viral genes


Summary: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.

Top Publications

  1. Nai Y, Wang T, Chen Y, Lo C, Wang C. A new nucleopolyhedrovirus strain (LdMNPV-like virus) with a defective fp25 gene from Lymantria xylina (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Taiwan. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;102:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that this LdMNPV-like virus is a new LdMNPV strain from L. xylina...
  2. Ursu K, Kisfali P, Rigó D, Ivanics E, Erdélyi K, Dan A, et al. Molecular analysis of the VP7 gene of pheasant rotaviruses identifies a new genotype, designated G23. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that these Hungarian pheasant rotaviruses need to be considered representatives of a new VP7 genotype specificity, designated G23. ..
  3. Qiu P, Cai X, Ding W, Zhang Q, Norris E, Greene J. HCV genotyping using statistical classification approach. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16:62 pubmed publisher
    ..Prediction accuracy for each genotype is also reported. ..
  4. Groenewoud M, Fagrouch Z, van Gessel S, Niphuis H, Bulavaite A, Warren K, et al. Characterization of novel polyomaviruses from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Neighbour-joining analysis positioned the viruses in a large cluster together with viruses from bats, bovines, rodents and several primate PyVs from chimpanzees, African green monkeys, squirrel monkeys and the human Merkel cell PyV...
  5. Kassem A, Technau K, Kurz A, Pantulu D, Löning M, Kayser G, et al. Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences are frequently detected in nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed patients. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..How MCPyV contributes to the pathogenesis of NMSC, i.e., BD, SCC and BCC, in immunosuppressed patients and in addition, potentially to the pathogenesis of a subset of sporadic BCC needs further investigations. ..
  6. Cardno T, Poole E, Mathew S, Graves R, Tate W. A homogeneous cell-based bicistronic fluorescence assay for high-throughput identification of drugs that perturb viral gene recoding and read-through of nonsense stop codons. RNA. 2009;15:1614-21 pubmed publisher
  7. Garten R, Davis C, Russell C, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Balish A, et al. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science. 2009;325:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct from seasonal human A(H1N1)...
  8. Lee K, Cool C, van Dyk L. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection of gamma interferon-deficient mice on a BALB/c background results in acute lethal pneumonia that is dependent on specific viral genes. J Virol. 2009;83:11397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, this acute, lethal pneumonia was dependent not only on the viral dose, but also on specific viral genes including the viral cyclin gene, previously identified to be important in promoting optimal chronic infection ..
  9. Muller A, Silva E, Abrantes J, Esteves P, Ferreira P, Carvalheira J, et al. Partial sequencing of recent Portuguese myxoma virus field isolates exhibits a high degree of genetic stability. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a high degree of genetic stability of myxoma virus over the past five decades. None of the analysed genome regions by its own seems sufficient for the genetic characterisation of field strains...

More Information


  1. Naffakh N, Tomoiu A, Rameix Welti M, van der Werf S. Host restriction of avian influenza viruses at the level of the ribonucleoproteins. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2008;62:403-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Better knowledge of determinants of host restriction will allow monitoring of the pandemic potential of avian influenza viruses. ..
  2. Zhao Z, Shortridge K, Garcia M, Guan Y, Wan X. Genotypic diversity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the 21 reassortants identified, 13 are first reported here. This study illustrates evolutionary patterns of H5N1 HPAIVs, which may be useful toward pandemic preparedness as well as avian influenza prevention and control. ..
  3. Lackenby A, Democratis J, Siqueira M, Zambon M. Rapid quantitation of neuraminidase inhibitor drug resistance in influenza virus quasispecies. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:809-20 pubmed
    ..Pyrosequencing is ideally suited for early identification of emerging antiviral resistance in human and avian influenza infection and is a useful tool for laboratory surveillance and pandemic preparedness. ..
  4. Desai P, Sexton G, Huang E, Person S. Localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL37 in the Golgi complex requires UL36 but not capsid structures. J Virol. 2008;82:11354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of a functional role for UL36:UL37 interaction in HSV-1-infected cells...
  5. Legendre M, Audic S, Poirot O, Hingamp P, Seltzer V, Byrne D, et al. mRNA deep sequencing reveals 75 new genes and a complex transcriptional landscape in Mimivirus. Genome Res. 2010;20:664-74 pubmed publisher
  6. Vijaykrishna D, Poon L, Zhu H, Ma S, Li O, Cheung C, et al. Reassortment of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in swine. Science. 2010;328:1529 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued reassortment of H1N1/2009 with swine influenza viruses could produce variants with transmissibility and altered virulence for humans. Global systematic surveillance of influenza viruses in swine is warranted. ..
