Genomes and Genes
t cell receptor delta genes
Summary: DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.
- Bassing C, Tillman R, Woodman B, Canty D, Monroe R, Sleckman B, et al. T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/delta locus enhancer identity and position are critical for the assembly of TCR delta and alpha variable region genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2598-603 pubmed..Therefore, unlike E alpha, E delta lacks ability to function over the large intervening TCR alpha locus and or E delta function requires proximity to additional upstream element(s) to promote TCR delta accessibility. ..
- Kamal M, Wakelin D, Mahida Y. Mucosal responses to infection with Trichinella spiralis in mice. Parasite. 2001;8:S110-3 pubmed..These data are incorporated into a discussion of the causal relevance of intestinal inflammatory changes to the process of worm expulsion. ..
- Przybylski G, Wanzeck J, Verschuren M, van Dongen J, Serke S, Schmidt C. Identification of a new cluster of T-cell receptor delta recombining elements. Immunology. 2003;108:16-23 pubmed..We hypothesize, that in a similar manner to the classical deltaRec rearrangements, the deltaRec2 rearrangements might also contribute to T-cell differentiation towards the TCR-alphabeta lineage. ..
- Pido Lopez J, Imami N, Andrew D, Aspinall R. Molecular quantitation of thymic output in mice and the effect of IL-7. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2827-36 pubmed
- Takeuchi T, Amano K, Tsuzake K, Kameda H, Abe T. [Collagen diseases and rheumatic diseases]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;93:538-44 pubmed
- Kode J, Dudhal N, Banavali S, Advani S, Chiplunkar S. Clonal T-cell receptor gamma and delta gene rearrangements in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis: predictor of prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:125-33 pubmed..In future, this may help in designing tailored and risk-adjusted (less aggressive and less toxic) therapies for subset of T-ALL patients. ..
- Raciborska A, Wypych A, Rokicka Milewska R, Siedlecki J, Kulik J. [Preliminary results of the use of MRD test among children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia]. Przegl Lek. 2004;61 Suppl 2:62-6 pubmed..It seams that the use of a combined analysis of the risk factors and the MRD test results in a significant manner contribute to a more complex evaluation of the patient's condition. ..
- Vasseur F, Le Campion A, Penit C. Scheduled kinetics of cell proliferation and phenotypic changes during immature thymocyte generation. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:3038-47 pubmed..These data show that precursor thymocytes undergo two independent waves of expansion, and that the second wave is restricted to cells capable of pre-TCR expression. ..
- Hawwari A, Krangel M. Regulation of TCR delta and alpha repertoires by local and long-distance control of variable gene segment chromatin structure. J Exp Med. 2005;202:467-72 pubmed
- Bloom D, Radwan F, Burnett J. Toxinological and immunological studies of capillary electrophoresis fractionated Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor) fishing tentacle and Chironex fleckeri Southcott nematocyst venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;128:75-90 pubmed..A V(beta) receptor human T-cell repertoire was not species-specific for either crude or fractionated jellyfish nematocyst venom...
- Wisnewski A, Herrick C, Liu Q, Chen L, Bottomly K, Redlich C. Human gamma/delta T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production induced by hexamethylene diisocyanate. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:538-46 pubmed..These data are the first to demonstrate that HDI can selectively stimulate gamma/delta T cells with the potential to modulate the human immune response to exposure. ..
- Schützinger C, Gaiger A, Thalhammer R, Vesely M, Fritsche Polanz R, Schwarzinger I, et al. Remission of pure red cell aplasia in T-cell receptor gammadelta-large granular lymphocyte leukemia after therapy with low-dose alemtuzumab. Leukemia. 2005;19:2005-8 pubmed
- Laky K, Lewis J, Tigelaar R, Puddington L. Distinct requirements for IL-7 in development of TCR gamma delta cells during fetal and adult life. J Immunol. 2003;170:4087-94 pubmed..BrdU incorporation studies indicated that although IL-7 was not required for TCRgammadelta cell proliferation, it was required to prolong the life span of mature TCRgammadelta cells. ..
- Thuderoz F, Simonet M, Hansen O, Pasqual N, Dariz A, Baum T, et al. Numerical modelling of the V-J combinations of the T cell receptor TRA/TRD locus. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000682 pubmed publisher..The model accounts for the essential features of the observed rearrangements on the TRA/TRD locus and may provide a reference for the repertoire of the V-J combinatorial diversity. ..
