tat genes


Summary: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Top Publications

  1. Si Z, Rauch D, Stoltzfus C. The exon splicing silencer in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat exon 3 is bipartite and acts early in spliceosome assembly. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:5404-13 pubmed
    ..This suggests that a common cellular factor(s) may be required for the inhibition of tat mRNA splicing mediated by ESS2 and ESS3. ..
  2. Mullick R, Sengupta S, Sarkar K, Saha M, Chakrabarti S. Phylogenetic analysis of env, gag, and tat genes of HIV type 1 detected among the injecting drug users in West Bengal, India. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:1293-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a rapid spread of HIV-1 by possible drug trafficking along international boundaries, which might also help in the invasion of HIV-1 among IDUs of Darjeeling through the Manipur-Myanmar border of India. ..
  3. Cheevers W, Beyer J, Hotzel I. Plasmid DNA encoding caprine interferon gamma inhibits antibody response to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) surface protein encoded by a co-administered plasmid expressing CAEV env and tat genes. Vaccine. 2001;19:3209-15 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that synergistic effects of CAEV Tat and IFNgamma suppress the primary adaptive B cell response to plasmid encoded SU...
  4. Zhang C, Su Z, Zhao B, Qu Q, Tan Y, Cai L, et al. Tat-modified leptin is more accessible to hypothalamus through brain-blood barrier with a significant inhibition of body-weight gain in high-fat-diet fed mice. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Tat-modified leptin may become a great potential candidate for the prevention or therapy of obese patients. ..
  5. Sakuragi S, Shibata R, Mukai R, Komatsu T, Fukasawa M, Sakai H, et al. Infection of macaque monkeys with a chimeric human and simian immunodeficiency virus. J Gen Virol. 1992;73 ( Pt 11):2983-7 pubmed
    ..The hybrid nature of the isolated viruses was verified by Southern and Western blotting analyses. Both of the monkeys infected with the chimera elicited a humoral antibody response against the virus. ..
  6. Zhu Y, Feuer G, Day S, Wrzesinski S, Planelles V. Multigene lentiviral vectors based on differential splicing and translational control. Mol Ther. 2001;4:375-82 pubmed
    ..Inclusion of this tat mutant in a lentiviral vector resulted in the generation of virus with titers similar to those of lentivirus vectors expressing wild-type tat. ..
  7. Masood R, Lunardi Iskandar Y, Moudgil T, Zhang Y, Law R, Huang C, et al. IL-10 inhibits HIV-1 replication and is induced by tat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;202:374-83 pubmed
    ..We have also demonstrated that rhIL-10 inhibited HIV-1 replication in infected monocytes and PBMCs in a dose dependent manner. IL-10 may thus participate in long latency between HIV-1 infection and development of AIDS. ..
  8. Kumar A, Manna S, Dhawan S, Aggarwal B. HIV-Tat protein activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activator protein-1. J Immunol. 1998;161:776-81 pubmed
    ..Overall our results demonstrate that HIV-tat activates JNK and AP-1, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of AIDS. ..
  9. Unwalla H, Banerjea A. Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by novel macrophage-tropic DNA enzymes targeted to cleave HIV-1 TAT/Rev RNA. Biochem J. 2001;357:147-55 pubmed
    ..The potential applications of these novel macrophage-tropic DNA enzymes are discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Yang Y, Chen G, Dong W, Chen Q, Geng Y, Zeng Y. [Construction and analysis of activity of an HIV-1/bovine immunodeficiency virus chimeric clone cDNA]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2003;17:143-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in MT4 cells, BIV LTR had promoter activity and BIV tat had the function of transactivation in the chimeric virus. The study of the chimeric virus with infectivity is in progress. ..
  2. Richard J, Melikov K, Brooks H, Prevot P, Lebleu B, Chernomordik L. Cellular uptake of unconjugated TAT peptide involves clathrin-dependent endocytosis and heparan sulfate receptors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15300-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that unconjugated peptide might follow endocytic pathways different from those utilized by TAT peptide conjugated to different proteins. ..
