clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats


Summary: Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.

Top Publications

  1. Zhou X, Jacobs T, Xue L, Harding S, Tsai C. Exploiting SNPs for biallelic CRISPR mutations in the outcrossing woody perennial Populus reveals 4-coumarate:CoA ligase specificity and redundancy. New Phytol. 2015;208:298-301 pubmed publisher
  2. Kim Y, Komor A, Levy J, Packer M, Zhao K, Liu D. Increasing the genome-targeting scope and precision of base editing with engineered Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusions. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:371-376 pubmed publisher
  3. Murugan K, Babu K, Sundaresan R, Rajan R, Sashital D. The Revolution Continues: Newly Discovered Systems Expand the CRISPR-Cas Toolkit. Mol Cell. 2017;68:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These advances highlight the exciting prospects for future tools based on the continually expanding set of CRISPR-Cas systems. ..
  4. Zhou H, Zhao H, Zheng J, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Zhao F, et al. CRISPRs provide broad and robust protection to oral microbial flora of gingival health against bacteriophage challenge. Protein Cell. 2015;6:541-545 pubmed publisher
  5. Cameron P, Fuller C, Donohoue P, Jones B, Thompson M, Carter M, et al. Mapping the genomic landscape of CRISPR-Cas9 cleavage. Nat Methods. 2017;14:600-606 pubmed publisher
  6. Dong X, Jin Y, Ming D, Li B, Dong H, Wang L, et al. CRISPR/dCas9-mediated inhibition of gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. J Microbiol Methods. 2017;139:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus is always laborious and time-consuming. Here we proposed a novel CRISPR/dCas9 interference method for the rapid knockdown of target genes. Furthermore, multiple genes can be repressed simultaneously by using this method. ..
  7. Butler J, Santos R, Martens G, Ladowski J, Wang Z, Li P, et al. Efficient generation of targeted and controlled mutational events in porcine cells using nuclease-directed homologous recombination. J Surg Res. 2017;212:238-245 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these strategies may be used to efficiently control mutational events. This system may be used to better use the potential of nuclease-mediated genomic editing. ..
  8. Lui P, Wong L, Ho T, Au S, Chan C, Kok K, et al. PACT Facilitates RNA-Induced Activation of MDA5 by Promoting MDA5 Oligomerization. J Immunol. 2017;199:1846-1855 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that PACT functions as an essential cellular coactivator of RIG-I, as well as MDA5, and it facilitates RNA-induced formation of MDA5 oligomers. ..
  9. Yosef I, Qimron U. Microbiology: How bacteria get spacers from invaders. Nature. 2015;519:166-7 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Takei Y, Shah S, Harvey S, Qi L, Cai L. Multiplexed Dynamic Imaging of Genomic Loci by Combined CRISPR Imaging and DNA Sequential FISH. Biophys J. 2017;112:1773-1776 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate our approach by tracking telomere dynamics, identifying 12 unique subtelomeric regions with variable detection efficiencies, and tracking back the telomere dynamics of respective chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells. ..
  2. Han K, Jeng E, Hess G, Morgens D, Li A, Bassik M. Synergistic drug combinations for cancer identified in a CRISPR screen for pairwise genetic interactions. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:463-474 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides an effective strategy to screen synergistic drug combinations in high-throughput and a CRISPR-based tool to dissect functional GI networks. ..
  3. Kuan P, Powers S, He S, Li K, Zhao X, Huang B. A systematic evaluation of nucleotide properties for CRISPR sgRNA design. BMC Bioinformatics. 2017;18:297 pubmed publisher
    ..An R package predictSGRNA implementing the predictive model is available at . ..
  4. Cohen J. The Birth of CRISPR Inc. Science. 2017;355:680-684 pubmed publisher
  5. Makarova K, Zhang F, Koonin E. SnapShot: Class 1 CRISPR-Cas Systems. Cell. 2017;168:946-946.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules consisting of multiple subunits. Class 1 systems comprise about 90% of all CRISPR-Cas loci identified in bacteria and archaea and can target both DNA and RNA. ..
