uzal F, et al. Toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013;77:208-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb...
  5. Paytubi S, Aznar S, Madrid C, Balsalobre C, Dillon S, Dorman C, et al. A novel role for antibiotic resistance plasmids in facilitating Salmonella adaptation to non-host environments. Environ Microbiol. 2014;16:950-62 pubmed publisher
    It is believed that the main role of plasmids that encode multiple antibiotic resistance is to confer their hosts the ability to survive in the presence of antimicrobial compounds...
  6. Tazzyman S, Bonhoeffer S. Fixation probability of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Theor Popul Biol. 2013;90:49-55 pubmed publisher
    Mobile genetic elements such as plasmids are increasingly becoming thought of as evolutionarily important. Being horizontally transmissible is generally assumed to be beneficial for a gene...
  7. Huang T, Wang J, Lauderdale T, Liao T, Lai J, Tan M, et al. Complete sequences of two plasmids in a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella oxytoca isolate from Taiwan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:4072-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Two plasmids, pKOX_NDM1 and pKOX-R1, were identified for the Klebsiella oxytoca strain E718...
  8. Brown C, Sen D, Yano H, Bauer M, Rogers L, Van der Auwera G, et al. Diverse broad-host-range plasmids from freshwater carry few accessory genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:7684-95 pubmed publisher
    Broad-host-range self-transferable plasmids are known to facilitate bacterial adaptation by spreading genes between phylogenetically distinct hosts...
  9. Ferreira R, Borges V, Nunes A, Borrego M, Gomes J. Assessment of the load and transcriptional dynamics of Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid according to strains' tissue tropism. Microbiol Res. 2013;168:333-339 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated if the number of plasmids per strain correlate with expression profiles of plasmid ORFs and small anti-sense RNAs (sRNAs), and also if ..
  10. Tamamura Y, Tanaka K, Akiba M, Kanno T, Hatama S, Ishihara R, et al. Complete nucleotide sequences of virulence-resistance plasmids carried by emerging multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77644 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we have shown that virulence-resistance plasmids from emerging multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were derived from a virulence-associated plasmid, essential for systematic ..
  11. Król J, Wojtowicz A, Rogers L, Heuer H, Smalla K, Krone S, et al. Invasion of E. coli biofilms by antibiotic resistance plasmids. Plasmid. 2013;70:110-9 pubmed publisher
    In spite of the contribution of plasmids to the spread of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens, little is known about the transferability of various drug resistance plasmids in bacterial biofilms...
  12. Freitas A, Novais C, Tedim A, Francia M, Baquero F, Peixe L, et al. Microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus populations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60589 pubmed publisher
    ..and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHT?-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented...
  13. Schmidt C, Shis D, Nguyen Huu T, Bennett M. Stable maintenance of multiple plasmids in E. coli using a single selective marker. ACS Synth Biol. 2012;1:445-50 pubmed publisher
    Plasmid-based genetic systems in Escherichia coli are a staple of synthetic biology. However, the use of plasmids imposes limitations on the size of synthetic gene circuits and the ease with which they can be placed into bacterial hosts...
  14. Hillson N, Rosengarten R, Keasling J. j5 DNA assembly design automation software. ACS Synth Biol. 2012;1:14-21 pubmed publisher
  15. Pouget J, Coutinho F, Reid Smith R, Boerlin P. Characterization of bla(SHV) genes on plasmids from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from Canadian food animals (2006-2007). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:3864-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Eighteen were on plasmids of the incI1 (n = 15), incP (n = 2), and incFIB (n = 1) incompatibility groups...
  16. Francia M, Clewell D, de la Cruz F, Moncalian G. Catalytic domain of plasmid pAD1 relaxase TraX defines a group of relaxases related to restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13606-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of MOBC relaxases, which differs radically from that of His-hydrophobe-His relaxases. ..
  17. Arends K, Celik E, Probst I, Goessweiner Mohr N, Fercher C, Grumet L, et al. TraG encoded by the pIP501 type IV secretion system is a two-domain peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme essential for conjugative transfer. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:4436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our findings, we propose that TraG locally opens the peptidoglycan to facilitate insertion of the Gram-positive bacterial type IV secretion machinery into the cell envelope. ..