  3. Krosl J, Faubert A, Sauvageau G. Molecular basis for stem-cell self-renewal. Hematol J. 2004;5 Suppl 3:S118-21 pubmed
  4. Verhoef K, Bilodeau P, van Wamel J, Kjems J, Stoltzfus C, Berkhout B. Repair of a Rev-minus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutant by activation of a cryptic splice site. J Virol. 2001;75:3495-500 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate an alternative route to indirectly activate this cryptic 5' ss by mutational inactivation of an adjacent exon splicing silencer element. ..
  5. Kowolik C, Yam P, Yu Y, Yee J. HIV vector production mediated by Rev protein transduction. Mol Ther. 2003;8:324-31 pubmed
    ..Eliminating the requirement for the HIV-1 rev gene during vector production should improve the safety of applying HIV vectors in human clinical trials. ..
  6. Wu L, Ize B, Chanal A, Quentin Y, Fichant G. Bacterial twin-arginine signal peptide-dependent protein translocation pathway: evolution and mechanism. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000;2:179-89 pubmed
    ..The tat genes are not ubiquitously present and are absent from half of the completely sequenced bacterial genomes...
  7. Heeney J, Koopman G, Rosenwirth B, Bogers W, Van Dijk J, Nieuwenhuis I, et al. A vaccine strategy utilizing a combination of three different chimeric vectors which share specific vaccine antigens. J Med Primatol. 2000;29:268-73 pubmed
  8. Touraine J, Sanhadji K, Sembeil R. Gene therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection in the humanized SCID mouse model. Isr Med Assoc J. 2003;5:863-7 pubmed
    ..Despite the marked reduction of HIV-1 propagation by IFN genes or by negative Tat and Rev transdominants, the gene therapy using soluble CD4 immunoadhesin or anti-gp41 was a more efficient preventive treatment against HIV infection. ..
  9. Jayan G, Cordelier P, Patel C, Bouhamdan M, Johnson R, Lisziewicz J, et al. SV40-derived vectors provide effective transgene expression and inhibition of HIV-1 using constitutive, conditional,and pol III promoters. Gene Ther. 2001;8:1033-42 pubmed
    ..The versatility of this gene delivery system may prove to be useful in anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. ..
  10. Matano T, Kano M, Takeda A, Nakamura H, Nomura N, Furuta Y, et al. No significant enhancement of protection by Tat-expressing Sendai viral vector-booster in a macaque AIDS model. AIDS. 2003;17:1392-4 pubmed
  11. Zhao T, Bokoch G. Transduction of proteins into intact neutrophils. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;412:115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it also results in highly effective functional protein delivery into human neutrophils. ..
  12. Fischer M, Wong J, Russenberger D, Joos B, Opravil M, Hirschel B, et al. Residual cell-associated unspliced HIV-1 RNA in peripheral blood of patients on potent antiretroviral therapy represents intracellular transcripts. Antivir Ther. 2002;7:91-103 pubmed
    ..As shown by limiting dilution analysis, HIV-1 infected cells with such a repressed viral transcription pattern were observed at high frequencies in PBMC from untreated patients. ..
  13. Higuchi K, Yoshimitsu M, Fan X, Guo X, Rasaiah V, Yen J, et al. Alpha-galactosidase A-Tat fusion enhances storage reduction in hearts and kidneys of Fabry mice. Mol Med. 2010;16:216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy might advance not only gene therapy for Fabry disease and other LSDs, but also ERT, especially for cardiac Fabry disease. ..
  14. Snyder E, Meade B, Dowdy S. Anti-cancer protein transduction strategies: reconstitution of p27 tumor suppressor function. J Control Release. 2003;91:45-51 pubmed
    ..These observations serve as a starting point to further develop the delivery of peptide and proteins to specifically treat malignancies in vivo. ..
  15. Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Lesage B, Jackson A, Kashanchi F, et al. Nuclear targeting of protein phosphatase-1 by HIV-1 Tat protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:36364-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Tat might function as a nuclear regulator of PP1 and that interaction of Tat with PP1 is critical for activation of HIV-1 transcription by Tat. ..
