t cell receptor gamma genes


Summary: DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.

Top Publications

  1. Hodges E, Williams A, Harris S, Smith J. T-cell receptor molecular diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma. Methods Mol Med. 2005;115:197-215 pubmed
    ..In addition, we also describe a set of control gene primers designed to amplify amplicons of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 600 bp for the assessment of the integrity and amplifiability of DNA. ..
  2. Vaccarelli G, Miccoli M, Lanave C, Massari S, Cribiu E, Ciccarese S. Genomic organization of the sheep TRG1@ locus and comparative analyses of Bovidae and human variable genes. Gene. 2005;357:103-14 pubmed
    ..The TRG cluster evolution in cattle and sheep pointed out the existence of a TRG5 ancient cluster and the occurrence of duplications of its minimal structural scheme of one V, two joining (J), and one C. ..
  3. Miccoli M, Antonacci R, Vaccarelli G, Lanave C, Massari S, Cribiu E, et al. Evolution of TRG clusters in cattle and sheep genomes as drawn from the structural analysis of the ovine TRG2@ locus. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:52-62 pubmed
  4. Lee H, Ye S, Honjo T, Ikuta K. Induction of germline transcription in the human TCR gamma locus by STAT5. J Immunol. 2001;167:320-6 pubmed
  5. Miccoli M, Lipsi M, Massari S, Lanave C, Ciccarese S. Exon-intron organization of TRGC genes in sheep. Immunogenetics. 2001;53:416-22 pubmed
    ..A correlation between the cluster distribution in the phylogenetic tree of TRGC genes and their expression during fetal development is discussed. ..
  6. Kang J, Coles M, Raulet D. Defective development of gamma/delta T cells in interleukin 7 receptor-deficient mice is due to impaired expression of T cell receptor gamma genes. J Exp Med. 1999;190:973-82 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the absence of gamma/delta T cells in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) mice is due to insufficient TCR-gamma gene expression. ..
  7. Antonacci R, Vaccarelli G, Di Meo G, Piccinni B, Miccoli M, Cribiu E, et al. Molecular in situ hybridization analysis of sheep and goat BAC clones identifies the transcriptional orientation of T cell receptor gamma genes on chromosome 4 in bovids. Vet Res Commun. 2007;31:977-83 pubmed
  8. Gerber D, Boucontet L, Pereira P. Early expression of a functional TCRbeta chain inhibits TCRgamma gene rearrangements without altering the frequency of TCRgammadelta lineage cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:2516-23 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a remarkable degree of independence in the generation of alphabeta and gammadelta lineage cells from progenitor cells that, in theory, could simultaneously express a TCRgammadelta and a pre-TCR. ..
  9. Conrad M, Mawer M, Lefranc M, McKinnell L, Whitehead J, Davis S, et al. The genomic sequence of the bovine T cell receptor gamma TRG loci and localization of the TRGC5 cassette. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:346-56 pubmed
    ..The location of the TRGC5 cassette is conclusively described in 5' of the TRG1 locus. Analysis of 17 TRGV belonging to 10 different subgroups, 8 TRGJ and 6 TRGC genes is conducted which comprises the most comprehensive list to date. ..

More Information


  1. Herzig C, Blumerman S, Lefranc M, Baldwin C. Bovine T cell receptor gamma variable and constant genes: combinatorial usage by circulating gammadelta T cells. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:138-51 pubmed
    ..Cattle are useful models for gammadelta T cell biology because they have gammadelta T cells that respond to isopentenylpyrophosphate (IPP) antigens, while mice do not, and some bovine TRGV genes cluster closely with human genes. ..
  2. Zhang X, Chen S, Yang L, Li B, Zhu K, Li Y. The feature of TRGV and TRDV repertoire distribution and clonality in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Hematology. 2009;14:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the alteration of peripheral TRGV and TRDV repertoire pattern might play a role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated platelet destruction in some cases with ITP. ..
  3. Scrideli C, Kashima S, Cipolloti R, Defavery R, Tone L. Clonal evolution as the limiting factor in the detection of minimal residual disease by polymerase chain reaction in children in Brazil with acute lymphoid leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;24:364-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that clonal evolution for TCRgamma gene rearrangements was not a rare event among children in Brazil and, when present, interfered with the detection of minimal residual disease. ..
  4. Vrsalovic M, Korac P, Dominis M, Ostojic S, Mannhalter C, Kusec R. T- and B-cell clonality and frequency of human herpes viruses-6, -8 and Epstein Barr virus in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Hematol Oncol. 2004;22:169-77 pubmed
    ..We conclude that T-AIL is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous entity whose true nature remains to be clarified. ..