  18. San Millan A, Heilbron K, MacLean R. Positive epistasis between co-infecting plasmids promotes plasmid survival in bacterial populations. ISME J. 2014;8:601-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmids have a key role in the horizontal transfer of genes among bacteria...
  19. Li L, Liao X, Yang Y, Sun J, Li L, Liu B, et al. Spread of oqxAB in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium predominantly by IncHI2 plasmids. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:2263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The oqxAB-positive isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmids carrying oqxAB were studied by conjugation/transformation, replicon typing, Southern hybridization, long-range ..
  20. Hodin T, Najrana T, Yates J. Efficient replication of Epstein-Barr virus-derived plasmids requires tethering by EBNA1 to host chromosomes. J Virol. 2013;87:13020-8 pubmed publisher
    The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus enables plasmids carrying oriP both to duplicate and to segregate efficiently in proliferating cells...
  21. Oliveira P, Mairhofer J. Marker-free plasmids for biotechnological applications - implications and perspectives. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31:539-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide an overview on the potential implications of marker-free plasmids and perspectives for their successful biotechnological use in the future.
  22. Gómez Sanz E, Kadlec K, Feßler A, Zarazaga M, Torres C, Schwarz S. Novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids from porcine and human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:3275-82 pubmed publisher
    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants...
  23. Sonnevend A, Al Baloushi A, Ghazawi A, Hashmey R, Girgis S, Hamadeh M, et al. Emergence and spread of NDM-1 producer Enterobacteriaceae with contribution of IncX3 plasmids in the United Arab Emirates. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:1044-50 pubmed publisher
    ..All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene on plasmids of IncA/C, IncHI1b and IncX3 types, or were untypable...
  24. Laverde Gomez J, Bhatty M, Christie P. PrgK, a multidomain peptidoglycan hydrolase, is essential for conjugative transfer of the pheromone-responsive plasmid pCF10. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:527-39 pubmed publisher
    ..PrgK is indispensable for plasmid transfer in liquid matings, suggestive of a role in formation or stabilization of mating junctions. ..
  25. Fabrega A, Vila J. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium skills to succeed in the host: virulence and regulation. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26:308-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses primarily on the virulence armamentarium of this pathogen and the extremely complicated regulatory network controlling its success...
  26. Kho E, Wang H, Banerjee N, Broker T, Chow L. HPV-18 E6 mutants reveal p53 modulation of viral DNA amplification in organotypic cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7542-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Cre-loxP recombination, which efficiently generates HPV genomic plasmids in transfected primary human keratinocytes, we have recapitulated a highly productive infection of HPV-18 in ..
  27. Fukao M, Oshima K, Morita H, Toh H, Suda W, Kim S, et al. Genomic analysis by deep sequencing of the probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 harboring nine plasmids reveals genomic stability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60521 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome contained a 2,395,134-bp chromosome that housed 2,391 protein-coding genes and nine plasmids that together accounted for 191 protein-coding genes...
  28. Reyes Lamothe R, Tran T, Meas D, Lee L, Li A, Sherratt D, et al. High-copy bacterial plasmids diffuse in the nucleoid-free space, replicate stochastically and are randomly partitioned at cell division. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:1042-51 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial plasmids play important roles in the metabolism, pathogenesis and bacterial evolution and are highly versatile biotechnological tools...
  29. Paul D, Maurya A, Chanda D, Sharma G, Chakravarty A, Bhattacharjee A. Carriage of blaNDM-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through multiple Inc type plasmids in a tertiary referral hospital of northeast India. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143:826-829 pubmed publisher
  30. Burnham D, Nijholt B, De Vlaminck I, Quan J, Yusufzai T, Dekker C. Annealing helicase HARP closes RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles non-processively. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:4687-4695 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work also allows the determination of some important features of RPA-bubble structures at low supercoiling, including the existence of multiple bubbles and that RPA molecules are mis-registered on the two strands. ..
