Summary: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Sun Y, Li N, Li H, Li M, Qiu H. Enhanced immunity against classical swine fever in pigs induced by prime-boost immunization using an alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccine and a recombinant adenovirus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;137:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated previously that a prime-boost vaccination strategy using an alphavirus (Semliki Forest virus, SFV) replicon-vectored DNA vaccine (pSFV1CS-E2) and a recombinant adenovirus (rAdV-E2) expressing the E2 glycoprotein of CSFV ..
  2. Wang C, Huang H, Valera L, Sun J, O Boyle D, Nower P, et al. Hepatitis C virus RNA elimination and development of resistance in replicon cells treated with BMS-790052. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To further characterize the antiviral activity of BMS-790052, HCV replicon elimination and colony formation assays were performed...
  3. Li S, Li X, Zhao H, Deng Y, Yu X, Zhu S, et al. Development and characterization of the replicon system of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2. Virol J. 2013;10:64 pubmed publisher
    ..Many kinds of flavivirus replicons have been developed with broad applications. The replicon system of JEV live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 was successfully developed in this study...
  4. Herbert A, Kuehne A, Barth J, Ortiz R, Nichols D, Zak S, et al. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus. J Virol. 2013;87:4952-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg ..
  5. Yun S, Song B, Koo Y, Jeon I, Byun S, Park J, et al. Japanese encephalitis virus-based replicon RNAs/particles as an expression system for HIV-1 Pr55 Gag that is capable of producing virus-like particles. Virus Res. 2009;144:298-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a cytoplasmic RNA replicon based on the RNA genome of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) that is capable of expressing HIV-1 gag without ..
  6. Scheller N, Mina L, Galao R, Chari A, Gimenez Barcons M, Noueiry A, et al. Translation and replication of hepatitis C virus genomic RNA depends on ancient cellular proteins that control mRNA fates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13517-22 pubmed publisher
  7. Wong P, Winter S, Zaika E, Cao T, Oguz U, Koomen J, et al. Cdc45 limits replicon usage from a low density of preRCs in mammalian cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17533 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about mammalian preRC stoichiometry, the number of preRCs on chromosomes, and how this relates to replicon size and usage...
  8. Lindsey R, Frye J, Fedorka Cray P, Meinersmann R. Microarray-based analysis of IncA/C plasmid-associated genes from multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:6991-9 pubmed publisher
    In the family Enterobacteriaceae, plasmids have been classified according to 27 incompatibility (Inc) or replicon types that are based on the inability of different plasmids with the same replication mechanism to coexist in the same cell...
  9. Walczak M, de Mare A, Riezebos Brilman A, Regts J, Hoogeboom B, Visser J, et al. Heterologous prime-boost immunizations with a virosomal and an alphavirus replicon vaccine. Mol Pharm. 2011;8:65-77 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Verbinnen T, Van Marck H, Vandenbroucke I, Vijgen L, Claes M, Lin T, et al. Tracking the evolution of multiple in vitro hepatitis C virus replicon variants under protease inhibitor selection pressure by 454 deep sequencing. J Virol. 2010;84:11124-33 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors targeting viral enzymes has been observed in in vitro replicon studies and during clinical trials...
  2. Lavender H, Brady K, Burden F, Delpuech Adams O, Denise H, Palmer A, et al. In vitro characterization of the activity of PF-05095808, a novel biological agent for hepatitis C virus therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of PF-05095808 or corresponding synthetic shRNAs, sequence-specific antiviral activity was observed in HCV replicon and infectious virus systems...
  3. Ali S, Leveque V, Le Pogam S, Ma H, Philipp F, Inocencio N, et al. Selected replicon variants with low-level in vitro resistance to the hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitor PSI-6130 lack cross-resistance with R1479. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:4356-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the HCV replicon cell system to examine the emergence of variants with reduced sensitivity to PSI-6130...
  4. Lindsey R, Frye J, Thitaram S, Meinersmann R, Fedorka Cray P, Englen M. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Microb Drug Resist. 2011;17:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to examine the distribution of multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli in relation to plasmid replicon types, animal sources, and genotypes. E...
