sister chromatid exchange


Summary: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.

Top Publications

  1. Brar G, Hochwagen A, Ee L, Amon A. The multiple roles of cohesin in meiotic chromosome morphogenesis and pairing. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1030-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define Rec8 as a key determinant of meiotic chromosome morphogenesis and a central player in multiple meiotic events. ..
  2. Wang X, Reyes Lamothe R, Sherratt D. Modulation of Escherichia coli sister chromosome cohesion by topoisomerase IV. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose that precatenanes, which form as replication progresses by interwinding of newly replicated sister chromosomes, are responsible for E. coli sister chromosome cohesion...
  3. Rhee D, Wang Y, Mizesko M, Zhou F, Haneline L, Liu Y. FANCC suppresses short telomere-initiated telomere sister chromatid exchange. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..or Tert(-/-)) with short telomeres, Fancc deficiency led to an increase in the incidence of telomere sister chromatid exchange. In contrast, these phenotypes were not observed in Tert mutant mice with long telomeres...
  4. Parnas O, Zipin Roitman A, Mazor Y, Liefshitz B, Ben Aroya S, Kupiec M. The ELG1 clamp loader plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5497 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Elg1, Ctf4, and Ctf18 may coordinate the relative movement of the replication fork with respect to the cohesin ring. ..
  5. Sfeir A, Kabir S, Van Overbeek M, Celli G, de Lange T. Loss of Rap1 induces telomere recombination in the absence of NHEJ or a DNA damage signal. Science. 2010;327:1657-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The data reveal that HDR at telomeres can take place in the absence of DNA damage foci and underscore the functional compartmentalization within shelterin. ..
  6. Lorenti Garcia C, Mechilli M, Proietti de Santis L, Schinoppi A, Kobos K, Palitti F. Relationship between DNA lesions, DNA repair and chromosomal damage induced by acetaldehyde. Mutat Res. 2009;662:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TCR/NER pathways are involved in repairing FA induced DPCs, but less in AA-induced DPCs. Our preliminary data suggest that DPCs are weaker inducers of SCEs in comparison with ICLs. ..
  7. Koseoglu B, Ozturk S, Kocak H, Palanduz S, Cefle K. The effects of etodolac, nimesulid and naproxen sodium on the frequency of sister chromatid exchange after enclused third molars surgery. Yonsei Med J. 2008;49:742-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation of the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is accepted as a reliable cytogenetic method to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental ..
  8. Xu D, Guo R, Sobeck A, Bachrati C, Yang J, Enomoto T, et al. RMI, a new OB-fold complex essential for Bloom syndrome protein to maintain genome stability. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2843-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, inactivation of RMI2 in chicken DT40 cells results in an increased level of sister chromatid exchange (SCE)--the hallmark feature of Bloom syndrome cells...
  9. Roos W, Nikolova T, Quiros S, Naumann S, Kiedron O, Zdzienicka M, et al. Brca2/Xrcc2 dependent HR, but not NHEJ, is required for protection against O(6)-methylguanine triggered apoptosis, DSBs and chromosomal aberrations by a process leading to SCEs. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:72-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, HR can be considered as a mechanism that causes tolerance of O(6)MeG adducts. The data implicate that down-regulation or inhibition of HR might be a powerful strategy in improving cancer therapy with methylating agents. ..

More Information


  1. Zhang J, Shi X, Li Y, Kim B, Jia J, Huang Z, et al. Acetylation of Smc3 by Eco1 is required for S phase sister chromatid cohesion in both human and yeast. Mol Cell. 2008;31:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus identified a molecular target for the acetyltransferase Eco1 and revealed that Smc3 acetylation is a conserved mechanism in regulating sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  2. Henson J, Reddel R. Assaying and investigating Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres activity in human cells and cancers. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3800-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of ALT ranges from 25% to 60% in sarcomas and 5% to 15% in carcinomas. Patients with many of these types of ALT[+] tumors have a poor prognosis. ..