  31. Zhang L, Zhang Y, Chen Z, He Y. Intracellular redox-responsive nanocarrier for plasmid delivery: in vitro characterization and in vivo studies in mice. Int J Nanomedicine. 2016;11:5245-5256 pubmed
  32. Del Cerro P, Rolla Santos A, Valderrama Fernández R, Gil Serrano A, Bellogín R, Gomes D, et al. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154029 pubmed publisher
    ..tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species. ..
  33. Gupta S, Dey S, Chellappa M. DNA Vaccination in Chickens. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1404:165-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter, we focus on the development of DNA vaccines against important infectious viral as well as parasitic diseases of poultry. ..
  34. Khalil A, Yu X, Xie A, Fontana G, Umhoefer J, Johnson H, et al. Functionalization of microparticles with mineral coatings enhances non-viral transfection of primary human cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14211 pubmed publisher
    ..This MCM-based transfection is an advancement in gene delivery technology, as it represents a non-viral approach that enables highly efficient, localized transfection and allows for transfection of three-dimensional cell constructs. ..
  35. Abdalhamid B, Albunayan S, Shaikh A, Elhadi N, Aljindan R. Prevalence study of plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible ampC from Saudi hospitals. J Med Microbiol. 2017;66:1286-1290 pubmed publisher
    ..CMY-2 is the most prevalent pAmpC ?-lactamase in this study. These data emphasize the importance of surveillance studies and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes to reduce infections caused by such resistant organisms. ..
  36. da Cunha M, Pais S, Bugalhão J, Mota L. The Chlamydia trachomatis type III secretion substrates CT142, CT143, and CT144 are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178856 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy of cells infected by C. trachomatis strains carrying plasmids producing CT142, CT143, or CT144 under the control of the ct142 promoter and with a C-terminal double ..
  37. Barnett R, Lin X, Barravecchia M, Norman R, de Mesy Bentley K, Fazal F, et al. Featured Article: Electroporation-mediated gene delivery of surfactant protein B (SP-B) restores expression and improves survival in mouse model of SP-B deficiency. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:1345-1354 pubmed publisher
    ..Control or one of several different human surfactant protein B-expressing plasmids was delivered to the lung by aspiration and electroporation at the time of doxycycline removal or four days later...
  38. Vujicic Zagar A, Scapozza L, Vadas O. Design and purification of active truncated phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma protein constructs for structural studies. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;135:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The soluble constructs retain both basal activity and sensitivity to GPCR stimulation, and are thus an optimal tool to further explore their regulation using a structure-based approach. ..
  39. Huang C, Lan W, Wang F, Zhang C, Liu X, Chen Q. Establishment of a Human Breast Cancer Model by Fusion PCR for In Vivo and In Vitro Fluorescence Imaging of Human Breast Cancer. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:50-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Indices of fluorescence imaging can be applied to fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo, providing a straightforward and reliable system for breast cancer and drug discovery research. ..
  40. Doolaanea A, Mansor N, Mohd Nor N, Mohamed F. Co-encapsulation of Nigella sativa oil and plasmid DNA for enhanced gene therapy of Alzheimer's disease. J Microencapsul. 2016;33:114-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study suggest that NSO could be added to the gene delivery carrier to enhance treatment benefits for Alzheimer disease. ..
  41. Wang B, Li F, Xu K, Ni M, Hu J, Tian J, et al. Effects of mutations on the structure and function of silkworm type 1 acetylcholinesterase. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2016;129:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study helps understand the relationship between AChE1 mutations and pesticide resistance and provides a new direction for the cultivation of new pesticide-resistant varieties of B.mori. ..
  42. Maney S, Xu H, Huang J, Pandyra A, Ehlting C, Aguilar Valenzuela R, et al. RAIDD Mediates TLR3 and IRF7 Driven Type I Interferon Production. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39:1271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified that the adaptor molecule RAIDD coordinates IKK? and IRF7 interaction to ensure efficient expression of type I interferon. ..