  5. Slovin S, Kehoe M, Durso R, Fernandez C, Olson W, Gao J, et al. A phase I dose escalation trial of vaccine replicon particles (VRP) expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in subjects with prostate cancer. Vaccine. 2013;31:943-9 pubmed publisher
    PSMA-VRP is a propagation defective, viral replicon vector system encoding PSMA under phase I evaluation for patients with castration resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC)...
  6. Pan Y, Zhao Q, Fang L, Luo R, Chen H, Xiao S. Efficient gene delivery into mammalian cells by recombinant baculovirus containing a hybrid cytomegalovirus promoter/Semliki Forest virus replicon. J Gene Med. 2009;11:1030-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the characterization of recombinant baculovirus incorporating a hybrid cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter/SFV replicon.
  7. Yu Y, Guo J, An H, Zhang S, Wang S, Yu W, et al. Potent tetravalent replicon vaccines against botulinum neurotoxins using DNA-based Semliki Forest virus replicon vectors. Vaccine. 2013;31:2427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Firstly, monovalent replicon vaccine against BoNT induced better antibody response and protection than that of corresponding conventional DNA ..
  8. Yang C, Tsai M, Hu H, Pu S, Wu R, Wu S, et al. Characterization of an efficient dengue virus replicon for development of assays of discovery of small molecules against dengue virus. Antiviral Res. 2013;98:228-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of the transient and stable expression of this RNA-launched replicon to replicons containing various deletions revealed dengue replicon containing entire mature capsid RNA element ..
  9. Yang S, Wo J, Li M, Mi F, Yu C, Lv G, et al. Construction and cellular immune response induction of HA-based alphavirus replicon vaccines against human-avian influenza (H5N1). Vaccine. 2009;27:7451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the HA sequences (human isolates of the H5N1 subtype, from 1997 to 2003) and explored a novel alphavirus replicon system of VP22 fused with HA, to assess whether the immunogenicity of an HA-based replicon vaccine could be ..
  10. Saxena S, Dahiya S, Sonwane A, Patel C, Saini M, Rai A, et al. A sindbis virus replicon-based DNA vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein elicits immune responses and complete protection in mice from lethal challenge. Vaccine. 2008;26:6592-601 pubmed publisher
    A sindbis virus replicon-based DNA vaccine encoding rabies virus glycoprotein (G) was developed by subcloning rabies G gene into a sindbis virus replicon-based vaccine vector (pAlpha)...
  11. Moritoh K, Maeda A, Nishino T, Sasaki N, Agui T. Development and application of West Nile virus subgenomic replicon RNA expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:683-6 pubmed
    We have developed a West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon harboring the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene instead of viral structural genes (designated repWNV/SEAP)...
  12. Marcadé G, Deschamps C, Boyd A, Gautier V, Picard B, Branger C, et al. Replicon typing of plasmids in Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The replicons carrying the ESBLs and the total plasmid content of the strains have been characterized by PCR replicon typing in relation to the type of ESBL. The ESBL replicons were then compared with the replicon content of E...
  13. Hernández Arriaga A, Espinosa M, del Solar G. Fitness of the pMV158 replicon in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmid. 2012;67:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The negligible cost of the pMV158 parental natural plasmid on the host might explain the prevalence of small, multicopy, rolling-circle replication plasmids, even though they lack any selectable trait. ..
  14. Qu T, Yang Q, Shen P, Wei Z, Yu Y. Novel vancomycin-resistance transposon, plasmid replicon types, and virulence factors of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in Zhejiang, China. Microb Drug Resist. 2012;18:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The four plasmid replicon types (pRUM, pRE25, pEF418, and pB82) were more common in VRE isolates, suggesting their association with ..
  15. Vasilevska J, Skrastina D, Spunde K, Garoff H, Kozlovska T, Zajakina A. Semliki Forest virus biodistribution in tumor-free and 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing mice: a comparison of transgene delivery by recombinant virus particles and naked RNA replicon. Cancer Gene Ther. 2012;19:579-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have compared the distribution of recombinant SFV particles (recSFV) and naked viral RNA replicon (recRNA) in tumor-free and 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing mice as a consequence of different vector administration ..