  3. Turkez H, Toğar B. The genotoxic and oxidative damage potential of olanzapine in vitro. Toxicol Ind Health. 2010;26:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the OLZ can be used safely, but it is necessary to consider the tissue damages that are likely to appear depending on the oxidative stress. ..
  4. Hagelstrom R, Blagoev K, Niedernhofer L, Goodwin E, Bailey S. Hyper telomere recombination accelerates replicative senescence and may promote premature aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15768-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To gain insight into the origin of cellular senescence and human aging, we analyzed the dependence of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies on location [i.e., genomic (G-SCE) vs...
  5. Duman N, Aktan M, Ozturk S, Palanduz S, Cakiris A, Ustek D, et al. Investigation of Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp polymorphisms of the XRCC1 (x-ray cross-complementing group 1) gene and its correlation to sister chromatid exchange frequency in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012;16:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We also analyzed their relation to frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE)...
  6. Chambon J, Touati S, Berneau S, Cladière D, Hebras C, Groeme R, et al. The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for sister chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II. Curr Biol. 2013;23:485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II...
  7. Thompson L, Hinz J. Cellular and molecular consequences of defective Fanconi anemia proteins in replication-coupled DNA repair: mechanistic insights. Mutat Res. 2009;668:54-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The FANCJ/BRIP1/BACH1 helicase functions in association with BRCA1 and may remove structural barriers to replication, such as guanine quadruplex structures, and/or assist in crosslink unhooking. ..
  8. Cinkilic N, Kiyici S, Celikler S, Vatan O, Oz Gul O, Tuncel E, et al. Evaluation of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Mutat Res. 2009;676:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients compared ..
  9. Karanam K, Kafri R, Loewer A, Lahav G. Quantitative live cell imaging reveals a gradual shift between DNA repair mechanisms and a maximal use of HR in mid S phase. Mol Cell. 2012;47:320-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Lesterlin C, Gigant E, Boccard F, Espeli O. Sister chromatid interactions in bacteria revealed by a site-specific recombination assay. EMBO J. 2012;31:3468-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of sister chromatid interactions were modulated by the activity of Topo-IV, revealing that DNA topology modulates cohesion at the molecular scale in bacteria. ..
  11. Bzymek M, Thayer N, Oh S, Kleckner N, Hunter N. Double Holliday junctions are intermediates of DNA break repair. Nature. 2010;464:937-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, although DHJs are identified as intermediates of DSB-promoted recombination in both mitotic and meiotic cells, their formation is distinctly regulated according to the specific dictates of the two cellular programs...
  12. Prakash R, Satory D, Dray E, Papusha A, Scheller J, Kramer W, et al. Yeast Mph1 helicase dissociates Rad51-made D-loops: implications for crossover control in mitotic recombination. Genes Dev. 2009;23:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Mph1, but not a helicase-defective variant, dissociates Rad51-made D-loops. Overall, the results from our analyses suggest a new role of Mph1 in promoting the noncrossover repair of DNA double-strand breaks. ..
  13. Urtishak K, Smith K, Chanoux R, Greenberg R, Johnson F, Brown E. Timeless Maintains Genomic Stability and Suppresses Sister Chromatid Exchange during Unperturbed DNA Replication. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..and Rad51 and Rad52 foci formation selectively during DNA synthesis and caused a 3-4-fold increase in sister chromatid exchange. The sister chromatid exchange events stimulated by Tim reduction were largely mediated via a Brca2/..
  14. Buyukleyla M, Rencuzogullari E. The effects of thymol on sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration and micronucleus in human lymphocytes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009;72:943-7 pubmed publisher
    ..with 25, 50, 75, and 100 microg/ml concentrations of thymol for 24 and 48h treatment periods by using sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests...
  15. Sakuno T, Tanaka K, Hauf S, Watanabe Y. Repositioning of aurora B promoted by chiasmata ensures sister chromatid mono-orientation in meiosis I. Dev Cell. 2011;21:534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results elucidate how chiasmata favor biorientation of bivalents over that of univalents at meiosis I...
