t cell receptor beta genes


Summary: DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Top Publications

  1. Shigeta A, Sato M, Kawashima T, Horiuchi H, Matsuda H, Furusawa S. Genomic organization of the chicken T-cell receptor beta chain D-J-C region. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1509-15 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the 5'-end of Jbeta-1280 was particularly short when compared with that of Jbeta-1336, but there were no changes in the length of the CDR3 using any of the four Jbeta sequences. ..
  2. Ciofani M, Schmitt T, Ciofani A, Michie A, Cuburu N, Aublin A, et al. Obligatory role for cooperative signaling by pre-TCR and Notch during thymocyte differentiation. J Immunol. 2004;172:5230-9 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential role for Notch receptor-ligand interactions in enabling the autonomous signaling capacity of the pre-TCR complex. ..
  3. Folch G, Lefranc M. The human T cell receptor beta variable (TRBV) genes. Exp Clin Immunogenet. 2000;17:42-54 pubmed
    ..These tables are available at the IMGT Marie-Paule page from IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines. fr: 8104) created by Marie-Paule Lefranc, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, France. ..
  4. Matsuda J, Gapin L, Fazilleau N, Warren K, Naidenko O, Kronenberg M. Natural killer T cells reactive to a single glycolipid exhibit a highly diverse T cell receptor beta repertoire and small clone size. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12636-41 pubmed
    ..Each NKT clone is represented by only 5-10 cells. This clone size is similar to naive conventional T cells, and much lower than that reported for memory T cells, although NK T cells have an activated/memory phenotype. ..
  5. Wang X, Xiao G, Zhang Y, Wen X, Gao X, Okada S, et al. Regulation of Tcrb recombination ordering by c-Fos-dependent RAG deposition. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:794-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show an unexpected function for c-Fos as a direct regulator of Tcrb recombination, rather than its usual function as a transcription regulator, and provide new insight into the mechanisms of recombination ordering. ..
  6. Drejer Teel A, Fugmann S, Schatz D. The beyond 12/23 restriction is imposed at the nicking and pairing steps of DNA cleavage during V(D)J recombination. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6288-99 pubmed
  7. Oestreich K, Cobb R, Pierce S, Chen J, Ferrier P, Oltz E. Regulation of TCRbeta gene assembly by a promoter/enhancer holocomplex. Immunity. 2006;24:381-91 pubmed
  8. Cantu C, Benlagha K, Savage P, Bendelac A, Teyton L. The paradox of immune molecular recognition of alpha-galactosylceramide: low affinity, low specificity for CD1d, high affinity for alpha beta TCRs. J Immunol. 2003;170:4673-82 pubmed
    ..This suggests that there is less accommodation made by this TCR in recognizing alpha-galactosylceramide, and it can be assumed that the most rigid part of the Ag, the sugar moiety, is critical in the interaction. ..
  9. Connelley T, Burrells A, MacHugh N, Morrison W. Use of a Pan-Vbeta primer permits the amplification and sequencing of TCRbeta chains expressed by bovine T-cell clones following a single semi-nested PCR reaction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;126:156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This method offers a simple and rapid method of analyzing the TCRbeta chains of bovine T-cell clones that has many potential applications in the investigation of bovine T-cell responses. ..

More Information


  1. Tillman R, Wooley A, Hughes M, Khor B, Sleckman B. Regulation of T-cell receptor beta-chain gene assembly by recombination signals: the beyond 12/23 restriction. Immunol Rev. 2004;200:36-43 pubmed
    ..By preserving Dbeta gene segment utilization, the B12/23 restriction is required, at a minimum, for the generation of a diverse repertoire of TCRbeta chains. ..
  2. Ryu C, Haines B, Lee H, Kang Y, Draganov D, Lee M, et al. The T-cell receptor beta variable gene promoter is required for efficient V beta rearrangement but not allelic exclusion. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7015-23 pubmed
    ..Although the promoter is dispensable for allelic exclusion, it appears to suppress aberrant V beta cleavages during allelic exclusion. ..