  16. Robinson M, Yang H, Sun S, Peng B, Tian Y, Pagratis N, et al. Novel hepatitis C virus reporter replicon cell lines enable efficient antiviral screening against genotype 1a. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3099-106 pubmed publisher
    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon is the primary tool for evaluating the activity of anti-HCV compounds in drug discovery research. Despite the prevalence of HCV genotype 1a (approximately 70% of U.S...
  17. Galardini M, Pini F, Bazzicalupo M, Biondi E, Mengoni A. Replicon-dependent bacterial genome evolution: the case of Sinorhizobium meliloti. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:542-58 pubmed publisher
    ..that the three main replicons present in these strains (a chromosome, a chromid, and a megaplasmid) partly show replicon-specific behaviors related to strain differentiation...
  18. Williams L, Wireman J, Hilliard V, Summers A. Large plasmids of Escherichia coli and Salmonella encode highly diverse arrays of accessory genes on common replicon families. Plasmid. 2013;69:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We used replicon typing and RFLP analysis to assess diversity and distribution of plasmids in the ECOR, SARA, SARB and SARC ..
  19. Berger Rentsch M, Zimmer G. A vesicular stomatitis virus replicon-based bioassay for the rapid and sensitive determination of multi-species type I interferon. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25858 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, an improved IFN assay is presented which is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replicon encoding two reporter proteins, firefly luciferase and green fluorescent protein...
  20. Ligasová A, Raska I, Koberna K. Organization of human replicon: singles or zipping couples?. J Struct Biol. 2009;165:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data enabled to suggest a new model of the organization of replicated DNA. According to this model, replisome couples produce loop with the associated arms in the form of four tightly associated 30nm fibers. ..
  21. Herrick J. The dynamic replicon: adapting to a changing cellular environment. Bioessays. 2010;32:153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence indicates that each unit of replication, or replicon, can correspond to one or more potential replication origins, but in the case of multiple potential origins, only ..
  22. Patkar C, Larsen M, Owston M, Smith J, Kuhn R. Identification of inhibitors of yellow fever virus replication using a replicon-based high-throughput assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no effective therapies or drugs are commercially available yet. Several flavivirus replicon-based assays amenable to high-throughput screening of inhibitors have been reported recently...
  23. Pappas K. Cell-cell signaling and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid copy number fluctuations. Plasmid. 2008;60:89-107 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains to be seen whether similar copy number variations characterize related replicons or if they are of even broader significance in plasmid biology. ..
  24. Zhao H, Lin W, Kumthip K, Cheng D, Fusco D, Hofmann O, et al. A functional genomic screen reveals novel host genes that mediate interferon-alpha's effects against hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol. 2012;56:326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..High throughput screening was performed using an HCV genotype 1b replicon, pRep-Feo. Those pools with replicate robust Z scores ?2...
  25. Liu X, Miao D, Zhang F, Wu Z, Liu J, Xiang H. Characterization of the minimal replicon of pHM300 and independent copy number control of major and minor chromosomes of Haloferax mediterranei. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;339:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..origin of pHM300 was predicted in the 699-bp intergenic region between the cdc6K and tbp4 gene, and the minimal replicon, consisting of an AT-rich region flanked by putative origin recognition boxes (ORBs) and the adjacent cdc6K gene, ..
  26. Olsen C, Pemula A, Braaen S, Sankaran K, Rimstad E. Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vaccine. 2013;31:5672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, ..
  27. Yoshii K, Holbrook M. Sub-genomic replicon and virus-like particles of Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. Arch Virol. 2009;154:573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Replicon RNA was introduced into BHK cells by transfection and the production of viral proteins was monitored by IFA...
  28. Zhao H, Sun J, Li N, Sun Y, Xia Z, Wang Y, et al. Assessment of the cell-mediated immunity induced by alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccines against classical swine fever in a mouse model. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;129:57-65 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that an alphavirus replicon-vectored DNA vaccine (pSFV1CS-E2) encoding the E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) completely protected the immunized pigs from lethal challenge...
  29. Seregin A, Yun N, Poussard A, Peng B, Smith J, Smith J, et al. TC83 replicon vectored vaccine provides protection against Junin virus in guinea pigs. Vaccine. 2010;28:4713-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have used the alphavirus-based approach to engineer a replicon system based on a human (United States Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug status) vaccine TC83 ..