  16. Pennarun G, Granotier C, Hoffschir F, Mandine E, Biard D, Gauthier L, et al. Role of ATM in the telomere response to the G-quadruplex ligand 360A. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1741-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest thus that ATM has a direct role in preventing inappropriate DNA repair at telomeres, which could be related to its possible participation to the formation of protected structures at telomeres. ..
  17. Heidinger Pauli J, Unal E, Guacci V, Koshland D. The kleisin subunit of cohesin dictates damage-induced cohesion. Mol Cell. 2008;31:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a DSB in G2/M activates Mec1 (ATR), which in turn stimulates Chk1-dependent phosphorylation of Mcd1 at serine 83. Serine 83 phosphorylation promotes chromatin-bound cohesin to become cohesive. ..
  18. White J, Choi S, Bakkenist C. Transient ATM kinase inhibition disrupts DNA damage-induced sister chromatid exchange. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra44 pubmed publisher
    ..acted through distinct DNA repair mechanisms: ATM resolved DNA damage through a mechanism involving sister chromatid exchange (SCE), whereas DNA-PK acted through nonhomologous end joining...
  19. Kim K, Weiner B, Zhang L, Jordan A, Dekker J, Kleckner N. Sister cohesion and structural axis components mediate homolog bias of meiotic recombination. Cell. 2010;143:924-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These domains could comprise complementary environments that integrate inputs from DSB repair and mitotic chromosome morphogenesis into the complete meiotic program. ..
  20. Fasullo M, Sun M. UV but not X rays stimulate homologous recombination between sister chromatids and homologs in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mec1 (ATR) hypomorphic mutant. Mutat Res. 2008;648:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that although recombinational repair of double-stand breaks is less efficient in mec1 mutants, recombinants may be generated by other mechanisms, such as break-induced replication. ..
  21. Sjögren C, Ström L. S-phase and DNA damage activated establishment of sister chromatid cohesion--importance for DNA repair. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present and discuss the current models for establishment of S-phase and DI-cohesion in the context of their involvement in DSB repair. ..
  22. Errico A, Cosentino C, Rivera T, Losada A, Schwob E, Hunt T, et al. Tipin/Tim1/And1 protein complex promotes Pol alpha chromatin binding and sister chromatid cohesion. EMBO J. 2009;28:3681-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Tipin/Tim1/And1 form a complex that links stabilization of replication fork and establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. ..
  23. Simsek D, Furda A, Gao Y, Artus J, Brunet E, Hadjantonakis A, et al. Crucial role for DNA ligase III in mitochondria but not in Xrcc1-dependent repair. Nature. 2011;471:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lig3-null cells are not sensitive to several DNA-damaging agents that sensitize Xrcc1-deficient cells. Our results establish a role for Lig3 in mitochondria, but distinguish it from its interacting protein Xrcc1. ..
  24. Tapisso J, Marques C, Mathias M, Ramalhinho M. Induction of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in bone-marrow cells and abnormalities in sperm of Algerian mice (Mus spretus) exposed to cadmium, lead and zinc. Mutat Res. 2009;678:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Three cytogenetic end points were considered: the frequencies of micronucleated cells (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in the bone marrow and the frequency of sperm abnormalities...
  25. Yavuz Kocaman A, Rencuzogullari E, Ila H, Topaktas M. The genotoxic effect of potassium metabisulfite using chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus tests in human lymphocytes and chromosome aberration test in bone marrow cells of rats. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008;49:276-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The compound induced CA as well and decreased the MI in bone marrow cells of rats. It might be concluded that PMB had a high genotoxic and cytotoxic risk. ..
  26. Kocaman A, Topaktas M. Genotoxic effects of a particular mixture of acetamiprid and alpha-cypermethrin on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, and micronucleus formation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Environ Toxicol. 2010;25:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..insecticide) on human peripheral lymphocytes were examined in vitro by chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronucleus (MN) tests. The human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with 12.5 + 2...
