t cell receptor delta genes


Summary: DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.

Top Publications

  1. Herzig C, Blumerman S, Baldwin C. Identification of three new bovine T-cell receptor delta variable gene subgroups expressed by peripheral blood T cells. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:746-57 pubmed
    ..Finally, some genes within the TRDV1, TRDV2, and TRDV3 subgroups recombined with TRAV incorporating TRAJs, suggesting dual use. ..
  2. Monroe R, Sleckman B, Monroe B, Khor B, Claypool S, Ferrini R, et al. Developmental regulation of TCR delta locus accessibility and expression by the TCR delta enhancer. Immunity. 1999;10:503-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that E delta has an important role in TCR delta locus regulation at early, but not late, stages of gammadelta T cell development. ..
  3. Hara H, Kishihara K, Matsuzaki G, Takimoto H, Tsukiyama T, Tigelaar R, et al. Development of dendritic epidermal T cells with a skewed diversity of gamma delta TCRs in V delta 1-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2000;165:3695-705 pubmed
  4. Van Rhijn I, Spiering R, Smits M, van Blokland M, de Weger R, van Eden W, et al. Highly diverse TCR delta chain repertoire in bovine tissues due to the use of up to four D segments per delta chain. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:3155-61 pubmed
  5. Jouvin Marche E, Aude Garcia C, Candeias S, Borel E, Hachemi Rachedi S, Gahéry Ségard H, et al. Differential chronology of TCRADV2 gene use by alpha and delta chains of the mouse TCR. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:818-27 pubmed
    ..These results support independent control of TCRA and TCRD gene assembly. ..
  6. Herzig C, Lefranc M, Baldwin C. Annotation and classification of the bovine T cell receptor delta genes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:100 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that in cattle gammadelta T cells play a more important role in immune function since they would be predicted to bind a greater variety of antigens. ..
  7. Fries R, Ewald D, Thaller G, Buitkamp J. Assessment of the nucleotide sequence variability in the bovine T-cell receptor alpha delta joining gene region. Anim Biotechnol. 2001;12:29-49 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that the systematic search of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is useful for analysing all aspects of variability of a given genomic region. ..
  8. Bosc N, Lefranc M. The mouse (Mus musculus) T cell receptor alpha (TRA) and delta (TRD) variable genes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2003;27:465-97 pubmed
    ..The international ImMunoGeneTics information system (http://imgt.cines.fr) created by Marie-Paule Lefranc, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, France. ..
  9. Reinink P, Van Rhijn I. The bovine T cell receptor alpha/delta locus contains over 400 V genes and encodes V genes without CDR2. Immunogenetics. 2009;61:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of bovine V genes is a multiple of the number in mice and humans and may encode T cell receptors that use a novel way of interacting with antigen. ..

More Information


  1. Bassing C, Tillman R, Woodman B, Canty D, Monroe R, Sleckman B, et al. T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/delta locus enhancer identity and position are critical for the assembly of TCR delta and alpha variable region genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2598-603 pubmed
    ..Therefore, unlike E alpha, E delta lacks ability to function over the large intervening TCR alpha locus and or E delta function requires proximity to additional upstream element(s) to promote TCR delta accessibility. ..
  2. Kamal M, Wakelin D, Mahida Y. Mucosal responses to infection with Trichinella spiralis in mice. Parasite. 2001;8:S110-3 pubmed
    ..These data are incorporated into a discussion of the causal relevance of intestinal inflammatory changes to the process of worm expulsion. ..
  3. Przybylski G, Wanzeck J, Verschuren M, van Dongen J, Serke S, Schmidt C. Identification of a new cluster of T-cell receptor delta recombining elements. Immunology. 2003;108:16-23 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize, that in a similar manner to the classical deltaRec rearrangements, the deltaRec2 rearrangements might also contribute to T-cell differentiation towards the TCR-alphabeta lineage. ..