  30. Llinas Brunet M, Bailey M, Goudreau N, Bhardwaj P, Bordeleau J, Bos M, et al. Discovery of a potent and selective noncovalent linear inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease (BI 201335). J Med Chem. 2010;53:6466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-activity studies on the C8-bromo derivatives ultimately led to the discovery of clinical candidate 29 (BI 201335), a very potent and selective inhibitor of genotype1 NS3 protease with a promising PK profile in rats. ..
  31. Johansson D, Ljungberg K, Kakoulidou M, Liljestrom P. Intradermal electroporation of naked replicon RNA elicits strong immune responses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29732 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluates the immunogenic potential of naked in vitro transcribed Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA (RREP) delivered intradermally in combination with electroporation...
  32. Doksani Y, Bermejo R, Fiorani S, Haber J, Foiani M. Replicon dynamics, dormant origin firing, and terminal fork integrity after double-strand break formation. Cell. 2009;137:247-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Irreversible fork resolution at the break does not impede progression of the other fork in the same replicon (termed the sister fork)...
  33. Ciesek S, Steinmann E, Wedemeyer H, Manns M, Neyts J, Tautz N, et al. Cyclosporine A inhibits hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 2 through cyclophilin A. Hepatology. 2009;50:1638-45 pubmed publisher
    ..CsA inhibits replication of JFH1 full-length genomes much more efficiently than subgenomic replicons by targeting cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction and possibly other nonreplication lifecycle steps. ..
  34. Lee T, Lin Y, Liao J, Su C, Lin C, Lin W, et al. Utilizing liver-specific microRNA-122 to modulate replication of dengue virus replicon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:596-601 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-122) into its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) to test the feasibility of creating a liver-restricted DEN replicon. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of the miR-122-MRE confers upon the DEN replicon an inhibitory ..
  35. Coelmont L, Kaptein S, Paeshuyse J, Vliegen I, Dumont J, Vuagniaux G, et al. Debio 025, a cyclophilin binding molecule, is highly efficient in clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon-containing cells when used alone or in combination with specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C) inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Debio 025 has the unique ability to clear hepatoma cells from their HCV replicon when it is used alone or in combination with interferon and STAT-C inhibitors...
  36. Bosworth B, Erdman M, Stine D, Harris I, Irwin C, Jens M, et al. Replicon particle vaccine protects swine against influenza. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:e99-e103 pubmed publisher
    An alphavirus derived replicon particle (RP) vaccine expressing the cluster IV H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene induced protective immunity against homologous influenza virus challenge...
  37. Rajewska M, Wegrzyn K, Konieczny I. AT-rich region and repeated sequences - the essential elements of replication origins of bacterial replicons. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2012;36:408-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We also summarize the role of AT-rich region repeated sequences for DNA replication regulation. ..
  38. Bertini A, Poirel L, Mugnier P, Villa L, Nordmann P, Carattoli A. Characterization and PCR-based replicon typing of resistance plasmids in Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:4168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Replicons were classified into homology groups on the basis of their nucleotide homology. A novel PCR-based replicon typing scheme (the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing [AB-PBRT] method) was devised to categorize the A...
  39. Wang J, Pettis G. The tra locus of streptomycete plasmid pIJ101 mediates efficient transfer of a circular but not a linear version of the same replicon. Microbiology. 2010;156:2723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of the pIJ101 transfer apparatus to promote conjugal transfer of circular versus linear versions of the same replicon. While the pIJ101 tra locus readily transferred the circular form of the replicon, the linear version was ..
  40. Lam A, Espiritu C, Bansal S, Micolochick Steuer H, Zennou V, Otto M, et al. Hepatitis C virus nucleotide inhibitors PSI-352938 and PSI-353661 exhibit a novel mechanism of resistance requiring multiple mutations within replicon RNA. J Virol. 2011;85:12334-42 pubmed publisher
    ..identify mutations that confer resistance to these compounds, in vitro selection studies were performed using HCV replicon cells...
  41. Villa L, García Fernández A, Fortini D, Carattoli A. Replicon sequence typing of IncF plasmids carrying virulence and resistance determinants. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:2518-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the available IncF replicon sequences, identifying the combination of the different IncF replicon alleles as the discriminating ..