  5. Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Bernardes J, Valera E, Tone L. PCR detection of clonal IgH and TCR gene rearrangements at the end of induction as a non-remission criterion in children with ALL: comparison with standard morphologic analysis and risk group classification. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003;41:10-6 pubmed
    ..However, further multicentric prospective studies using this technique employing a larger number of cases are necessary to confirm these findings. ..
  6. Uthoff S, Hunt L, Grant B, Young V, Eichenberger M, Cobbs G, et al. T-cell receptor gamma: a microsatellite marker for colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002;9:88-93 pubmed
    ..Markers such as D7S1818 and D7S2206 may become useful in the identification of patients at risk of developing colorectal cancer and permit earlier therapeutic intervention. ..
  7. Bräuninger A, Spieker T, Willenbrock K, Gaulard P, Wacker H, Rajewsky K, et al. Survival and clonal expansion of mutating "forbidden" (immunoglobulin receptor-deficient) epstein-barr virus-infected b cells in angioimmunoblastic t cell lymphoma. J Exp Med. 2001;194:927-40 pubmed
    ..It is likely the interplay between the microenvironment in AILD lymph nodes and the viral transformation that leads to the survival and clonal expansion of Ig-less B cells. ..
  8. Ormsby A, Bergfeld W, Tubbs R, Hsi E. Evaluation of a new paraffin-reactive CD7 T-cell deletion marker and a polymerase chain reaction-based T-cell receptor gene rearrangement assay: implications for diagnosis of mycosis fungoides in community clinical practice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:405-13 pubmed
    ..In the diagnosis of MF, detection of CD7 deletion and monoclonal TCR rearrangements can be successfully performed in a cost-effective, timely fashion using routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. ..
  9. Jelic Puskaric B, Rajković Molek K, Raic L, Batinic D, Konja J, Kardum Skelin I. Rhabdomyosarcoma with bone marrow infiltration mimicking hematologic neoplasia. Coll Antropol. 2010;34:635-9 pubmed
    ..Adjuvant technologies (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, cytogenetic analysis, flow cytometry, and molecular analysis) can be very helpful in diagnostic work-up, and may lead to definitive diagnosis in some cases. ..
  10. Gaulier A, Jary Bourguignat L, Serna R, Pulik M, Davi F, Raphael M. Occurrence of angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma in a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia features. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000;40:197-204 pubmed
    ..The association of CMML features and an angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is discussed. ..
  11. Li S, Griffin C, Mann R, Borowitz M. Primary cutaneous T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma: clinically distinct from its nodal counterpart?. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:10-3 pubmed
    ..Although rare, primary cutaneous T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma appears to have a better prognosis than its nodal counterpart, with or without skin involvement. ..
  12. Cabrera Morales C, Concha López A. [Analysis of TCR-gamma gene rearragement in patients with mycosis fungoides]. Med Clin (Barc). 2005;124:274-5 pubmed
  13. Essand M, Vasmatzis G, Brinkmann U, Duray P, Lee B, Pastan I. High expression of a specific T-cell receptor gamma transcript in epithelial cells of the prostate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:9287-92 pubmed
    ..The finding that prostate epithelial cells express a high level of a transcript from a gene that was thought to by exclusively expressed by T-lymphocytes is highly unexpected. ..
  14. Chaubert P, Baur Chaubert A, Sattler U, Forster U, Bornand V, Suter M, et al. Improved polymerase chain reaction-based method to detect early-stage epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens of the dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:20-9 pubmed
    ..Also, a novel (seventh) functional J region in the TCRgamma gene, localized approximately 2.3 kb upstream of J5, was identified. ..
  15. Nasedkina T, Guseva N, Gra O, Mityaeva O, Chudinov A, Zasedatelev A. Diagnostic microarrays in hematologic oncology: applications of high- and low-density arrays. Mol Diagn Ther. 2009;13:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Different applications of biochips in the field of hematologic oncology include analysis of chromosomal translocations in leukemias, diagnostics of T-cell lymphomas, and pharmacogenetics. ..
  16. Leinweber B, Beltraminelli H, Kerl H, Cerroni L. Solitary small- to medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell nodules of undetermined significance: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 26 cases. Dermatology. 2009;219:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Irrespective of the name given to these equivocal cutaneous lymphoid proliferations, follow-up data support a non-aggressive therapeutic strategy. ..