  4. Pido Lopez J, Imami N, Andrew D, Aspinall R. Molecular quantitation of thymic output in mice and the effect of IL-7. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2827-36 pubmed
  5. Takeuchi T, Amano K, Tsuzake K, Kameda H, Abe T. [Collagen diseases and rheumatic diseases]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;93:538-44 pubmed
  6. Kode J, Dudhal N, Banavali S, Advani S, Chiplunkar S. Clonal T-cell receptor gamma and delta gene rearrangements in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis: predictor of prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:125-33 pubmed
    ..In future, this may help in designing tailored and risk-adjusted (less aggressive and less toxic) therapies for subset of T-ALL patients. ..
  7. Raciborska A, Wypych A, Rokicka Milewska R, Siedlecki J, Kulik J. [Preliminary results of the use of MRD test among children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia]. Przegl Lek. 2004;61 Suppl 2:62-6 pubmed
    ..It seams that the use of a combined analysis of the risk factors and the MRD test results in a significant manner contribute to a more complex evaluation of the patient's condition. ..
  8. Vasseur F, Le Campion A, Penit C. Scheduled kinetics of cell proliferation and phenotypic changes during immature thymocyte generation. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:3038-47 pubmed
    ..These data show that precursor thymocytes undergo two independent waves of expansion, and that the second wave is restricted to cells capable of pre-TCR expression. ..
  9. Hawwari A, Krangel M. Regulation of TCR delta and alpha repertoires by local and long-distance control of variable gene segment chromatin structure. J Exp Med. 2005;202:467-72 pubmed
  10. Bloom D, Radwan F, Burnett J. Toxinological and immunological studies of capillary electrophoresis fractionated Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) fishing tentacle and Chironex fleckeri Southcott nematocyst venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;128:75-90 pubmed
    ..A V(beta) receptor human T-cell repertoire was not species-specific for either crude or fractionated jellyfish nematocyst venom...
  11. Wisnewski A, Herrick C, Liu Q, Chen L, Bottomly K, Redlich C. Human gamma/delta T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production induced by hexamethylene diisocyanate. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:538-46 pubmed
    ..These data are the first to demonstrate that HDI can selectively stimulate gamma/delta T cells with the potential to modulate the human immune response to exposure. ..
  12. Schützinger C, Gaiger A, Thalhammer R, Vesely M, Fritsche Polanz R, Schwarzinger I, et al. Remission of pure red cell aplasia in T-cell receptor gammadelta-large granular lymphocyte leukemia after therapy with low-dose alemtuzumab. Leukemia. 2005;19:2005-8 pubmed
  13. Laky K, Lewis J, Tigelaar R, Puddington L. Distinct requirements for IL-7 in development of TCR gamma delta cells during fetal and adult life. J Immunol. 2003;170:4087-94 pubmed
    ..BrdU incorporation studies indicated that although IL-7 was not required for TCRgammadelta cell proliferation, it was required to prolong the life span of mature TCRgammadelta cells. ..
  14. Thuderoz F, Simonet M, Hansen O, Pasqual N, Dariz A, Baum T, et al. Numerical modelling of the V-J combinations of the T cell receptor TRA/TRD locus. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000682 pubmed publisher
    ..The model accounts for the essential features of the observed rearrangements on the TRA/TRD locus and may provide a reference for the repertoire of the V-J combinatorial diversity. ..
  15. Li L, Leid M, Rothenberg E. An early T cell lineage commitment checkpoint dependent on the transcription factor Bcl11b. Science. 2010;329:89-93 pubmed publisher
  16. Lentz V, Manser T. Self-limiting systemic autoimmune disease during reconstitution of T cell-deficient mice with syngeneic T cells: support for a multifaceted role of T cells in the maintenance of peripheral B cell tolerance. Int Immunol. 2000;12:1483-97 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data support the idea that T cells play a multifaceted role in the maintenance of peripheral B cell tolerance that includes mediating the activation-induced death of autospecific B cells. ..
  17. George A, Franklin J, Kerkof K, Shah A, Price M, Tsark E, et al. Detection of leukemic cells in the CD34(+)CD38(-) bone marrow progenitor population in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2001;97:3925-30 pubmed
    ..Therefore, strategies to isolate and transplant normal HSC from children with ALL will require a more stringent definition of the normal HSC than the CD34(+)CD38(-) phenotype. (Blood. 2001;97:3925-3930) ..