  6. Nishimasu H, Yamano T, Gao L, Zhang F, Ishitani R, Nureki O. Structural Basis for the Altered PAM Recognition by Engineered CRISPR-Cpf1. Mol Cell. 2017;67:139-147.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our high-resolution structures delineated the altered PAM recognition mechanisms of the AsCpf1 variants, providing a basis for the further engineering of CRISPR-Cpf1. ..
  7. Rong Z, Zhu S, Xu Y, Fu X. Homologous recombination in human embryonic stem cells using CRISPR/Cas9 nickase and a long DNA donor template. Protein Cell. 2014;5:258-60 pubmed publisher
  8. Ichikawa H, Cooper J, Lo L, Potter J, Terns R, Terns M. Programmable type III-A CRISPR-Cas DNA targeting modules. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176221 pubmed publisher
    ..These systems provide a platform for investigation of Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems in E. coli, and for introduction of programmable transcription-activated DNA targeting into novel organisms. ..
  9. Vu L, Pickering B, Cheng Y, Zaccara S, Nguyen D, Minuesa G, et al. The N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-forming enzyme METTL3 controls myeloid differentiation of normal hematopoietic and leukemia cells. Nat Med. 2017;23:1369-1376 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results provide a rationale for the therapeutic targeting of METTL3 in myeloid leukemia. ..
  10. Hammond A, Kyrou K, Bruttini M, North A, Galizi R, Karlsson X, et al. The creation and selection of mutations resistant to a gene drive over multiple generations in the malaria mosquito. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007039 pubmed publisher
  11. Iyer V, Shen B, Zhang W, Hodgkins A, Keane T, Huang X, et al. Off-target mutations are rare in Cas9-modified mice. Nat Methods. 2015;12:479 pubmed publisher
  12. Tsai S, Nguyen N, Malagon Lopez J, Topkar V, Aryee M, Joung J. CIRCLE-seq: a highly sensitive in vitro screen for genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease off-targets. Nat Methods. 2017;14:607-614 pubmed publisher
    ..CIRCLE-seq provides an accessible, rapid, and comprehensive method for identifying genome-wide off-target mutations of CRISPR-Cas9. ..
  13. Maxwell K. The Anti-CRISPR Story: A Battle for Survival. Mol Cell. 2017;68:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..They have also led to the development of important biotechnological tools that can be used for genetic engineering, including off switches for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in human cells...
  14. Baltimore D, Berg P, Botchan M, Carroll D, Charo R, Church G, et al. Biotechnology. A prudent path forward for genomic engineering and germline gene modification. Science. 2015;348:36-8 pubmed publisher
  15. Pollack R. Eugenics lurk in the shadow of CRISPR. Science. 2015;348:871 pubmed publisher
  16. Duroux Richard I, Giovannangeli C, Apparailly F. CRISPR-Cas9: A revolution in genome editing in rheumatic diseases. Joint Bone Spine. 2017;84:1-4 pubmed publisher
  17. Wang L, Yi F, Fu L, Yang J, Wang S, Wang Z, et al. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene correction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient iPSCs. Protein Cell. 2017;8:365-378 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work may shed light on discovery of early biomarkers and pathways dysregulated in ALS, as well as provide a basis for novel therapeutic strategies to treat ALS. ..
  18. Yamazaki T, Hatano Y, Handa T, Kato S, Hoida K, Yamamura R, et al. Targeted DNA methylation in pericentromeres with genome editing-based artificial DNA methyltransferase. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177764 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated a new method of introducing DNA methylation without the need of other binding partners using the CpG methyltransferase, SssI. ..
  19. Kirchner T, Niehaus M, Debener T, Schenk M, Herde M. Efficient generation of mutations mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in the hairy root transformation system of Brassica carinata. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185429 pubmed publisher
    ..This study paves the way for experimental strategies involving the phenotypic assessment of gene lesions by CRISPR which do not require germline transmission. ..
  20. East Seletsky A, O Connell M, Burstein D, Knott G, Doudna J. RNA Targeting by Functionally Orthogonal Type VI-A CRISPR-Cas Enzymes. Mol Cell. 2017;66:373-383.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..We define two Cas13a protein subfamilies that can operate in parallel for RNA detection both in bacteria and for diagnostic applications. ..