  16. Cascante A, Abate Daga D, Garcia Rodriguez L, Gonzalez J, Alemany R, Fillat C. GCV modulates the antitumoural efficacy of a replicative adenovirus expressing the Tat8-TK as a late gene in a pancreatic tumour model. Gene Ther. 2007;14:1471-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results show that the combination therapy of a replicative adenovirus and the Tat8-TK/GCV suicide system can prove beneficial, when the appropriate regimen of virus and GCV is applied. ..
  17. Lee E, Gao Z, Kim D, Park K, Kwon I, Bae Y. Super pH-sensitive multifunctional polymeric micelle for tumor pH(e) specific TAT exposure and multidrug resistance. J Control Release. 2008;129:228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach may replace the need for cell-specific antibodies or targeting ligands, thereby providing a general strategy for solid tumor targeting. ..
  18. de Feyter R, Li P. Technology evaluation: HIV ribozyme gene therapy, Gene Shears Pty Ltd. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2000;2:332-5 pubmed
    ..Two phase I clinical trials are underway to test the safety and feasibility of the approach with the anti-tat ribozyme in human subjects. ..
  19. Copeland K, McKay P, Rosenthal K. Suppression of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat by CD8+ T cells is dependent on the NFAT-1 element. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996;12:143-8 pubmed
  20. Asparuhova M, Marti G, Liu S, Serhan F, Trono D, Schumperli D. Inhibition of HIV-1 multiplication by a modified U7 snRNA inducing Tat and Rev exon skipping. J Gene Med. 2007;9:323-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this new approach targeting HIV-1 regulatory genes at the level of pre-mRNA splicing, in combination with other antiviral strategies, may be a useful new tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. ..
  21. Hooker C, Scott J, Apolloni A, Parry E, Harrich D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription is stimulated by tat from other lentiviruses. Virology. 2002;300:226-35 pubmed
    ..These data highlight the finding that the role of Tat in reverse transcription is not related to trans-activation and demonstrate that other tat genes conserve this function.
  22. Aoki Y, Tosato G. HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infectivity. Blood. 2004;104:810-4 pubmed
    ..These results can explain why AIDS-KS is more frequent and clinically more aggressive than KS in other immunodeficiency states. ..
  23. Burgers W, van Harmelen J, Shephard E, Adams C, Mgwebi T, Bourn W, et al. Design and preclinical evaluation of a multigene human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C DNA vaccine for clinical trial. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:399-410 pubmed
    ..In addition, high titres of antibodies to gp120 were induced in guinea pigs. This vaccine is the first component of a prime-boost regimen that is scheduled for clinical trials in humans in the USA and South Africa. ..
  24. Park S, Lee M, Yang M, Ahn K, Jang S, Suh Y, et al. Expression profiles and pathway analysis in HEK 293 T cells overexpressing HIV-1 Tat and nucleocapsid using cDNA microarray. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;17:154-61 pubmed
    ..8,208 human genes that were analyzed, we monitored candidate genes that might have been related to NC and Tat genes from gene expression profiles...
  25. Coburn G, Cullen B. Potent and specific inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by RNA interference. J Virol. 2002;76:9225-31 pubmed
  26. Albrecht H. HIV pathogenesis and activation of CD4 cells. AIDS Clin Care. 2001;13:99 pubmed
    Selective upregulation of the transcription of nef and tat genes before integration into the human genome allows HIV to activate CD4 cells and increase viral replication.
  27. Howcroft T, Strebel K, Martin M, Singer D. Repression of MHC class I gene promoter activity by two-exon Tat of HIV. Science. 1993;260:1320-2 pubmed
    ..These studies define an activity for two-exon Tat distinct from that of one-exon Tat and suggest a mechanism whereby HIV-1-infected cells might be able to avoid immune surveillance, allowing the virus to persist in the infected host. ..
  28. Ames R, Holskin B, Mitcho M, Shalloway D, Chen M. Induction of sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of tumor necrosis factor alpha by adenovirus E1A is independent of transformation and transcriptional activation. J Virol. 1990;64:4115-22 pubmed
    ..A novel E1A-mediated effect may be involved, although our data do not exclude the possibility that sensitization to TNF alpha is mediated through E1A binding to cellular proteins. ..