  18. Nishiyama Y, Hamada H, Nonaka S, Yamamoto H, Nanno M, Katayama Y, et al. Homeostatic regulation of intestinal villous epithelia by B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:2626-33 pubmed
  19. Fischer C, Bouneau L, Ozouf Costaz C, Crnogorac Jurcevic T, Weissenbach J, Bernot A. Conservation of the T-cell receptor alpha/delta linkage in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis. Genomics. 2002;79:241-8 pubmed
  20. Cauwelier B, Dastugue N, Cools J, Poppe B, Herens C, De Paepe A, et al. Molecular cytogenetic study of 126 unselected T-ALL cases reveals high incidence of TCRbeta locus rearrangements and putative new T-cell oncogenes. Leukemia. 2006;20:1238-44 pubmed
  21. Cardona A, Teale J. Gamma/delta T cell-deficient mice exhibit reduced disease severity and decreased inflammatory response in the brain in murine neurocysticercosis. J Immunol. 2002;169:3163-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that gammadelta T cells are key players in the immune response elicited during this CNS infection and direct a type 1 response in wild-type mice upon infection...
  22. Reardon C, Hu L, Yin X, Born W, Arden B, O BRIEN R. A new mechanism for generating TCR diversity: A TCR Jalpha-like gene that inserts partial nucleotide sequences in a D-gene manner. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:906-15 pubmed
    ..Surveys of available TCR sequences reveal possible partial insertions of the 61-nt gene in other delta-TCR and in alpha-TCR gene sequences. Thus, the unique 61-nt gene is Jalpha gene-like in structure but D gene-like in function. ..
  23. Holtmeier W, Käller J, Geisel W, Pabst R, Caspary W, Rothkötter H. Development and compartmentalization of the porcine TCR delta repertoire at mucosal and extraintestinal sites: the pig as a model for analyzing the effects of age and microbial factors. J Immunol. 2002;169:1993-2002 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that in each mucosal site, different Ags are responsible for selecting and maintaining the gammadelta TCR over time. ..
  24. Zhang X, Chen S, Yang L, Li B, Zhu K, Li Y. The feature of TRGV and TRDV repertoire distribution and clonality in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Hematology. 2009;14:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the alteration of peripheral TRGV and TRDV repertoire pattern might play a role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated platelet destruction in some cases with ITP. ..
  25. Przybylski G, Dik W, Grabarczyk P, Wanzeck J, Chudobska P, Jankowski K, et al. The effect of a novel recombination between the homeobox gene NKX2-5 and the TRD locus in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia on activation of the NKX2-5 gene. Haematologica. 2006;91:317-21 pubmed
    ..Our finding of overexpression of yet another homeobox gene in T-ALL further supports the hypothesis that homeobox genes play an important role in malignant transformation of particular types of T-ALL. ..
  26. Huang C, Sleckman B. Developmental stage-specific regulation of TCR-alpha-chain gene assembly by intrinsic features of the TEA promoter. J Immunol. 2007;179:449-54 pubmed
  27. Lane R, Roach J, Lee I, Boysen C, Smit A, Trask B, et al. Genomic analysis of the olfactory receptor region of the mouse and human T-cell receptor alpha/delta loci. Genome Res. 2002;12:81-7 pubmed
    ..g., to recombine ORs into a transcriptionally active locus. We searched the mouse sequence for OR-flanking RSS motifs, but did not find evidence to suggest that these OR genes use TCR-like recombination target sequences. ..
  28. Sleckman B, Carabana J, Zhong X, Krangel M. Assessing a role for enhancer-blocking activity in gene regulation within the murine T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Immunology. 2001;104:11-8 pubmed
  29. Olaru A, Petrie H, Livak F. Beyond the 12/23 rule of VDJ recombination independent of the Rag proteins. J Immunol. 2005;174:6220-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that selective Rag-RS interactions are not the sole regulators of D gene segment incorporation, and additional, perhaps lymphocyte-specific, mechanisms exist that allow proper shaping of the primary AgR repertoire. ..