  21. Yang H, Patel D. Inhibition Mechanism of an Anti-CRISPR Suppressor AcrIIA4 Targeting SpyCas9. Mol Cell. 2017;67:117-127.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide insights into anti-CRISPR-mediated suppression mechanisms for inactivating SpyCas9, thereby broadening the applicability of CRISPR-Cas regulatory tools for genome editing. ..
  22. Fredriksson Lidman K, Van Itallie C, Tietgens A, Anderson J. Sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein 2 (SORBS2) is a component of the acto-myosin ring at the apical junctional complex in epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185448 pubmed publisher
  23. Montalbano A, Canver M, Sanjana N. High-Throughput Approaches to Pinpoint Function within the Noncoding Genome. Mol Cell. 2017;68:44-59 pubmed publisher
    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas nuclease system is a powerful tool for genome editing, and its simple programmability has enabled high-throughput genetic and epigenetic studies...
  24. Liu P, Long L, Xiong K, Yu B, Chang N, Xiong J, et al. Heritable/conditional genome editing in C. elegans using a CRISPR-Cas9 feeding system. Cell Res. 2014;24:886-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Oye K, Esvelt K. Gene drives raise dual-use concerns--response. Science. 2014;345:1010-1 pubmed publisher
  26. Redman M, King A, Watson C, King D. What is CRISPR/Cas9?. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2016;101:213-5 pubmed publisher
  27. Tsai S, Topkar V, Joung J, Aryee M. Open-source guideseq software for analysis of GUIDE-seq data. Nat Biotechnol. 2016;34:483 pubmed publisher
  28. Pankowicz F, Jarrett K, Lagor W, Bissig K. CRISPR/Cas9: at the cutting edge of hepatology. Gut. 2017;66:1329-1340 pubmed publisher
    b>Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome engineering has revolutionised biomedical science and we are standing on the cusp of medical transformation...
  29. Kuscu C, Parlak M, Tufan T, Yang J, Szlachta K, Wei X, et al. CRISPR-STOP: gene silencing through base-editing-induced nonsense mutations. Nat Methods. 2017;14:710-712 pubmed publisher
    ..Early stop codons can be introduced in ?17,000 human genes. CRISPR-STOP-mediated targeted screening demonstrates comparable efficiency to WT Cas9, which indicates the suitability of our approach for genome-wide functional screenings. ..
  30. Borges A, Davidson A, Bondy Denomy J. The Discovery, Mechanisms, and Evolutionary Impact of Anti-CRISPRs. Annu Rev Virol. 2017;4:37-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We also consider the potential impact of anti-CRISPRs on bacterial and phage evolution. Finally, we speculate about the future of this field. ..
  31. High K, Gregory P, GERSBACH C. CRISPR technology for gene therapy. Nat Med. 2014;20:476-7 pubmed publisher
  32. Zhong G, Wang H, Li Y, Tran M, Farzan M. Cpf1 proteins excise CRISPR RNAs from mRNA transcripts in mammalian cells. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:839-841 pubmed publisher
    ..This property simplifies modification of multiple genomic targets and can be used to increase the efficiency of Cpf1-mediated editing. ..
  33. Wright A, Liu J, Knott G, Doxzen K, Nogales E, Doudna J. Structures of the CRISPR genome integration complex. Science. 2017;357:1113-1118 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain how the Cas1-Cas2 CRISPR integrase recognizes a sequence-dependent DNA structure to ensure site-selective CRISPR array expansion during the initial step of bacterial adaptive immunity. ..
  34. Zhou G, Duan Y, Ma G, Wu W, Hu Z, Chen N, et al. Introduction of the MDM2 T309G Mutation in Primary Human Retinal Epithelial Cells Enhances Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5361-5367 pubmed publisher
    ..risk of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR); in addition, the MDM2 T309G created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/associated endonuclease (Cas)9 enhances normal rabbit vitreous-induced ..