  29. Ramezani A, Hawley R. Generation of HIV-1-based lentiviral vector particles. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2002;Chapter 16:Unit 16.22 pubmed publisher
    ..Also described are procedures that can be used to concentrate and purify high-titer recombinant lentiviral vector preparations, as well as protocols for transduction of adherent and suspension cells. ..
  30. Wu Baer F, Lane W, Gaynor R. The cellular factor TRP-185 regulates RNA polymerase II binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA. EMBO J. 1995;14:5995-6009 pubmed
  31. Barka T, Gresik E, van Der Noen H. Transduction of TAT-HA-beta-galactosidase fusion protein into salivary gland-derived cells and organ cultures of the developing gland, and into rat submandibular gland in vivo. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:1453-60 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that a full-length, active TAT fusion protein can be targeted to salivary gland cells both in vitro and in vivo to analyze physiological, developmental, and pathophysiological processes. ..
  32. Lahermo P, Savontaus M, Sistonen P, Beres J, De Knijff P, Aula P, et al. Y chromosomal polymorphisms reveal founding lineages in the Finns and the Saami. Eur J Hum Genet. 1999;7:447-58 pubmed
    ..The presence of a bottleneck or founding effect in the male lineages of some of the populations, namely in the Finns and the Saami, would appear to be one likely interpretation for these findings. ..
  33. Kirchhoff F, Greenough T, Hamacher M, Sullivan J, Desrosiers R. Activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter/TAR regions and tat1 genes derived from individuals with different rates of disease progression. Virology. 1997;232:319-31 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that defects in the promoter/TAR region or tat1 are rare and that different promoter/transactivator activities are not commonly associated with different progression rates. ..
  34. Dowling D, Nasr Esfahani S, Tan C, O Brien K, Howard J, Jans D, et al. HIV-1 infection induces changes in expression of cellular splicing factors that regulate alternative viral splicing and virus production in macrophages. Retrovirology. 2008;5:18 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism could provide a novel target for control of infection in this critical cell type, which would be necessary for eventual eradication of the virus from infected individuals. ..
  35. Bai R, Liu X. [Transactivation of HIV-1 transcription and inhibitors]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006;41:289-95 pubmed
  36. Song S, Li H, Cloyd M. Rates of shutdown of HIV-1 into latency: roles of the LTR and tat/rev/vpu gene region. Virology. 1996;225:377-86 pubmed
    ..It is also possible that this viral property may be an important determinant of clinical outcomes. ..
  37. Shibuya H, Irie K, Ninomiya Tsuji J, Goebl M, Taniguchi T, Matsumoto K. New human gene encoding a positive modulator of HIV Tat-mediated transactivation. Nature. 1992;357:700-2 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that expression of MSS1 enhances the Tat-mediated transactivation. Our results suggest that MSS1 has a key role in activation of HIV genes regulated by Tat. ..
  38. Hel Z, Tryniszewska E, Tsai W, Johnson J, Harrod R, Fullen J, et al. Design and in vivo immunogenicity of a polyvalent vaccine based on SIVmac regulatory genes. DNA Cell Biol. 2002;21:619-26 pubmed
    ..An equivalent strategy may be used for the generation of polyvalent antigens encoding the regulatory proteins in a HIV-1 vaccine candidate. ..
  39. Puri R, Aggarwal B. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat gene up-regulates interleukin 4 receptors on a human B-lymphoblastoid cell line. Cancer Res. 1992;52:3787-90 pubmed
  40. Sharma V, Xu M, Ritter L, Wilkie N. HIV-1 tat induces the expression of a new hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factor and downregulates MIP-1 alpha gene expression in activated T-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;223:526-33 pubmed
    ..We propose that HIV-1 tat may inhibit MIP-1 alpha expression by inducing MNP-1 expression in T-cells, probably by either competing with MNP-2 for binding to the MIP-1 alpha promoter or by sequestering it into inactive forms. ..