  27. Muñoz Galvan S, Tous C, Blanco M, Schwartz E, Ehmsen K, West S, et al. Distinct roles of Mus81, Yen1, Slx1-Slx4, and Rad1 nucleases in the repair of replication-born double-strand breaks by sister chromatid exchange. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1592-603 pubmed publisher
    ..These unique effects, which have not been detected in other studies unless double mutant combinations were used, indicate the formation of distinct alternatives for the repair of replication-born DSBs that require specific SSEs. ..
  28. Hoh L, Gravells P, Canovas D, Ul Hassan A, Rennie I, Bryant H, et al. Atypically low spontaneous sister chromatid exchange formation in uveal melanoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..cell lines and blood from cancer patients has universally been associated with an increased level of sister chromatid exchange (SCE)...
  29. Hirose Y, Suzuki R, Ohba T, Hinohara Y, Matsuhara H, Yoshida M, et al. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001329 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I...
  30. Liaw H, Lee D, Myung K. DNA-PK-dependent RPA2 hyperphosphorylation facilitates DNA repair and suppresses sister chromatid exchange. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21424 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway thus permits cells to repair DNA damage properly and increase cell viability. ..
  31. Wechsler T, Newman S, West S. Aberrant chromosome morphology in human cells defective for Holliday junction resolution. Nature. 2011;471:642-6 pubmed publisher
  32. Subramanian V, Bickel S. Heterochromatin-mediated association of achiasmate homologs declines with age when cohesion is compromised. Genetics. 2009;181:1207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data support the model that deterioration of meiotic cohesion during the aging process compromises the segregation of achiasmate as well as chiasmate bivalents. ..
  33. Zalzman M, Falco G, Sharova L, Nishiyama A, Thomas M, Lee S, et al. Zscan4 regulates telomere elongation and genomic stability in ES cells. Nature. 2010;464:858-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Zscan4 knockdown shortens telomeres, increases karyotype abnormalities and spontaneous sister chromatid exchange, and slows down cell proliferation until reaching crisis by passage eight...
  34. Kawauchi S, Calof A, Santos R, Lopez Burks M, Young C, Hoang M, et al. Multiple organ system defects and transcriptional dysregulation in the Nipbl(+/-) mouse, a model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000650 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, evidence is presented that reduced expression of genes involved in adipogenic differentiation may underlie the low amounts of body fat observed both in Nipbl+/- mice and in individuals with CdLS...
  35. Conde F, Refolio E, Cordon Preciado V, Cortes Ledesma F, Aragon L, Aguilera A, et al. The Dot1 histone methyltransferase and the Rad9 checkpoint adaptor contribute to cohesin-dependent double-strand break repair by sister chromatid recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2009;182:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results contribute to an understanding of how different chromatin modifications impinge on DNA repair mechanisms, which are fundamental for maintaining genomic stability. ..
  36. Szekvolgyi L, Nicolas A. From meiosis to postmeiotic events: homologous recombination is obligatory but flexible. FEBS J. 2010;277:571-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Flexibility in the distribution of meiotic recombination events within genomes may reside in regulation at the chromatin level, with histone modifications playing a recently recognized role. ..
  37. Jaco I, Canela A, Vera E, Blasco M. Centromere mitotic recombination in mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:885-92 pubmed publisher
  38. Wang Y, Giannone R, Liu Y. Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells. Cell Cycle. 2005;4:1320-2 pubmed
    We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient ..
  39. Cortes Ledesma F, Tous C, Aguilera A. Different genetic requirements for repair of replication-born double-strand breaks by sister-chromatid recombination and break-induced replication. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6560-70 pubmed
    ..Our study provides molecular evidence for inversions between repeats occurring by BIR followed by single-strand annealing (SSA) in the absence of strand exchange. ..
  40. Luleci N, Sakarya M, Topcu I, Luleci E, Erincler T, Solak M. [Effects of sevofluran on cell division and levels of sister chromatid exchange]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2005;40:213-6 pubmed
    Purpose of the study was to investigate the mitotic index (MI) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels to identify the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of sevoflurane (sevoflurane)...