  35. Sanna Cherchi S, Khan K, Westland R, Krithivasan P, Fievet L, Rasouly H, et al. Exome-wide Association Study Identifies GREB1L Mutations in Congenital Kidney Malformations. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101:789-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study provides insight into the genetic landscape of kidney malformations in humans, presents multiple candidates, and identifies SLIT3 and GREB1L as genes implicated in the pathogenesis of RHD. ..
  36. Mao Y, Zhang H, Xu N, Zhang B, Gou F, Zhu J. Application of the CRISPR-Cas system for efficient genome engineering in plants. Mol Plant. 2013;6:2008-11 pubmed publisher
  37. Pennisi E. The CRISPR craze. Science. 2013;341:833-6 pubmed publisher
  38. Murovec J, Pirc Ž, Yang B. New variants of CRISPR RNA-guided genome editing enzymes. Plant Biotechnol J. 2017;15:917-926 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we discuss new possibilities they offer in plant biotechnology. ..
  39. Ashdown G, Burn G, Williamson D, Pandžić E, Peters R, Holden M, et al. Live-Cell Super-resolution Reveals F-Actin and Plasma Membrane Dynamics at the T Cell Synapse. Biophys J. 2017;112:1703-1713 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that this apparent cytoskeletal-membrane coupling could provide a mechanism for driving the observed retrograde flow of signaling molecules such as the TCR, Lck, ZAP70, LAT, and SLP76. ..
  40. Xia L, Huang W, Bellani M, Seidman M, Wu K, Fan D, et al. CHD4 Has Oncogenic Functions in Initiating and Maintaining Epigenetic Suppression of Multiple Tumor Suppressor Genes. Cancer Cell. 2017;31:653-668.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..High CHD4 and 8-OHdG levels plus low expression of TSGs strongly correlates with early disease recurrence and decreased overall survival. ..
  41. Arend M, Pereira J, Markoski M. The CRISPR/Cas9 System and the Possibility of Genomic Edition for Cardiology. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017;108:81-83 pubmed publisher
  42. Puschnik A, Majzoub K, Ooi Y, Carette J. A CRISPR toolbox to study virus-host interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;15:351-364 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative ease of use and reproducibility of CRISPR-Cas make it a powerful tool for probing virus-host interactions and for identifying new antiviral targets. ..
  43. Gentil B, O Ferrall E, Chalk C, Santana L, Durham H, Massie R. A New Mutation in FIG4 Causes a Severe Form of CMT4J Involving TRPV4 in the Pathogenic Cascade. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017;76:789-799 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibiting TRPV4 activity significantly preserved viability, although not correcting vesicular trafficking. In conclusion, we demonstrate a new FIG4 intronic mutation and, importantly, a functional interaction between FIG4 and TRPV4. ..
  44. Tomida J, Morita Y, Shibayama K, Kikuchi K, Sawa T, Akaike T, et al. Diversity and microevolution of CRISPR loci in Helicobacter cinaedi. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186241 pubmed publisher
    ..CRISPR sequences constitute a valuable basis for genotyping, provide insights into the divergence and relatedness between closely-related strains, and reflect the microevolutionary process of H. cinaedi...
  45. Wei Y, Chesne M, Terns R, Terns M. Sequences spanning the leader-repeat junction mediate CRISPR adaptation to phage in Streptococcus thermophilus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:1749-58 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that information at the CRISPR leader-repeat junction is critical for adaptation in this Type II-A system and likely other CRISPR-Cas systems...
  46. Li R, Harvey A, Hodgetts S, Fox A. Functional dissection of NEAT1 using genome editing reveals substantial localization of the NEAT1_1 isoform outside paraspeckles. RNA. 2017;23:872-881 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the complexity of lncRNA and showcases how genome editing tools are useful in dissecting the structural and functional roles of overlapping transcripts. ..
  47. Li P, Shi M, Shen W, Zhang Z, Xie D, Zhang X, et al. Coordinated regulation of IFITM1, 2 and 3 genes by an IFN-responsive enhancer through long-range chromatin interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:885-893 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression and its ability to mediate IFN signaling. ..