  42. Lai H, He J, Engle M, Diamond M, Chen Q. Robust production of virus-like particles and monoclonal antibodies with geminiviral replicon vectors in lettuce. Plant Biotechnol J. 2012;10:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that a geminiviral replicon system based on the bean yellow dwarf virus permits high-level expression in lettuce of virus-like particles (VLP)..
  43. Verbinnen T, Jacobs T, Vijgen L, Ceulemans H, Neyts J, Fanning G, et al. Replication capacity of minority variants in viral populations can affect the assessment of resistance in HCV chimeric replicon phenotyping assays. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..When heterogeneous clinical samples are tested for drug susceptibility in a chimeric replicon-based phenotyping assay, biphasic dose-response curves may be observed...
  44. López Guerrero M, Ormeño Orrillo E, Acosta J, Mendoza Vargas A, Rogel M, Ramirez M, et al. Rhizobial extrachromosomal replicon variability, stability and expression in natural niches. Plasmid. 2012;68:149-58 pubmed publisher
  45. Lam A, Espiritu C, Murakami E, Zennou V, Bansal S, Micolochick Steuer H, et al. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replicon RNA synthesis by PSI-352938, a cyclic phosphate prodrug of ?-D-2'-deoxy-2'-?-fluoro-2'-?-C-methylguanosine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:2566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearance studies using replicon cells demonstrated that PSI-352938 cleared cells of HCV replicon RNA and prevented replicon rebound...
  46. Malykhina O, Yednak M, Collins P, Olivo P, Peeples M. A respiratory syncytial virus replicon that is noncytotoxic and capable of long-term foreign gene expression. J Virol. 2011;85:4792-801 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this possibility, we generated an RSV replicon that lacks all three of its glycoprotein genes and so cannot cause cell-cell fusion or virus spread...
  47. Diebold S, Schulz O, Alexopoulou L, Leitner W, Flavell R, Reis e Sousa C. Role of TLR3 in the immunogenicity of replicon plasmid-based vaccines. Gene Ther. 2009;16:359-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Replicon plasmids encoding an alphavirus RNA replicase constitute an alternative to conventional DNA plasmids with promise for DNA vaccination in humans...
  48. Warter L, Cohen L, Benureau Y, Chavez D, Yang Y, Bodola F, et al. A cooperative interaction between nontranslated RNA sequences and NS5A protein promotes in vivo fitness of a chimeric hepatitis C/GB virus B. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4419 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a mechanism may be common to all hepaciviruses...
  49. Abe K, Ikeda M, Ariumi Y, Dansako H, Wakita T, Kato N. HCV genotype 1b chimeric replicon with NS5B of JFH-1 exhibited resistance to cyclosporine A. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1671-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify whether or not NS5B of JFH-1 is significant for CsA resistance, we developed a chimeric replicon with NS5B of JFH-1 in the genotype 1b backbone...
  50. Barnett S, Burke B, Sun Y, Kan E, Legg H, Lian Y, et al. Antibody-mediated protection against mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge of macaques immunized with alphavirus replicon particles and boosted with trimeric envelope glycoprotein in MF59 adjuvant. J Virol. 2010;84:5975-85 pubmed publisher
    ..with simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162P4) following sequential immunization with alphavirus replicon particles (VRP) of a chimeric recombinant VEE/SIN alphavirus (derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [..
  51. Vander Veen R, Loynachan A, Mogler M, Russell B, Harris D, Kamrud K. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an alphavirus replicon-based swine influenza virus hemagglutinin vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:1944-50 pubmed publisher
    A single-cycle, propagation-defective replicon particle (RP) vaccine expressing a swine influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene was constructed and evaluated in several different animal studies...
  52. Fros J, Liu W, Prow N, Geertsema C, Ligtenberg M, Vanlandingham D, et al. Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein 2 inhibits type I/II interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling. J Virol. 2010;84:10877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Both CHIKV infection and CHIKV replicon RNA replication efficiently blocked STAT1 phosphorylation and/or nuclear translocation in mammalian cells induced ..
  53. Li N, Yu Y, Yu W, Sun Z. Enhancement of the immunogenicity of DNA replicon vaccine of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A by GM-CSF gene adjuvant. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011;33:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the utility of GM-CSF as a plasmid DNA replicon vaccine adjuvants for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) in mouse model...