- Lentz V, Manser T. Self-limiting systemic autoimmune disease during reconstitution of T cell-deficient mice with syngeneic T cells: support for a multifaceted role of T cells in the maintenance of peripheral B cell tolerance. Int Immunol. 2000;12:1483-97 pubmed..Collectively, our data support the idea that T cells play a multifaceted role in the maintenance of peripheral B cell tolerance that includes mediating the activation-induced death of autospecific B cells. ..
- George A, Franklin J, Kerkof K, Shah A, Price M, Tsark E, et al. Detection of leukemic cells in the CD34(+)CD38(-) bone marrow progenitor population in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2001;97:3925-30 pubmed..Therefore, strategies to isolate and transplant normal HSC from children with ALL will require a more stringent definition of the normal HSC than the CD34(+)CD38(-) phenotype. (Blood. 2001;97:3925-3930) ..
- Nishiyama Y, Hamada H, Nonaka S, Yamamoto H, Nanno M, Katayama Y, et al. Homeostatic regulation of intestinal villous epithelia by B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:2626-33 pubmed
- Fischer C, Bouneau L, Ozouf Costaz C, Crnogorac Jurcevic T, Weissenbach J, Bernot A. Conservation of the T-cell receptor alpha/delta linkage in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis. Genomics. 2002;79:241-8 pubmed
- Cauwelier B, Dastugue N, Cools J, Poppe B, Herens C, De Paepe A, et al. Molecular cytogenetic study of 126 unselected T-ALL cases reveals high incidence of TCRbeta locus rearrangements and putative new T-cell oncogenes. Leukemia. 2006;20:1238-44 pubmed
- Cardona A, Teale J. Gamma/delta T cell-deficient mice exhibit reduced disease severity and decreased inflammatory response in the brain in murine neurocysticercosis. J Immunol. 2002;169:3163-71 pubmed..These results suggest that gammadelta T cells are key players in the immune response elicited during this CNS infection and direct a type 1 response in wild-type mice upon infection...
- Reardon C, Hu L, Yin X, Born W, Arden B, O BRIEN R. A new mechanism for generating TCR diversity: A TCR Jalpha-like gene that inserts partial nucleotide sequences in a D-gene manner. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:906-15 pubmed..Surveys of available TCR sequences reveal possible partial insertions of the 61-nt gene in other delta-TCR and in alpha-TCR gene sequences. Thus, the unique 61-nt gene is Jalpha gene-like in structure but D gene-like in function. ..
- Holtmeier W, Käller J, Geisel W, Pabst R, Caspary W, Rothkötter H. Development and compartmentalization of the porcine TCR delta repertoire at mucosal and extraintestinal sites: the pig as a model for analyzing the effects of age and microbial factors. J Immunol. 2002;169:1993-2002 pubmed..Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that in each mucosal site, different Ags are responsible for selecting and maintaining the gammadelta TCR over time. ..
- Zhang X, Chen S, Yang L, Li B, Zhu K, Li Y. The feature of TRGV and TRDV repertoire distribution and clonality in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Hematology. 2009;14:237-44 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the alteration of peripheral TRGV and TRDV repertoire pattern might play a role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated platelet destruction in some cases with ITP. ..
- Przybylski G, Dik W, Grabarczyk P, Wanzeck J, Chudobska P, Jankowski K, et al. The effect of a novel recombination between the homeobox gene NKX2-5 and the TRD locus in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia on activation of the NKX2-5 gene. Haematologica. 2006;91:317-21 pubmed..Our finding of overexpression of yet another homeobox gene in T-ALL further supports the hypothesis that homeobox genes play an important role in malignant transformation of particular types of T-ALL. ..
- Huang C, Sleckman B. Developmental stage-specific regulation of TCR-alpha-chain gene assembly by intrinsic features of the TEA promoter. J Immunol. 2007;179:449-54 pubmed
- Lane R, Roach J, Lee I, Boysen C, Smit A, Trask B, et al. Genomic analysis of the olfactory receptor region of the mouse and human T-cell receptor alpha/delta loci. Genome Res. 2002;12:81-7 pubmed..g., to recombine ORs into a transcriptionally active locus. We searched the mouse sequence for OR-flanking RSS motifs, but did not find evidence to suggest that these OR genes use TCR-like recombination target sequences. ..