  48. Li X, Baker J, Cracknell T, Haynes A, Blanco G. IGFN1_v1 is required for myoblast fusion and differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180217 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in vivo overexpression of IGFN1_v1 or the Igfn1 Exon 13 CRISPR/Cas9 targeting vector did not result in significant size changes in transfected fibres. ..
  49. Maina P, Shao P, Jia X, Liu Q, Umesalma S, Marin M, et al. Histone demethylase PHF8 regulates hypoxia signaling through HIF1? and H3K4me3. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:1002-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, targeting PHF8 can potentially be a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer therapy. ..
  50. Yan H, Opachaloemphan C, Mancini G, Yang H, Gallitto M, Mlejnek J, et al. An Engineered orco Mutation Produces Aberrant Social Behavior and Defective Neural Development in Ants. Cell. 2017;170:736-747.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the development of genetics in Harpegnathos establishes this ant species as a model organism to study the complexity of eusociality. ..
  51. Yan L, Wei S, Wu Y, Hu R, Li H, Yang W, et al. High-Efficiency Genome Editing in Arabidopsis Using YAO Promoter-Driven CRISPR/Cas9 System. Mol Plant. 2015;8:1820-3 pubmed publisher
  52. Hough S, Kancleris K, Brody L, Humphryes Kirilov N, Wolanski J, Dunaway K, et al. Guide Picker is a comprehensive design tool for visualizing and selecting guides for CRISPR experiments. BMC Bioinformatics. 2017;18:167 pubmed publisher
    ..The ease-of-use of Guide Picker complements CRISPR itself, matching a powerful and modular biological system with a flexible online web tool that can be used in a variety of genome editing experimental contexts. ..
  53. Horn S, Hughes M, Schilling R, Sticht C, Tenev T, Ploesser M, et al. Caspase-10 Negatively Regulates Caspase-8-Mediated Cell Death, Switching the Response to CD95L in Favor of NF-κB Activation and Cell Survival. Cell Rep. 2017;19:785-797 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data are consistent with a model in which both caspase-10 and cFLIP coordinately regulate CD95L-mediated signaling for death or survival. ..
  54. Bruce V, McNaughton B. Inside Job: Methods for Delivering Proteins to the Interior of Mammalian Cells. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:924-934 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we summarize and evaluate current approaches for intracellular delivery of exogenous proteins to mammalian cells and, in doing so, aim to illuminate fertile ground for future discovery in this critical area of research. ..
  55. Yamano T, Zetsche B, Ishitani R, Zhang F, Nishimasu H, Nureki O. Structural Basis for the Canonical and Non-canonical PAM Recognition by CRISPR-Cpf1. Mol Cell. 2017;67:633-645.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present structures advance our mechanistic understanding of the PAM-dependent, crRNA-guided DNA cleavage by the Cpf1 family nucleases. ..
  56. El Refaey M, Xu L, Gao Y, Canan B, Adesanya T, Warner S, et al. In Vivo Genome Editing Restores Dystrophin Expression and Cardiac Function in Dystrophic Mice. Circ Res. 2017;121:923-929 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-mediated genome editing on dystrophin expression and cardiac function in mdx/Utr<..
  57. Blouin Y, Cazajous G, Dehan C, Soler C, Vong R, Hassan M, et al. Progenitor “Mycobacterium canettii” clone responsible for lymph node tuberculosis epidemic, Djibouti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..canettii. Evolution of this clone, which has been recovered regularly since 1983, may mimic the birth of M. tuberculosis. Thus, recognizing this organism and identifying its reservoir are clinically important. ..
  58. Gao Y, Zhao Y. Specific and heritable gene editing in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:4357-8 pubmed publisher
  59. Nguyen T, Anegon I. Successful correction of hemophilia by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in vivo: delivery vector and immune responses are the key to success. EMBO Mol Med. 2016;8:439-41 pubmed publisher
  60. Cohen J. CRISPR patent ruling leaves license holders scrambling. Science. 2017;355:786 pubmed publisher
  61. Voloshanenko O, Gmach P, Winter J, Kranz D, Boutros M. Mapping of Wnt-Frizzled interactions by multiplex CRISPR targeting of receptor gene families. FASEB J. 2017;31:4832-4844 pubmed publisher
    ..Voloshanenko, O., Gmach, P., Winter, J., Kranz, D., Boutros, M. Mapping of Wnt-Frizzled interactions by multiplex CRISPR targeting of receptor gene families. ..