  7. Meunier I, Pillet S, Simonsen J, von Messling V. Influenza pathogenesis: lessons learned from animal studies with H5N1, H1N1 Spanish, and pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:e21-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Berngruber T, Weissing F, Gandon S. Inhibition of superinfection and the evolution of viral latency. J Virol. 2010;84:10200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond latent phages, we predict analogous dynamics for any latent virus that uses a single repressor for the simultaneous control of virulence and superinfection. ..
  9. Reichelt J, Haase I. Establishment of spontaneously immortalized keratinocyte lines from wild-type and mutant mice. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;585:59-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Immortalization can be achieved by transduction with constructs encoding viral genes. Murine keratinocytes can be kept in culture as primary cells...
  10. Kondo K, Ishii Y, Mori S, Shimabukuro S, Yoshikawa H, Kanda T. Nuclear location of minor capsid protein L2 is required for expression of a reporter plasmid packaged in HPV51 pseudovirions. Virology. 2009;394:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the results indicate that the expression of the reporter in the HPV51 PV requires the nuclear localizing ability of L2 and another unknown function associated with region I. ..
  11. Yu X, Liu L, Wu L, Wang L, Dong C, Li W, et al. Herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein VP22 is capable of modulating the transcription of viral TK and gC genes via interaction with viral ICP0. Biochimie. 2010;92:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..system, VP22-ICP0 interaction was confirmed to play a role in modulating the transcription of some viral genes and could be a factor in viral transcription, which is probably required in the transcriptional control of ..
  12. Margot N, Gibbs C, Miller M. Phenotypic susceptibility to bevirimat in isolates from HIV-1-infected patients without prior exposure to bevirimat. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results should be helpful in the design of diagnostics for prediction of the potential benefit of BVM treatment in HIV-1-infected patients. ..
  13. Hautaniemi M, Ueda N, Tuimala J, Mercer A, Lahdenperä J, McInnes C. The genome of pseudocowpoxvirus: comparison of a reindeer isolate and a reference strain. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1560-76 pubmed publisher
  14. Xiao S, Jia J, Mo D, Wang Q, Qin L, He Z, et al. Understanding PRRSV infection in porcine lung based on genome-wide transcriptome response identified by deep sequencing. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11377 pubmed publisher
    ..Our systems analysis will benefit for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of N-PRRSV infection, developing novel antiviral therapies and identifying genetic components for swine resistance/susceptibility to PRRS...
  15. Leibowitz J, Srinivasa R, Williamson S, Chua M, Liu M, Wu S, et al. Genetic determinants of mouse hepatitis virus strain 1 pneumovirulence. J Virol. 2010;84:9278-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The severity of the pulmonary lesions observed correlates better with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines than with viral replication in the lungs, suggesting that pulmonary disease has an important immunological component. ..
  16. Kim E, Bhattacharya T, Kunstman K, Swantek P, Koning F, Malim M, et al. Human APOBEC3G-mediated editing can promote HIV-1 sequence diversification and accelerate adaptation to selective pressure. J Virol. 2010;84:10402-5 pubmed publisher
  17. Forterre P, Prangishvili D. The great billion-year war between ribosome- and capsid-encoding organisms (cells and viruses) as the major source of evolutionary novelties. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1178:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..selected in the viral world might have been transferred to cells as a consequence of the continuous flow of viral genes into cellular genomes...
  18. Merimi M, Ozkan Y, Cleuter Y, Griebel P, Burny A, Martiat P, et al. Epigenetics and leukemia: unraveling oncogenic processes in the BLV ovine model. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2009;1:154-63 pubmed
    ..Multiple factors including viral genes, genetic and epigenetic alterations, and the host immune system are likely to contribute and cooperate in the ..
  19. Weynberg K, Allen M, Ashelford K, Scanlan D, Wilson W. From small hosts come big viruses: the complete genome of a second Ostreococcus tauri virus, OtV-1. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:2821-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This new sequence data may help to redefine the classification of the core genes of these viruses and shed new light on their evolutionary history...
  20. Langley W, Thoennes S, Bradley K, Galloway S, Talekar G, Cummings S, et al. Single residue deletions along the length of the influenza HA fusion peptide lead to inhibition of membrane fusion function. Virology. 2009;394:321-30 pubmed publisher
  21. Chatterji U, Lim P, Bobardt M, Wieland S, Cordek D, Vuagniaux G, et al. HCV resistance to cyclosporin A does not correlate with a resistance of the NS5A-cyclophilin A interaction to cyclophilin inhibitors. J Hepatol. 2010;53:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these data suggest that CypA, via its isomerase pocket, binds directly to NS5A, and most importantly, that disrupting this interaction stops HCV replication. ..
  22. Ganesh Selvaraj D, Pokorný R, Holková L. Comparative analysis of ELISA, one step RT-PCR and IC-RT-PCR for the detection of bean yellow Mosaic virus in gladiolus. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2009;74:853-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, IC-RT-PCR was the most reliable method of diagnosing BYMV in gladiolus corms or cormlets. ..