  41. de Oliveira T, Salemi M, Gordon M, Vandamme A, van Rensburg E, Engelbrecht S, et al. Mapping sites of positive selection and amino acid diversification in the HIV genome: an alternative approach to vaccine design?. Genetics. 2004;167:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Understanding the relationship between host-driven positive selection and antigenic variation may lead to the development of novel vaccine strategies that preempt the escape process. ..
  42. Ding J, Liu J, Xue C, Li Y, Gong W. [Construction and expression of prokaryotic expression vector for pTAT-HBV targeted ribonuclease fusion protein]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;19:49-51 pubmed
    ..The three recombinant plasmids were constructed and expressed after IPTG induction successfully. The obtained Tat-HBV targeted ribonuclease fusion protein has laid the foundation for using TR in therapy of HBV infection. ..
  43. Ambrosino C, Ruocco M, Chen X, Mallardo M, Baudi F, Trematerra S, et al. HIV-1 Tat induces the expression of the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene by binding to the IL6 leader RNA and by interacting with CAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (NF-IL6) transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:14883-92 pubmed
    ..In addition, Tat may function by protein-protein interactions, leading to the generation of heterodimers with specific transcription factors. ..
  44. Flores S, Marecki J, Harper K, Bose S, Nelson S, McCord J. Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 represses expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in HeLa cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7632-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a direct interaction between Tat protein and Mn-SOD gene transcripts. ..
  45. Perkins K, Lusic M, Mitar I, Giacca M, Proudfoot N. Transcription-dependent gene looping of the HIV-1 provirus is dictated by recognition of pre-mRNA processing signals. Mol Cell. 2008;29:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we demonstrate that both ongoing transcription and pre-mRNA processing are essential for gene loop formation, and predict that these structures represent a defining feature of active gene transcription. ..
  46. Leifert J, Holler P, Harkins S, Kranz D, Whitton J. The cationic region from HIV tat enhances the cell-surface expression of epitope/MHC class I complexes. Gene Ther. 2003;10:2067-73 pubmed
    ..These data suggest an alternative explanation for the immune enhancement seen with ICRs. ..
  47. Xin K, Urabe M, Yang J, Nomiyama K, Mizukami H, Hamajima K, et al. A novel recombinant adeno-associated virus vaccine induces a long-term humoral immune response to human immunodeficiency virus. Hum Gene Ther. 2001;12:1047-61 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that AAV-HIV vector immunization may provide a novel and promising HIV vaccination strategy. ..
  48. Caputo A, Gavioli R, Altavilla G, Brocca Cofano E, Boarini C, Betti M, et al. Immunization with low doses of HIV-1 tat DNA delivered by novel cationic block copolymers induces CTL responses against Tat. Vaccine. 2003;21:1103-11 pubmed
  49. Blake W, Collins J. And the noise played on: stochastic gene expression and HIV-1 infection. Cell. 2005;122:147-9 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the importance of stochastic gene expression in molecular "decision-making." ..
  50. Bibollet Ruche F, Brengues C, Galat Luong A, Galat G, Pourrut X, Vidal N, et al. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses from West African green monkeys: evidence of multiple genotypes within populations from the same geographical locale. J Virol. 1997;71:307-13 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest an ancient introduction of these divergent viruses in the AGM population. ..
  51. Li C, Friedman D, Wang C, Metelev V, Pardee A. Induction of apoptosis in uninfected lymphocytes by HIV-1 Tat protein. Science. 1995;268:429-31 pubmed
    ..This Tat-induced apoptosis was inhibitable by growth factors and was associated with enhanced activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. ..
  52. Xiao H, Neuveut C, Benkirane M, Jeang K. Interaction of the second coding exon of Tat with human EF-1 delta delineates a mechanism for HIV-1-mediated shut-off of host mRNA translation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;244:384-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that a non-transcriptional activity of Tat modulates cellular protein synthesis, thereby affecting the metabolism of host cells. ..
  53. Roy S, Katze M, Parkin N, Edery I, Hovanessian A, Sonenberg N. Control of the interferon-induced 68-kilodalton protein kinase by the HIV-1 tat gene product. Science. 1990;247:1216-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the potential translational inhibitory effects of the TAR RNA region mediated by activation of p68 kinase may be downregulated by tat during productive HIV-1 infection. ..