  62. Sechler A, Tancos M, Schneider D, King J, Fennessey C, Schroeder B, et al. Whole genome sequence of two Rathayibacter toxicus strains reveals a tunicamycin biosynthetic cluster similar to Streptomyces chartreusis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183005 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the genome provides clear insight into the possible mechanisms for toxin production in R. toxicus, providing a basis for future genetic approaches...
  63. Lizio M, Deviatiiarov R, Nagai H, Galán L, Arner E, Itoh M, et al. Systematic analysis of transcription start sites in avian development. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002887 pubmed publisher
    ..By facilitating promoter-based molecular analysis and genetic manipulation, our work also underscores the value of avian models in unravelling the complex regulatory mechanism of cell lineage specification during amniote development. ..
  64. Burmistrz M, Rodriguez Martinez J, Krochmal D, Staniec D, Pyrc K. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs in the Porphyromonas gingivalis CRISPR-Cas I-C System. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..The presented results on the biogenesis and functions of crRNAs expand our understanding of CRISPR-Cas cellular defenses in P. gingivalis and of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. ..
  65. Somanath P, Herndon Klein R, Knoepfler P. CRISPR-mediated HDAC2 disruption identifies two distinct classes of target genes in human cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185627 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study defines two classes of HDAC2 targets in human cells, with a dependence of HDAC1 on HDAC2 at one class of targets, and distinguishes unique functions for HDAC2...
  66. Zhou W, Wan Y, Guo R, Deng M, Deng K, Wang Z, et al. Generation of beta-lactoglobulin knock-out goats using CRISPR/Cas9. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186056 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research...
  67. Ma Y, Zhang X, Shen B, Lu Y, Chen W, Ma J, et al. Generating rats with conditional alleles using CRISPR/Cas9. Cell Res. 2014;24:122-5 pubmed publisher
  68. Rusk N. CRISPRs and epigenome editing. Nat Methods. 2014;11:28 pubmed
  69. Sanguino L, Franqueville L, Vogel T, Larose C. Linking environmental prokaryotic viruses and their host through CRISPRs. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2015;91: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), which contain viral sequences in bacterial genomes, might help document the ..
  70. Kim Y, Cheong S, Lee J, Lee S, Lee M, Baek I, et al. Generation of knockout mice by Cpf1-mediated gene targeting. Nat Biotechnol. 2016;34:808-10 pubmed publisher
  71. Salsman J, Dellaire G. Precision genome editing in the CRISPR era. Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;95:187-201 pubmed publisher
  72. Zhang X, Schnorrer F. AIDing-targeted protein degradation in Drosophila. FEBS J. 2017;284:1178-1181 pubmed publisher
    ..They achieve precise spatio-temporal control of protein degradation during Drosophila oogenesis and early embryogenesis by combining suitable GAL4 drivers (spatial control) with auxin feeding protocols (temporal control). ..
  73. O Rourke K, Loizou E, Livshits G, Schatoff E, Baslan T, Manchado E, et al. Transplantation of engineered organoids enables rapid generation of metastatic mouse models of colorectal cancer. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:577-582 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our approach provides a fast and flexible means to produce tailored CRC mouse models for genetic studies and pre-clinical investigation. ..
  74. Hou P, Wu C, Wang Y, Qi R, Bhavanasi D, Zuo Z, et al. A Genome-Wide CRISPR Screen Identifies Genes Critical for Resistance to FLT3 Inhibitor AC220. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4402-4413 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Cancer Res; 77(16); 4402-13. ©2017 AACR. ..
  75. Batra R, Nelles D, Pirie E, Blue S, Marina R, Wang H, et al. Elimination of Toxic Microsatellite Repeat Expansion RNA by RNA-Targeting Cas9. Cell. 2017;170:899-912.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we report a truncated RCas9 system compatible with adeno-associated viral packaging. This effort highlights the potential of RCas9 for human therapeutics. ..