  23. Xiao S, Paldurai A, Nayak B, Subbiah M, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 7 (strain Tennessee) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses. Virus Res. 2009;145:80-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The first 12nt of the leader and trailer sequences are complementary to each other. The viral genes are flanked by highly conserved gene-start (GS) and gene-end (GE) transcription signals, and in addition the 3'-..
  24. Longtin J, Marchand Austin A, Winter A, Patel S, Eshaghi A, Jamieson F, et al. Rhinovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1463-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease was sometimes severe. Molecular diagnostic testing can differentiate these outbreaks from other infections such as influenza...
  25. Awad A, Abd El Hamid H, Abou Rawash A, Ibrahim H. Detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus as a contaminant of fowl pox vaccines. Poult Sci. 2010;89:2389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data clearly indicate that the screening of all commercial poultry vaccines for viruses is an important factor in assuring the biosafety of animal vaccines...
  26. Penkert R, Kalejta R. Nuclear localization of tegument-delivered pp71 in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells is facilitated by one or more factors present in terminally differentiated fibroblasts. J Virol. 2010;84:9853-63 pubmed publisher
  27. Alcendor D, Zong J, Dolan A, Gatherer D, Davison A, Hayward G. Patterns of divergence in the vCXCL and vGPCR gene clusters in primate cytomegalovirus genomes. Virology. 2009;395:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Both clusters appear to have evolved via complex duplication and deletion events. ..
  28. Lan S, Huang C, Chang C, Liao W, Lin I, Jian W, et al. Characterization of a new plasmid-like prophage in a pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 strain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2659-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes may also be remnants from the bacterial chromosome following transduction. ..
  29. Koup R, Lamoreaux L, Zarkowsky D, Bailer R, King C, Gall J, et al. Replication-defective adenovirus vectors with multiple deletions do not induce measurable vector-specific T cells in human trials. J Virol. 2009;83:6318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that rAd5-based vaccines containing deletions in the E1, E3, and E4 regions do not induce appreciable expansion of vector-specific CD4(+) T cells...
  30. Gao Y, Deng Y, Qi X, Zhang X, Meng X, Wang H, et al. [Expression and immunity of multi-HIV B'/C subype genes in replicating DNA vaccines]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2010;26:208-15 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in case of immunization with DNA vaccines containing different HIV genes, it is necessary to optimize the combined immunization procedure, especially for the combination of Gag and Gp160-containing vaccines. ..
  31. Arias C, Escalera Zamudio M, Soto Del Río M, Cobián Güemes A, Isa P, Lopez S. Molecular anatomy of 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1). Arch Med Res. 2009;40:643-54 pubmed publisher
    ..constant evolution of the virus by two main mechanisms: the accumulation of single nucleotide mutations in the viral genes introduced by an error-prone viral RNA polymerase and the reassortment of genes between two strains of ..
  32. Munoz N. From causality to prevention - the example of cervical cancer: my personal contribution to this fascinating history. Public Health Genomics. 2009;12:368-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The history of the generation of an hypothesis linking human papillomavirus to cervical cancer, as well as a summary of the various molecular epidemiological studies undertaken to confirm such hypothesis are described. ..
  33. Jarosinski K, Osterrieder N. Further analysis of Marek's disease virus horizontal transmission confirms that U(L)44 (gC) and U(L)13 protein kinase activity are essential, while U(S)2 is nonessential. J Virol. 2010;84:7911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the absence of gC expression or mutating the invariant lysine essential for U(L)13 kinase activity abolished horizontal spread of MDV between chickens...
  34. Gimeno I, Cortes A. Evaluation of factors influencing replication of serotype 1 Marek's disease vaccines in the chicken lung. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..c.) but not by the dose of vaccine administered. ..
  35. Carnieli P, Fahl W, Brandão P, Oliveira R, Macedo C, Durymanova E, et al. Comparative analysis of rabies virus isolates from Brazilian canids and bats based on the G gene and G-L intergenic region. Arch Virol. 2010;155:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Putative amino acid sequences obtained from the G gene were also analyzed, and genetic markers were identified. Our results suggest that different genetic lineages of RABV are adapted to different animal species in Brazil...
  36. Trask S, Taraporewala Z, Boehme K, Dermody T, Patton J. Dual selection mechanisms drive efficient single-gene reverse genetics for rotavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18652-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, application of a dual selection strategy to previously reported reverse genetics methods for RV may enhance the efficiency of recombinant virus recovery. ..
  37. Stokes H, Baliji S, Hui C, Sawicki S, Baker S, Siddell S. A new cistron in the murine hepatitis virus replicase gene. J Virol. 2010;84:10148-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a new cistron in the MHV replicase gene locus and show that nsp3 has an essential role in the assembly of a functional MHV replication-transcription complex. ..