  3. Sen P, Charini W, Subbramanian R, Manuel E, Kuroda M, Autissier P, et al. Clonal focusing of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys following vaccination and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge. J Virol. 2008;82:805-16 pubmed
    ..Circumventing this restricted CD8(+) T-lymphocyte clonal diversity may present a significant challenge in the development of an effective HIV vaccine strategy. ..
  4. Jung D, Bassing C, Fugmann S, Cheng H, Schatz D, Alt F. Extrachromosomal recombination substrates recapitulate beyond 12/23 restricted VDJ recombination in nonlymphoid cells. Immunity. 2003;18:65-74 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that B12/23 restriction of V(D)J recombination is cemented at the level of interactions between the RAG proteins and TCRbeta RS sequences. ..
  5. Yang X, Doty R, Hicks J, Willerford D. Regulation of T-cell receptor D beta 1 promoter by KLF5 through reiterated GC-rich motifs. Blood. 2003;101:4492-9 pubmed
  6. Price D, Bitmansour A, Edgar J, Walker J, Axthelm M, Douek D, et al. Induction and evolution of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ T cell clonotypes in rhesus macaques. J Immunol. 2008;180:269-80 pubmed
  7. Tillman R, Wooley A, Khor B, Wehrly T, Little C, Sleckman B. Cutting edge: targeting of V beta to D beta rearrangement by RSSs can be mediated by the V(D)J recombinase in the absence of additional lymphoid-specific factors. J Immunol. 2003;170:5-9 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that targeting of Vbeta to Dbeta rearrangement can be enforced by the V(D)J recombinase in the absence of lymphoid-specific factors other than the recombinase-activating gene-1/2 proteins. ..
  8. Morse H, Qi C, Chattopadhyay S, Hori M, Taddesse Heath L, Ozato K, et al. Combined histologic and molecular features reveal previously unappreciated subsets of lymphoma in AKXD recombinant inbred mice. Leuk Res. 2001;25:719-33 pubmed
    ..DLCL(HS) were distinguished from true histiocytic lymphomas by the presence of clonal Ig gene rearrangements. ..
  9. Jackson A, Krangel M. Allele-specific regulation of TCR beta variable gene segment chromatin structure. J Immunol. 2005;175:5186-91 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a unique feedback mechanism may operate independent of chromatin structure to inhibit Vbeta to DJbeta recombination after the double-negative stage of thymocyte development. ..
  10. Whitehurst C, Chattopadhyay S, Chen J. Control of V(D)J recombinational accessibility of the D beta 1 gene segment at the TCR beta locus by a germline promoter. Immunity. 1999;10:313-22 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that germline promoters regulate localized accessibility of gene segments for recombination and that in CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes TCR beta allelic exclusion does not result from inaccessibility of D beta gene segments. ..
  11. Aifantis I, Buer J, von Boehmer H, Azogui O. Essential role of the pre-T cell receptor in allelic exclusion of the T cell receptor beta locus. Immunity. 1997;7:601-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the pre-TCR-independent suppression of rearrangement by TCR beta transgenes represents a transgene artifact, whereas under physiological conditions the pre-TCR is essential for allelic exclusion. ..
  12. Nam B, Hirono I, Aoki T. The four TCR genes of teleost fish: the cDNA and genomic DNA analysis of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) TCR alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-chains. J Immunol. 2003;170:3081-90 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the flounder possesses very unique genomic DNA organization and gene loci for TCR, C alpha/C delta 1, and C gamma/C delta 2. ..
  13. Conrad M, Pettman R, Whitehead J, McKinnel L, Davis S, Koop B. Genomic sequencing of the bovine T cell receptor beta locus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;87:439-41 pubmed
    ..The bovine beta locus appears to have a third constant region. Overall, the genomic characterization of the bovine TCR genes will provide insight into the evolution of T cell receptor. ..