- Sleckman B, Carabana J, Zhong X, Krangel M. Assessing a role for enhancer-blocking activity in gene regulation within the murine T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Immunology. 2001;104:11-8 pubmed
- Olaru A, Petrie H, Livak F. Beyond the 12/23 rule of VDJ recombination independent of the Rag proteins. J Immunol. 2005;174:6220-6 pubmed..These results suggest that selective Rag-RS interactions are not the sole regulators of D gene segment incorporation, and additional, perhaps lymphocyte-specific, mechanisms exist that allow proper shaping of the primary AgR repertoire. ..
- Robak T, Robak E, Bartkowiak J, Błoński J, Niewiadomska H, Wawrzyniak E. Low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Leuk Lymphoma. 2001;41:659-67 pubmed..The SLE responded well to treatment with prednisone and the course of the LGNHL was stable and cytotoxic treatment was not required. ..
- Baker M, Osterman A, Brumburgh S. Divergent T-cell receptor delta chains from marsupials. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:665-73 pubmed..A similar pattern was seen between TRDV and TRDC sequences that were most closely related to other marsupial TRD genes. ..
- Kishi A, Ichinohe T, Hirai I, Kamiguchi K, Tamura Y, Kinebuchi M, et al. The cell surface-expressed HSC70-like molecule preferentially reacts with the rat T-cell receptor Vdelta6 family. Immunogenetics. 2001;53:401-9 pubmed
- Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Bernardes J, Valera E, Tone L. PCR detection of clonal IgH and TCR gene rearrangements at the end of induction as a non-remission criterion in children with ALL: comparison with standard morphologic analysis and risk group classification. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003;41:10-6 pubmed..However, further multicentric prospective studies using this technique employing a larger number of cases are necessary to confirm these findings. ..
- Gameiro P, Mortuza F, Hoffbrand A, Foroni L. Minimal residual disease monitoring in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a molecular based approach using T-cell receptor G and D gene rearrangements. Haematologica. 2002;87:1126-34 pubmed..Further studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to determine the exact role that MRD determination has in the management of T-ALL in adults. ..
- Yazawa R, Cooper G, Hunt P, Beetz Sargent M, Robb A, Conrad M, et al. Striking antigen recognition diversity in the Atlantic salmon T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:204-12 pubmed..Cumulatively, the genomic and expression data suggest that the Atlantic salmon T-cell receptor has enormous capacity to recognize a wide diversity of antigens. ..
- Leduc I, Hempel W, Mathieu N, Verthuy C, Bouvier G, Watrin F, et al. T cell development in TCR beta enhancer-deleted mice: implications for alpha beta T cell lineage commitment and differentiation. J Immunol. 2000;165:1364-73 pubmed..We discuss these data with respect to the functional role of E beta in driving alpha beta T cell differentiation and the mechanism of alpha beta T lineage commitment. ..
- Parra Z, Ohta Y, Criscitiello M, Flajnik M, Miller R. The dynamic TCR?: TCR? chains in the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis utilize antibody-like V genes. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2319-29 pubmed publisher..We also revealed close linkage of TCR?/?, IgH, and Ig? in Xenopus which, in combination with linkage analyses in other species, is consistent with the previous models for the emergence of these antigen receptor loci...
- Vaccarelli G, Miccoli M, Lanave C, Massari S, Cribiu E, Ciccarese S. Genomic organization of the sheep TRG1@ locus and comparative analyses of Bovidae and human variable genes. Gene. 2005;357:103-14 pubmed..The TRG cluster evolution in cattle and sheep pointed out the existence of a TRG5 ancient cluster and the occurrence of duplications of its minimal structural scheme of one V, two joining (J), and one C. ..
- Stagno F, Guglielmo P, Lo Nigro L, Santonocito A, Giustolisi R. T cell receptor delta-chain gene rearrangement in a novel case of adult NK cell leukemia. Acta Haematol. 2004;111:225-7 pubmed..We here report the characteristics of a peculiar case of NK-cell acute leukemia with unusual agranular morphology and rearrangement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) delta-chain gene. ..
- Lee B, Rangel Moreno J, Moyron Quiroz J, Hartson L, Makris M, Sprague F, et al. CD4 T cell-independent antibody response promotes resolution of primary influenza infection and helps to prevent reinfection. J Immunol. 2005;175:5827-38 pubmed..These data demonstrate that T cell-independent influenza-specific Ab promotes the resolution of primary influenza infection and helps to prevent reinfection. ..