  17. Kuo F, Hall D, Longtine J. A novel method for interpretation of T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement assay by capillary gel electrophoresis based on normal distribution. J Mol Diagn. 2007;9:12-9 pubmed
    ..The advantage of the ND method is that it is more objective, reproducible, and can be automated. ..
  18. Gra O, Sidorova J, Nikitin E, Turygin A, Surzhikov S, Melikyan A, et al. Analysis of T-cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangements using oligonucleotide microchip: a novel approach for the determination of T-cell clonality. J Mol Diagn. 2007;9:249-57 pubmed
    ..The microchip-based approach also allowed the identification of V and J gene segments involved in the particular TCR-gamma rearrangement. The sensitivity of the method is sufficient to determine 10% of clonal cells in the sample. ..
  19. Chan C, Shen D, Mochizuki M, Gonzales J, Yuen H, Guex Crosier Y, et al. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae genes in primary orbital lymphoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2006;104:62-70 pubmed
    ..These different microorganisms may play similar roles in the etiology of orbital MALT lymphomas from different geographic regions. Antibiotic therapy could be considered for orbital MALT lymphomas associated with positive infection. ..
  20. Parrens M, Dubus P, Agape P, Rizcallah E, Marit G, De Mascarel A, et al. Intrasinusoidal bone marrow infiltration revealing intravascular lymphomatosis. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000;37:219-23 pubmed
    ..Early systemic chemotherapy, which represents the only chance of remission in such an aggressive disease, can then be initiated. ..
  21. Rappl G, Muche J, Abken H, Sterry W, Tilgen W, Ugurel S, et al. CD4(+)CD7(-) T cells compose the dominant T-cell clone in the peripheral blood of patients with Sézary syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:456-61 pubmed
    ..Monitoring of circulating T cells with the CD4(+)CD7(-)CD15s(+)CD26(-)CD49d(-) phenotype proved to be useful for the identification of clonal T cells in patients with SS. ..
  22. Yao R, Rich S, Schneider E. Validation of sixteen leukemia and lymphoma cell lines as controls for molecular gene rearrangement assays. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1344-51 pubmed
    ..The parallel processing of these cell lines with clinical samples can serve to quality control the experimental procedures from the first step of DNA or RNA extraction to the final step of result analysis. ..
  23. Luo V, Lessin S, Wilson R, Rennert H, Tozer C, Benoit B, et al. Detection of clonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements using fluorescent-based PCR and automated high-resolution capillary electrophoresis. Mol Diagn. 2001;6:169-79 pubmed
    ..In addition, 14 specimens for staging from patients with known T-cell lymphoma were studied using both the CE and DGGE methods, with a concordance of 86%. CE is a powerful and efficient method for analysis of clonality by TCR gamma PCR. ..
  24. Lu D, Lin C, Chuang S, Hwang W, Huang W. T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas in southern Taiwan: a study of 72 cases in a single institute. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:923-8 pubmed
    ..CD56 is a specific but not very sensitive marker while EBER is most reliable for the diagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma. CD10 is a useful marker to differentiate AITL from PTLu. ..
  25. Hsiao P, Hsiao C, Lin Y, Tseng M, Tsai T, Jee S. Histopathologic-molecular correlation in early mycosis fungoides using T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction with laser capture microdissection. J Formos Med Assoc. 2007;106:265-72 pubmed
    ..TCRgamma PCR is more likely to be negative with moderate to severe inflammation, particularly with papillary dermal fibrosis. We suggest that the ratio of malignant clonal to reactive T-cells is critical for MF diagnosis. ..
  26. Tsao P, Jiao J, Ji M, Cohen P, Eisenberg R. T cell-independent spontaneous loss of tolerance by anti-double-stranded DNA B cells in C57BL/6 mice. J Immunol. 2008;181:7770-7 pubmed
    ..TLR9 also did not appear to play a role. Although we do not yet understand the mechanism of this failure of immunoregulation, these results suggest that similar processes may influence autoimmunity associated with clinical disease. ..
  27. Kanazawa H, Ishiguro Y, Munakata A, Morita T. Multiple accumulation of Vdelta2+ gammadelta T-cell clonotypes in intestinal mucosa from patients with Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:410-6 pubmed
    ..By contrast TCR Vdelta2 gene transcripts in the intestinal mucosa of CD can express different clonotypes. We conclude that accumulation of multiple Vdelta2+ gammadelta T-cell clonotypes are involved in the pathogenesis of CD. ..