  38. Rinckel L, Buno B, Gierman T, Lee D. Discovery and analysis of a novel parvovirus B19 Genotype 3 isolate in the United States. Transfusion. 2009;49:1488-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Although our data are consistent with recent reports suggesting low incidence for this genotype, they indicate its increasing relevance among blood and plasma donors. ..
  39. Ma Z, Liu L, Zhang F, Yu M, Wang K, Luo J, et al. Human papillomavirus type 16 exists in bacteria isolated from cervical cancer biopsies. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:1065-74 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that bacteria carrying HPV-16 could provide a potential explanation for how infectious microbes contribute to the progression from HPV-16 infection to cervical cancer. ..
  40. Murayama A, Weng L, Date T, Akazawa D, Tian X, Suzuki T, et al. RNA polymerase activity and specific RNA structure are required for efficient HCV replication in cultured cells. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000885 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, N3H, high polymerase activity, enhanced kissing-loop interactions, and optimal viral RNA structure in the 3'UTR were required for J6CF replication in cultured cells. ..
  41. Hughes A, O Connor S, Dudley D, Burwitz B, Bimber B, O Connor D. Dynamics of haplotype frequency change in a CD8+TL epitope of simian immunodeficiency virus. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:555-60 pubmed publisher
  42. Wang P, Kudelko M, Lo J, Siu L, Kwok K, Sachse M, et al. Efficient assembly and secretion of recombinant subviral particles of the four dengue serotypes using native prM and E proteins. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8325 pubmed publisher
    ..Dengue RSPs and corresponding producing cell lines are safe and novel tools that can be used in the study of viral egress as well as in the development of vaccine and drugs against dengue virus. ..
  43. Li L, Kapoor A, Slikas B, Bamidele O, Wang C, Shaukat S, et al. Multiple diverse circoviruses infect farm animals and are commonly found in human and chimpanzee feces. J Virol. 2010;84:1674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes...
  44. Praveen S, Ramesh S, Mishra A, Koundal V, Palukaitis P. Silencing potential of viral derived RNAi constructs in Tomato leaf curl virus-AC4 gene suppression in tomato. Transgenic Res. 2010;19:45-55 pubmed publisher
  45. Jackson A, Lim H, Bragg J, Ganesan U, Lee M. Hordeivirus replication, movement, and pathogenesis. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2009;47:385-422 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, an overview of recent advances in the use of BSMV for virus-induced gene silencing is presented. ..
  46. Wang Y, Jehle J. Nudiviruses and other large, double-stranded circular DNA viruses of invertebrates: new insights on an old topic. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;101:187-93 pubmed publisher
  47. Mitchell J, Sullam P. Streptococcus mitis phage-encoded adhesins mediate attachment to {alpha}2-8-linked sialic acid residues on platelet membrane gangliosides. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that platelet binding by SF100 is mediated by the interaction of PblA and PblB with alpha2-8-linked sialic acids on ganglioside GD3...
  48. Dalal S, Prasad G, Prasad M, Maan S. Restriction enzyme analysis of VP7 gene of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:245-9 pubmed
    ..Hence the restriction enzyme (RE) based analysis might be a useful tool in determining the genetic diversity in genome segment 7 and also for tracing their evolutionary relationships. ..
  49. Haaber J, Rousseau G, Hammer K, Moineau S. Identification and characterization of the phage gene sav, involved in sensitivity to the lactococcal abortive infection mechanism AbiV. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:2484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..lactis and Escherichia coli led to a rapid toxic effect. Conserved, evolutionarily related regions in SaV polypeptides of different phage groups are likely to be responsible for the AbiV-sensitive phenotype and the toxicity. ..
  50. de Wit E, Munster V, van Riel D, Beyer W, Rimmelzwaan G, Kuiken T, et al. Molecular determinants of adaptation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N7 viruses to efficient replication in the human host. J Virol. 2010;84:1597-606 pubmed publisher
  51. Manarolla G, Pisoni G, Sironi G, Rampin T. Molecular biological characterization of avian poxvirus strains isolated from different avian species. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underline the importance to undertake similar studies on higher numbers of Avipoxvirus isolates and on wider genomic regions of this large viral group...
  52. Pond S, Scheffler K, Gravenor M, Poon A, Frost S. Evolutionary fingerprinting of genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:520-36 pubmed publisher
  53. Glazov E, Horwood P, Assavalapsakul W, Kongsuwan K, Mitchell R, Mitter N, et al. Characterization of microRNAs encoded by the bovine herpesvirus 1 genome. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible roles for BoHV-1 miRNAs in the regulation of known BoHV-1 transcription units and the genetics of the BoHV-1 genotypes are also discussed. ..