  41. Schubert V, Klatte M, Pecinka A, Meister A, Jasencakova Z, Schubert I. Sister chromatids are often incompletely aligned in meristematic and endopolyploid interphase nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2006;172:467-75 pubmed
  42. Ralf C, Hickson I, Wu L. The Bloom's syndrome helicase can promote the regression of a model replication fork. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22839-46 pubmed
    ..These data establish the existence of a eukaryotic protein that could promote replication fork regression in vivo and suggest a novel pathway through which BLM might suppress genetic exchanges. ..
  43. Potts P, Porteus M, Yu H. Human SMC5/6 complex promotes sister chromatid homologous recombination by recruiting the SMC1/3 cohesin complex to double-strand breaks. EMBO J. 2006;25:3377-88 pubmed
    ..Our results establish a mechanism by which the hSMC5/6 complex promotes DNA repair and suggest a novel strategy to improve the efficiency of gene targeting in mammalian somatic cells. ..
  44. Wu L, Multani A, He H, Cosme Blanco W, Deng Y, Deng J, et al. Pot1 deficiency initiates DNA damage checkpoint activation and aberrant homologous recombination at telomeres. Cell. 2006;126:49-62 pubmed
    ..Telomeric HR following Pot1a loss requires NBS1. Pot1a deletion also results in chromosomal instability. Our results suggest that POT1a is crucial for the maintenance of both telomere integrity and overall genomic stability. ..
  45. De Piccoli G, Cortes Ledesma F, Ira G, Torres Rosell J, Uhle S, Farmer S, et al. Smc5-Smc6 mediate DNA double-strand-break repair by promoting sister-chromatid recombination. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1032-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is essential for genome stability as it promotes repair of DSBs by error-free sister-chromatid recombination (SCR), thereby suppressing inappropriate non-sister recombination events. ..
  46. Godthelp B, van Buul P, Jaspers N, Elghalbzouri Maghrani E, van Duijn Goedhart A, Arwert F, et al. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2. Mutat Res. 2006;601:191-201 pubmed
    ..In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment...
  47. Akiyama K, Yusa K, Hashimoto H, Poonepalli A, Hande M, Kakazu N, et al. Rad54 is dispensable for the ALT pathway. Genes Cells. 2006;11:1305-15 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, although MMC-stimulated sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was suppressed in the Rad54-deficient ALT ES cells, ALT-associated telomere SCE was not affected...
  48. Wahab M, Podd J, Rapley B, Rowland R. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in dividing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 50 Hz magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 2007;28:281-8 pubmed
    The in vitro cytomolecular technique, sister chromatid exchange (SCE), was applied to test the clastogenic potentiality of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs)...
  49. Sharma S, Stumpo D, Balajee A, Bock C, Lansdorp P, Brosh R, et al. RECQL, a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, suppresses chromosomal instability. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1784-94 pubmed
    ..Genetic background, functional redundancy, and perhaps other factors may protect the unstressed mouse from the types of abnormalities that might be expected from the severe chromosomal aberrations detected at the cellular level. ..
  50. Cromie G, Hyppa R, Taylor A, Zakharyevich K, Hunter N, Smith G. Single Holliday junctions are intermediates of meiotic recombination. Cell. 2006;127:1167-78 pubmed
  51. Rudd M, Friedman C, Parghi S, Linardopoulou E, Hsu L, Trask B. Elevated rates of sister chromatid exchange at chromosome ends. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e32 pubmed
    ..Chromosome ends are known hotspots of meiotic recombination and double-strand breaks. We monitored mitotic sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in telomeres and subtelomeres and found that 17% of all SCE occurs in the terminal 0...
  52. Nagasawa H, Wilson P, Chen D, Thompson L, Bedford J, Little J. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:515-22 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells...
  53. Hirano S, Yamamoto K, Ishiai M, Yamazoe M, Seki M, Matsushita N, et al. Functional relationships of FANCC to homologous recombination, translesion synthesis, and BLM. EMBO J. 2005;24:418-27 pubmed
    Some of the restarting events of stalled replication forks lead to sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as a result of homologous recombination (HR) repair with crossing over...