  28. Kress E, Hedges J, Jutila M. Distinct gene expression in human Vdelta1 and Vdelta2 gammadelta T cells following non-TCR agonist stimulation. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:2002-11 pubmed
    ..The patterns of differentially expressed genes are consistent with unique functional roles for these cells in vivo. ..
  29. Baseggio L, Berger F, Morel D, Delfau Larue M, Goedert G, Salles G, et al. Identification of circulating CD10 positive T cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Leukemia. 2006;20:296-303 pubmed
    ..Therefore, they ought to be explored in further studies when aggressive lymphoma, in particular with lymphopenia and circulating atypical cells, is suspected. ..
  30. Venizelos J, Papadopoulos N, Lambropoulou M, Nikolaidou S, Bolioti S, Tamiolakis D. Metachronous extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified: histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular documentation. Onkologie. 2005;28:423-6 pubmed
    ..No evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association was shown in either tumor. B- and T-cell neoplasms represent two distinct malignancies rather than progression of the same neoplastic clone. ..
  31. Lawnicki L, Rubocki R, Chan W, Lytle D, Greiner T. The distribution of gene segments in T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements demonstrates the need for multiple primer sets. J Mol Diagn. 2003;5:82-7 pubmed
    ..Our gene segment distribution data emphasize the importance of using a comprehensive set of V gamma and J gamma primers for an optimal detection rate of TCR gamma GR. Protocols with limited numbers of primers should be reconsidered. ..
  32. Gutierrez A, Dahlberg S, Neuberg D, Zhang J, Grebliunaite R, Sanda T, et al. Absence of biallelic TCRgamma deletion predicts early treatment failure in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3816-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients lacking biallelic deletion, which confers a high probability of induction failure with contemporary therapy, should be assigned to alternative therapy in the context of a prospective clinical trial. ..
  33. Steinhoff M, Hummel M, Anagnostopoulos I, Kaudewitz P, Seitz V, Assaf C, et al. Single-cell analysis of CD30+ cells in lymphomatoid papulosis demonstrates a common clonal T-cell origin. Blood. 2002;100:578-84 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that LyP unequivocally represents a monoclonal T-cell disorder of CD30+ cells in all instances...
  34. Abd el Baki J, Demierre M, Li N, Foss F. Transformation in mycosis fungoides: the role of methotrexate. J Cutan Med Surg. 2002;6:109-16 pubmed
    ..In light of the small sample size, short followup of patients, and the inherent tendency of mycosis fungoides to transform, the role for MTX in transformation is unproven and needs to be confirmed in a multicenter study. ..
  35. Tissier F, Martinon F, Camilleri Broet S, Bigorgne C, Devez F, Le Tourneau A, et al. T-cell receptor Vbeta repertoire in nodal non-anaplastic peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Pathol Res Pract. 2002;198:389-95 pubmed
    ..These results show that numerous reactive T-cells are present both in AIL and NOS. Possibly, they play a role in the growth of these lymphomas. ..
  36. Sabesan V, Cairo M, Lones M, Perkins S, Morris E, Sposto R, et al. Assessment of minimal residual disease in childhood non-hodgkin lymphoma by polymerase chain reaction using patient-specific primers. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003;25:109-13 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated the feasibility of PSPs to identify disease in staging and follow-up specimens, which could be used to develop strategies for MRD analysis in a larger setting. ..
  37. MacDougall A, Enders P, Hatfield G, Pauza D, Rakasz E. V gamma 2 TCR repertoire overlap in different anatomical compartments of healthy, unrelated rhesus macaques. J Immunol. 2001;166:2296-302 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they provide evidence that the concept of limited but overlapping Vgamma TCR repertoire between unrelated individuals can be extended including the mucosa of the digestive and reproductive tract. ..
  38. Rahemtullah A, Longtine J, Harris N, Dorn M, Zembowicz A, Quintanilla Fend L, et al. CD20+ T-cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 9 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1593-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the unusual phenomenon of CD20 expression in TCL, in conjunction with careful morphologic analysis, the use of a panel of antibodies, and molecular genetic studies, is important in avoiding a misdiagnosis of BCL...
  39. Yang Y, Luo Q, He W, Tang L. Primary ocular natural killer/T-cell lymphomas: clinicopathologic features and diagnosis. Ophthalmologica. 2007;221:173-9 pubmed
    ..All patients died 5 months to 28 months after presentation. Ocular NKTL is a highly aggressive clinical course with poor prognosis. The diagnosis relies on clinicopathologic findings. ..