  30. Robak T, Robak E, Bartkowiak J, Błoński J, Niewiadomska H, Wawrzyniak E. Low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Leuk Lymphoma. 2001;41:659-67 pubmed
    ..The SLE responded well to treatment with prednisone and the course of the LGNHL was stable and cytotoxic treatment was not required. ..
  31. Baker M, Osterman A, Brumburgh S. Divergent T-cell receptor delta chains from marsupials. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:665-73 pubmed
    ..A similar pattern was seen between TRDV and TRDC sequences that were most closely related to other marsupial TRD genes. ..
  32. Kishi A, Ichinohe T, Hirai I, Kamiguchi K, Tamura Y, Kinebuchi M, et al. The cell surface-expressed HSC70-like molecule preferentially reacts with the rat T-cell receptor Vdelta6 family. Immunogenetics. 2001;53:401-9 pubmed
  33. Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Bernardes J, Valera E, Tone L. PCR detection of clonal IgH and TCR gene rearrangements at the end of induction as a non-remission criterion in children with ALL: comparison with standard morphologic analysis and risk group classification. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003;41:10-6 pubmed
    ..However, further multicentric prospective studies using this technique employing a larger number of cases are necessary to confirm these findings. ..
  34. Gameiro P, Mortuza F, Hoffbrand A, Foroni L. Minimal residual disease monitoring in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a molecular based approach using T-cell receptor G and D gene rearrangements. Haematologica. 2002;87:1126-34 pubmed
    ..Further studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to determine the exact role that MRD determination has in the management of T-ALL in adults. ..
  35. Yazawa R, Cooper G, Hunt P, Beetz Sargent M, Robb A, Conrad M, et al. Striking antigen recognition diversity in the Atlantic salmon T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:204-12 pubmed
    ..Cumulatively, the genomic and expression data suggest that the Atlantic salmon T-cell receptor has enormous capacity to recognize a wide diversity of antigens. ..
  36. Leduc I, Hempel W, Mathieu N, Verthuy C, Bouvier G, Watrin F, et al. T cell development in TCR beta enhancer-deleted mice: implications for alpha beta T cell lineage commitment and differentiation. J Immunol. 2000;165:1364-73 pubmed
    ..We discuss these data with respect to the functional role of E beta in driving alpha beta T cell differentiation and the mechanism of alpha beta T lineage commitment. ..
  37. Parra Z, Ohta Y, Criscitiello M, Flajnik M, Miller R. The dynamic TCR?: TCR? chains in the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis utilize antibody-like V genes. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2319-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We also revealed close linkage of TCR?/?, IgH, and Ig? in Xenopus which, in combination with linkage analyses in other species, is consistent with the previous models for the emergence of these antigen receptor loci...
  38. Vaccarelli G, Miccoli M, Lanave C, Massari S, Cribiu E, Ciccarese S. Genomic organization of the sheep TRG1@ locus and comparative analyses of Bovidae and human variable genes. Gene. 2005;357:103-14 pubmed
    ..The TRG cluster evolution in cattle and sheep pointed out the existence of a TRG5 ancient cluster and the occurrence of duplications of its minimal structural scheme of one V, two joining (J), and one C. ..
  39. Stagno F, Guglielmo P, Lo Nigro L, Santonocito A, Giustolisi R. T cell receptor delta-chain gene rearrangement in a novel case of adult NK cell leukemia. Acta Haematol. 2004;111:225-7 pubmed
    ..We here report the characteristics of a peculiar case of NK-cell acute leukemia with unusual agranular morphology and rearrangement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) delta-chain gene. ..
  40. Lee B, Rangel Moreno J, Moyron Quiroz J, Hartson L, Makris M, Sprague F, et al. CD4 T cell-independent antibody response promotes resolution of primary influenza infection and helps to prevent reinfection. J Immunol. 2005;175:5827-38 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that T cell-independent influenza-specific Ab promotes the resolution of primary influenza infection and helps to prevent reinfection. ..