  14. Grant E, Beckman E, Behar S, Degano M, Frederique D, Besra G, et al. Fine specificity of TCR complementarity-determining region residues and lipid antigen hydrophilic moieties in the recognition of a CD1-lipid complex. J Immunol. 2002;168:3933-40 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the CDR loops of the TCR form the Ag recognition domain of CD1-restricted TCRs and suggest that the hydrophilic domains of a lipid Ag can form a combinatorial epitope recognized by the TCR. ..
  15. Zhong W, Reinherz E. In vivo selection of a TCR Vbeta repertoire directed against an immunodominant influenza virus CTL epitope. Int Immunol. 2004;16:1549-59 pubmed
  16. Manuel E, Charini W, Sen P, Peyerl F, Kuroda M, Schmitz J, et al. Contribution of T-cell receptor repertoire breadth to the dominance of epitope-specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte responses. J Virol. 2006;80:12032-40 pubmed
  17. Jiang H, Curran S, Ruiz Vazquez E, Liang B, Winchester R, Chess L. Regulatory CD8+ T cells fine-tune the myelin basic protein-reactive T cell receptor V beta repertoire during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8378-83 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the T cell clones that expand in the absence of CD8+ T cell control are enriched in potentially pathogenic self-reactive T cell clones capable of inducing EAE in vivo. ..
  18. Ciofani M, Zuniga Pflucker J. A survival guide to early T cell development. Immunol Res. 2006;34:117-32 pubmed
    ..In this review, we describe current concepts of the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors that dictate survival versus death outcomes during early T cell development. ..
  19. Houston E, Connelley T, Parsons K, MacHugh N, Morrison W. Analysis of T-cell receptor BV gene sequences in cattle reveals extensive duplication within the BV9 and BV20 subgroups. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:674-81 pubmed
    ..However, duplication of different BV subgroups in cattle has resulted in a TRBV gene repertoire distinct from that found in other species. ..
  20. Zhou H, Bengten E, Miller N, Clem L, Wilson M. The T cell receptor beta locus of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reveals unique features. J Immunol. 2003;170:2573-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, compared with that in mammals, genomic sequencing of the catfish TCR DB-JB-CB region reveals a unique locus containing a greater number of JB genes and two distinct CB genes. ..
  21. Wu C, Bassing C, Jung D, Woodman B, Foy D, Alt F. Dramatically increased rearrangement and peripheral representation of Vbeta14 driven by the 3'Dbeta1 recombination signal sequence. Immunity. 2003;18:75-85 pubmed
  22. Bostik P, Stephenson S, Lynch R, Cardona A, Ansari A. Maintenance of CD4+ T cell TCR Vbeta repertoire heterogeneity is characteristic of apathogenic SIV infection in non-human primate model of AIDS. Virology. 2007;369:324-8 pubmed
  23. Wang J, Gudikote J, Olivas O, Wilkinson M. Boundary-independent polar nonsense-mediated decay. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:274-9 pubmed
    ..TCR genes may have evolved this unique NMD response because they frequently acquire nonsense codons during normal development. ..
  24. Mendell J, ap Rhys C, Dietz H. Separable roles for rent1/hUpf1 in altered splicing and decay of nonsense transcripts. Science. 2002;298:419-22 pubmed
    ..This provides compelling evidence that NAS relies on a component of the nonsense surveillance machinery but is not an indirect consequence of NMD...
  25. Antonacci R, Di Tommaso S, Lanave C, Cribiu E, Ciccarese S, Massari S. Organization, structure and evolution of 41kb of genomic DNA spanning the D-J-C region of the sheep TRB locus. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:493-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Closer inspections of the transcripts have also shown that inter-cluster rearrangements and splice variants, involving the additional cluster, increase the functional diversity of the sheep beta chain repertoire...
  26. Laurin D, Spierings E, van der Veken L, Hamrouni A, Falkenburg J, Souillet G, et al. Minor histocompatibility antigen DDX3Y induces HLA-DQ5-restricted T cell responses with limited TCR-Vbeta usage both in vivo and in vitro. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:1114-24 pubmed
    ..The results also demonstrate that in vitro stimulation of T cells with allogeneic HLA-identical dendritic cells may facilitate the characterization of in vivo, potentially relevant HLA class II-restricted minor H epitopes. ..