  43. Santos T, Carvalho J, Corvo M, Cabrita E, Queiroz J, Cruz C. L-tryptophan and dipeptide derivatives for supercoiled plasmid DNA purification. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;87:385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromatography experiments are performed with l-tryptophan support and plasmids pVAX-LacZ and pPH600...
  44. Pahrudin Arrozi A, Shukri S, Wan Ngah W, Mohd Yusof Y, Ahmad Damanhuri M, Makpol S. Evaluation of the Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein and the Ratio of Secreted Amyloid Beta 42 to Amyloid Beta 40 in SH-SY5Y Cells Stably Transfected with Wild-Type, Single-Mutant and Double-Mutant Forms of the APP Gene for the Study of Alzheime. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2017;183:853-866 pubmed publisher
    ..The double-mutant form of APP (Swedish/Indiana) expressed markedly high levels of APP protein and showed a high A?2/40 ratio compared to wild-type and single-mutant cells. ..
  45. Zhao X, Komatsu D, Hadjiargyrou M. Delivery of rhBMP-2 Plasmid DNA Complexes via a PLLA/Collagen Electrospun Scaffold Induces Ectopic Bone Formation. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2016;12:1285-96 pubmed
    ..As such, adsorption of plasmid DNA complexes can be an effective strategy for tissue engineering in vivo, but further research is required to optimize our approach and obtain a clinically meaningful tissue response. ..
  46. Gardner K, Osawa M, Erickson H. Whole genome re-sequencing to identify suppressor mutations of mutant and foreign Escherichia coli FtsZ. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176643 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in three genes, ispA, accD and nlpI, may be more directly involved in cell division. In addition to the genomic suppressor mutations, we identified intragenic suppressors of three FtsZ point mutants (R174A, E250K and L272V). ..
  47. Javidi Parsijani P, Niu G, Davis M, Lu P, Atala A, Lu B. No evidence of genome editing activity from Natronobacterium gregoryi Argonaute (NgAgo) in human cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177444 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that NgAgo is not a robust genome editing tool, although it may have such activity under other conditions. ..
  48. Ohtani K. Gene regulation by the VirS/VirR system in Clostridium perfringens. Anaerobe. 2016;41:5-9 pubmed publisher
    ..perfringens infections by regulating virulence related genes and genes for energy metabolism. These systems are important for the host cell-induced upregulation of toxin production. ..
  49. Ricklefs E, Girhard M, Urlacher V. Three-steps in one-pot: whole-cell biocatalytic synthesis of enantiopure (+)- and (-)-pinoresinol via kinetic resolution. Microb Cell Fact. 2016;15:78 pubmed publisher
    ..The products of the reductases' activity, (-)-lariciresinol and (-)-secoisolariciresinol, are valuable precursors that can also be applied for the synthesis of further lignans. ..
  50. Tyrrell J, Wootton M, Toleman M, Howe R, Woodward M, Walsh T. Genetic & virulence profiling of ESBL-positive E. coli from nosocomial & veterinary sources. Vet Microbiol. 2016;186:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Conjugation experiments assessed transmissibility of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14...
  51. Mourier T. Potential movement of transposable elements through DNA circularization. Curr Genet. 2016;62:697-700 pubmed
    ..Although further experimental evidence is needed to establish the extent to which movement of transposable elements through DNA circularization takes place, such movement is likely to have a functional impact on the genomic context. ..
  52. WRIGHT J, Thomsen M, Kolodziejczyk R, Ridley J, Sinclair J, Carrington G, et al. The crystal structure of PD1, a Haemophilus surface fibril domain. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2017;73:101-108 pubmed publisher
    ..PD1 represents the first Hsf domain to be solved, and thus paves the way for further research on the `hairpin-like' hypothesis...
  53. Rychli K, Wagner E, Ciolacu L, Zaiser A, Tasara T, Wagner M, et al. Comparative genomics of human and non-human Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 121 strains. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176857 pubmed publisher
    ..81.4% of the strains harbored virtually identical plasmids. 97.1% of the ST121 strains contain a truncated internalin A (inlA) gene...