  76. Gasiunas G, Sinkunas T, Siksnys V. Molecular mechanisms of CRISPR-mediated microbial immunity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014;71:449-65 pubmed
    ..Recently, an adaptive microbial immune system, named clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and which provides acquired immunity against viruses and plasmids, has been ..
  77. Barrangou R. RNA events. Cas9 targeting and the CRISPR revolution. Science. 2014;344:707-8 pubmed publisher
  78. Qin Q, Xie B, Yu Y, Shu Y, Rong J, Zhang Y, et al. Comparative genomics of the marine bacterial genus Glaciecola reveals the high degree of genomic diversity and genomic characteristic for cold adaptation. Environ Microbiol. 2014;16:1642-53 pubmed
    ..Species of Glaciecola had some common genomic features related to cold adaptation, which enable them to thrive and play a role in biogeochemical cycle in the cold marine environments. ..
  79. Zhang Q, Ye Y. Not all predicted CRISPR-Cas systems are equal: isolated cas genes and classes of CRISPR like elements. BMC Bioinformatics. 2017;18:92 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that false-CRISPRs could be used to reduce the false annotation of CRISPRs, therefore showing them to be useful for improving the annotation of CRISPR-Cas systems. ..
  80. Zong Y, Wang Y, Li C, Zhang R, Chen K, Ran Y, et al. Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusion. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:438-440 pubmed publisher
    ..48%. ..
  81. Stallaert W, Van der Westhuizen E, Schönegge A, Plouffe B, Hogue M, Lukashova V, et al. Purinergic Receptor Transactivation by the β2-Adrenergic Receptor Increases Intracellular Ca2+ in Nonexcitable Cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;91:533-544 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study reports the generation and validation of HEK293 cells deleted of Gs using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology that will undoubtedly be powerful tools to study Gs-dependent signaling. ..
  82. Cuculis L, Schroeder C. A Single-Molecule View of Genome Editing Proteins: Biophysical Mechanisms for TALEs and CRISPR/Cas9. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng. 2017;8:577-597 pubmed publisher
    ..editing proteins: transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas)...
  83. Voets O, Tielen F, Elstak E, Benschop J, Grimbergen M, Stallen J, et al. Highly efficient gene inactivation by adenoviral CRISPR/Cas9 in human primary cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182974 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of AdV CRISPR/Cas9 may offer significant advantages over the current existing tools and should enhance target discovery and validation opportunities. ..
  84. Liu T, Liu Z, Ye Q, Pan S, Wang X, Li Y, et al. Coupling transcriptional activation of CRISPR-Cas system and DNA repair genes by Csa3a in Sulfolobus islandicus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8978-8992 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicated that the Csa3a regulator couples transcriptional activation of the CRISPR-Cas system and DNA repair genes for spacer adaptation and efficient interference of invading genetic elements. ..
  85. Johnston C, Skeete C, Fomenkov A, Roberts R, Rittling S. Restriction-modification mediated barriers to exogenous DNA uptake and incorporation employed by Prevotella intermedia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185234 pubmed publisher
    ..This work will provide a valuable resource during the development of a genetic system for P. intermedia, which will be required for fundamental investigation of this organism's physiology, metabolism, and pathogenesis in human disease...
  86. Williams R, Senanayake U, Artibani M, Taylor G, Wells D, Ahmed A, et al. Genome and epigenome engineering CRISPR toolkit for in vivo modulation of cis-regulatory interactions and gene expression in the chicken embryo. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
  87. Lei Y, Lu L, Liu H, Li S, Xing F, Chen L. CRISPR-P: a web tool for synthetic single-guide RNA design of CRISPR-system in plants. Mol Plant. 2014;7:1494-1496 pubmed publisher
  88. Li M, Gong L, Zhao D, Zhou J, Xiang H. The spacer size of I-B CRISPR is modulated by the terminal sequence of the protospacer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:4642-4654 pubmed publisher
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