- Baum T, Hierle V, Pasqual N, Bellahcene F, Chaume D, Lefranc M, et al. IMGT/GeneInfo: T cell receptor gamma TRG and delta TRD genes in database give access to all TR potential V(D)J recombinations. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7:224 pubmed..This is useful for biologists and bioinformaticians for the study of T lymphocyte V(D)J gene rearrangements and their applications in immune response analysis. ..
- Przybylski G, Oettle H, Siegert W, Schmidt C. Novel T-cell receptor delta gene rearrangement involving a recombining element located 2.6 kb 3' from the Vdelta2 gene segment. Leuk Res. 2001;25:1059-65 pubmed..It may potentially lead to deletion of the deltaRec2(Ddelta)Jdelta1 complex and either to direct joining of a Vdelta region to one of the downstream Jdelta regions or to a rearrangement of the TCRalpha gene. ..
- Zocchi M, Poggi A. Role of gammadelta T lymphocytes in tumor defense. Front Biosci. 2004;9:2588-604 pubmed..Here, we discuss the potential role played by resident Vdelta1+ and circulating Vdelta2+ T lymphocytes in the defense against solid tumors and hematological malignancies. ..
- Zuna J, Muzikova K, Ford A, Maia A, Krejci O, Tousovska K, et al. Pre-natal, clonal origin of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in triplets. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:2099-102 pubmed..Differences in IGH rearrangements in diagnostic samples also indicates divergent subclonal evolution of the original "pre-leukaemic" clone. ..
- Szczepanski T, van der Velden V, Hoogeveen P, de Bie M, Jacobs D, van Wering E, et al. Vdelta2-Jalpha rearrangements are frequent in precursor-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia but rare in normal lymphoid cells. Blood. 2004;103:3798-804 pubmed
- Wang T, Scully E, Yin Z, Kim J, Wang S, Yan J, et al. IFN-gamma-producing gamma delta T cells help control murine West Nile virus infection. J Immunol. 2003;171:2524-31 pubmed..These data demonstrate a distinct role for gammadelta T cells in the control of and prevention of mortality from murine WN virus infection. ..
- Girardi M, Lewis J, Glusac E, Filler R, Geng L, Hayday A, et al. Resident skin-specific gammadelta T cells provide local, nonredundant regulation of cutaneous inflammation. J Exp Med. 2002;195:855-67 pubmed
- Hager Theodorides A, Outram S, Shah D, Sacedon R, Shrimpton R, Vicente A, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 signaling regulates early thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 2002;169:5496-504 pubmed..Our study suggests that the BMP2/4 pathway may function in thymic homeostasis by regulating T cell lineage commitment and differentiation. ..
- Szomolanyi Tsuda E, Brien J, Dorgan J, Welsh R, Garcea R. The role of CD40-CD154 interaction in antiviral T cell-independent IgG responses. J Immunol. 2000;164:5877-82 pubmed..Our studies demonstrate that, although about half of the TI IgG responses to PyV are independent of CD40-CD40L interactions, these interactions occur in T cell-deficient mice and enhance antiviral TI Ab responses. ..
- Sudhakar N, Nancy N, Rajalekshmy K, Ramanan G, Rajkumar T. T-cell receptor gamma and delta gene rearrangements and junctional region characteristics in south Indian patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:215-21 pubmed..5 nucleotides. The junctional region of TCRD is more diverse than TCRG; nevertheless, the frequency of TCRG was more than that of TCRD and hence we rely more on TCRG clonal markers to quantitate the minimal residual disease in T-ALL. ..
- Scrideli C, Queiroz R, Takayanagui O, Bernardes J, Tone L. Polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid cells in suspected leptomeningeal involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: comparison to cytomorphological analysis. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2003;12:124-7 pubmed..Our data suggest that the use of PCR and sequencing can be useful in confirming CNS leukemia and eliminating other conditions when used together with the cytomorphological analysis. ..
- Watson D, Ando T, Knight J. Sequence and diversity of the rat delta T-cell receptor. Immunogenetics. 2000;51:714-22 pubmed
- Nam B, Hirono I, Aoki T. The four TCR genes of teleost fish: the cDNA and genomic DNA analysis of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) TCR alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-chains. J Immunol. 2003;170:3081-90 pubmed..This suggests that the flounder possesses very unique genomic DNA organization and gene loci for TCR, C alpha/C delta 1, and C gamma/C delta 2. ..