  40. Guerrero J, Pacheco D, Su rez C, Mart nez P, Aristizabal F, Moncada C, et al. Characterizing T-cell receptor gamma-variable gene in Aotus nancymaae owl monkey peripheral blood. Tissue Antigens. 2003;62:472-82 pubmed
    ..Homologies greater than 70% were found with respect to humans. Sequence convergence between human and A. nancymaae subsets 1 and 3 highlights Aotus as a promising model for studying these lymphocyte functions...
  41. Gubler B, Marty Grès S, Guillot B, Eliaou J, Dereure O. Molecular identity of skin and blood T-cell clones in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients as determined from the migration pattern of the T-cell receptor-gamma gene by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:999-1007 pubmed publisher
  42. Veinotte L, Greenwood C, Mohammadi N, Parachoniak C, Takei F. Expression of rearranged TCRgamma genes in natural killer cells suggests a minor thymus-dependent pathway of lineage commitment. Blood. 2006;107:2673-9 pubmed
    ..These results change the current view of NK-cell development and show that a subset of NK cells develops from immature thymocytes that have rearranged TCRgamma genes. ..
  43. Yamamoto T, Hara T, Nanba E, Ohashi S, Suzuki N, Yoshino K, et al. Abnormal expansion of peripheral gamma delta T cells in patients with neurologic disorders. Brain Behav Immun. 1997;11:157-66 pubmed
    ..These results might indicate the existence of neuroimmunologic disorder(s). ..
  44. Verkarre V, Romana S, Cellier C, Asnafi V, Mention J, Barbe U, et al. Recurrent partial trisomy 1q22-q44 in clonal intraepithelial lymphocytes in refractory celiac sprue. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:40-6 pubmed
  45. Al Toma A, Verbeek W, Mulder C. The management of complicated celiac disease. Dig Dis. 2007;25:230-6 pubmed
    ..However, it remains to be proven if this therapy delays or prevents lymphoma development. ..
  46. Zhang Y, Yu M, Xu S, Yang L, Yu Y, Hao Y, et al. [Studying of clinical and laboratory features of chronic eosinophilic leukemias /hypereosinophilic syndrome]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008;29:3-8 pubmed
    ..3) JAK2 V617F may be involved in the pathogenesis of HES. (4) Patients with CEL carried the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene and TCR gamma rearrangement concurrently, their relationship warrants further study. ..
  47. Ubiali A, Villanacci V, Facchetti F, Lanzini A, Lanzarotto F, Rindi G, et al. Is TCRgamma clonality assay useful to detect early celiac disease?. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:275-9 pubmed
    ..TCRgamma clonality does not represent a marker of early disease. However, it might be useful to help in distinguishing celiac disease from other causes of nonspecific duodenitis. ..
  48. Newton D, Andrew E, Dalton J, Mears R, Carding S. Identification of novel gammadelta T-cell subsets following bacterial infection in the absence of Vgamma1+ T cells: homeostatic control of gammadelta T-cell responses to pathogen infection by Vgamma1+ T cells. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1097-105 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings identify novel subsets of gammadelta T cells, the recruitment and activity of which is under the control of Vgamma1+ T cells. ..
  49. Pawlaczyk M, Kistowska M, Poreba E, Filas V, Breborowicz J, Gozdzicka Jozefiak A. [Analysis of cloning rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma gene in primary cutaneous lymphoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2003;15:420-3 pubmed
  50. Takanosu M, Tadika T, Kobayashi T. Heteroduplex polymerase chain reaction is essential for canine receptor rearrangement analysis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:760-3 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, heteroduplex analysis with PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement is a suitable tool for diagnosing canine lymphoma and decreasing the possibility of misdiagnosis of pseudoclonality. ..
  51. Ma J, Shi Q, Zhou X, Meng K, Chen J, Huang W. Lymphoma-like lesion of the uterine cervix: report of 12 cases of a rare entity. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007;26:194-8 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization for EBER and high risk HPV 6/11 and 16/18 were negative. All patients were well with one case developing local recurrence in the follow-up period up to 7 years. ..
  52. Al Toma A, Goerres M, Meijer J, von Blomberg B, Wahab P, Kerckhaert J, et al. Cladribine therapy in refractory celiac disease with aberrant T cells. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:1322-7; quiz 1300 pubmed
    ..However, the earlier reported potential risk of precipitating an overt lymphoma should be taken into consideration. ..
  53. Lamberson C, Hutchison R, Shrimpton A. A PCR assay for detecting clonal rearrangement of the TCR-gamma gene. Mol Diagn. 2001;6:117-24 pubmed
    ..The PCR protocol described here performed well in comparison with a TCR-beta Southern protocol. ..