  41. Baum T, Hierle V, Pasqual N, Bellahcene F, Chaume D, Lefranc M, et al. IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(D)J recombinations. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7:224 pubmed
    ..This is useful for biologists and bioinformaticians for the study of T lymphocyte V(D)J gene rearrangements and their applications in immune response analysis. ..
  42. Przybylski G, Oettle H, Siegert W, Schmidt C. Novel T-cell receptor delta gene rearrangement involving a recombining element located 2.6 kb 3' from the Vdelta2 gene segment. Leuk Res. 2001;25:1059-65 pubmed
    ..It may potentially lead to deletion of the deltaRec2(Ddelta)Jdelta1 complex and either to direct joining of a Vdelta region to one of the downstream Jdelta regions or to a rearrangement of the TCRalpha gene. ..
  43. Zocchi M, Poggi A. Role of gammadelta T lymphocytes in tumor defense. Front Biosci. 2004;9:2588-604 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss the potential role played by resident Vdelta1+ and circulating Vdelta2+ T lymphocytes in the defense against solid tumors and hematological malignancies. ..
  44. Zuna J, Muzikova K, Ford A, Maia A, Krejci O, Tousovska K, et al. Pre-natal, clonal origin of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in triplets. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:2099-102 pubmed
    ..Differences in IGH rearrangements in diagnostic samples also indicates divergent subclonal evolution of the original "pre-leukaemic" clone. ..
  45. Szczepanski T, van der Velden V, Hoogeveen P, de Bie M, Jacobs D, van Wering E, et al. Vdelta2-Jalpha rearrangements are frequent in precursor-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia but rare in normal lymphoid cells. Blood. 2004;103:3798-804 pubmed
  46. Wang T, Scully E, Yin Z, Kim J, Wang S, Yan J, et al. IFN-gamma-producing gamma delta T cells help control murine West Nile virus infection. J Immunol. 2003;171:2524-31 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a distinct role for gammadelta T cells in the control of and prevention of mortality from murine WN virus infection. ..
  47. Girardi M, Lewis J, Glusac E, Filler R, Geng L, Hayday A, et al. Resident skin-specific gammadelta T cells provide local, nonredundant regulation of cutaneous inflammation. J Exp Med. 2002;195:855-67 pubmed
  48. Hager Theodorides A, Outram S, Shah D, Sacedon R, Shrimpton R, Vicente A, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 signaling regulates early thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 2002;169:5496-504 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that the BMP2/4 pathway may function in thymic homeostasis by regulating T cell lineage commitment and differentiation. ..
  49. Szomolanyi Tsuda E, Brien J, Dorgan J, Welsh R, Garcea R. The role of CD40-CD154 interaction in antiviral T cell-independent IgG responses. J Immunol. 2000;164:5877-82 pubmed
    ..Our studies demonstrate that, although about half of the TI IgG responses to PyV are independent of CD40-CD40L interactions, these interactions occur in T cell-deficient mice and enhance antiviral TI Ab responses. ..
  50. Sudhakar N, Nancy N, Rajalekshmy K, Ramanan G, Rajkumar T. T-cell receptor gamma and delta gene rearrangements and junctional region characteristics in south Indian patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:215-21 pubmed
    ..5 nucleotides. The junctional region of TCRD is more diverse than TCRG; nevertheless, the frequency of TCRG was more than that of TCRD and hence we rely more on TCRG clonal markers to quantitate the minimal residual disease in T-ALL. ..
  51. Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Takayanagui O, Bernardes J, Tone L. Polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid cells in suspected leptomeningeal involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: comparison to cytomorphological analysis. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2003;12:124-7 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the use of PCR and sequencing can be useful in confirming CNS leukemia and eliminating other conditions when used together with the cytomorphological analysis. ..
  52. Watson D, Ando T, Knight J. Sequence and diversity of the rat delta T-cell receptor. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:714-22 pubmed
  53. Nam B, Hirono I, Aoki T. The four TCR genes of teleost fish: the cDNA and genomic DNA analysis of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) TCR alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-chains. J Immunol. 2003;170:3081-90 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the flounder possesses very unique genomic DNA organization and gene loci for TCR, C alpha/C delta 1, and C gamma/C delta 2. ..