  27. King D, Gotch F, Larsson Sciard E. T-cell re-population in HIV-infected children on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Clin Exp Immunol. 2001;125:447-54 pubmed
  28. Soudeyns H, Champagne P, Holloway C, Silvestri G, Ringuette N, Samson J, et al. Transient T cell receptor beta-chain variable region-specific expansions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the early phase of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection: characterization of expanded cell populations by T cell receptor phenotyping. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:107-20 pubmed
  29. Dokouhaki P, Moghaddam R, Rezvany M, Ghassemi J, Novin M, Zarnani A, et al. Repertoire and clonality of T-cell receptor beta variable genes expressed in endometrium and blood T cells of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;60:160-71 pubmed publisher
  30. Rosenblatt J, Wu Z, Vasir B, Zarwan C, Stone R, Mills H, et al. Generation of tumor-specific T lymphocytes using dendritic cell/tumor fusions and anti-CD3/CD28. J Immunother. 2010;33:155-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that stimulation with DC/tumor fusions provides a unique platform for subsequent expansion with anti-CD3/CD28 in adoptive T-cell therapy of cancer. ..
  31. Massengill S, Goodenow M, Sleasman J. SLE nephritis is associated with an oligoclonal expansion of intrarenal T cells. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;31:418-26 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that infiltrating T cells within renal tissue may use TCR Vbeta genes targeted toward nephritogenic antigens. ..
  32. Busse C, Krotkova A, Eichmann K. The TCRbeta enhancer is dispensable for the expression of rearranged TCRbeta genes in thymic DN2/DN3 populations but not at later stages. J Immunol. 2005;175:3067-74 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the Vbeta8.2 promoter is sufficient to drive expression of rearranged TCRbeta VDJ genes Ebeta independently in DN2/DN3 but not at later stages. ..
  33. Xiaoling G, Ying L, Jing L, Huifang L, Xia Z, Qingqing F, et al. Induction of anti B-cell malignance CTL response by subfamily-shared peptides derived from variable domain of immunoglobulin heavy chain. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2005;54:1106-14 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we proved that the cytotoxicity of CTLs was IgHV subfamily-specific. These data indicate possible immunotherapy approaches for B-cell malignances patients based on IgHV gene subfamilies. ..
  34. Zhang Z, Zhang G, Dong Y. T cell receptor Vbeta gene bias in rheumatoid arthritis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002;115:856-9 pubmed
    ..It was noteworthy that the expression of Vbeta17 in RA synovium was significantly increased. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that several antigen or superantigen-driven processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  35. Yoo E, Cassin M, Lessin S, Rook A. Complete molecular remission during biologic response modifier therapy for Sézary syndrome is associated with enhanced helper T type 1 cytokine production and natural killer cell activity. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:208-16 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the aberrant cytokine production may be the cause for suppression of cell-mediated immunity seen in advancing stages of CTCL. ..
  36. Kjer Nielsen L, Borg N, Pellicci D, Beddoe T, Kostenko L, Clements C, et al. A structural basis for selection and cross-species reactivity of the semi-invariant NKT cell receptor in CD1d/glycolipid recognition. J Exp Med. 2006;203:661-73 pubmed
    ..The findings define a structural basis for the selection of the semi-invariant alphabeta TCR and the unique antigen specificity of NKT cells. ..
  37. Wlodarski M, Gondek L, Nearman Z, Plasilova M, Kalaycio M, Hsi E, et al. Molecular strategies for detection and quantitation of clonal cytotoxic T-cell responses in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2006;108:2632-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that immunodominant clonotypes associated with marrow failure may be used to monitor immunosuppressive therapy. ..
  38. Lichterfeld M, Williams K, Mui S, Shah S, Mothe B, Sette A, et al. T cell receptor cross-recognition of an HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitope presented by closely related alleles from the HLA-A3 superfamily. Int Immunol. 2006;18:1179-88 pubmed
    ..Thus, despite distinct TCR recognition of HLA-A3 or HLA-A11 presented HIV-1 peptides in the vast majority of cases, specific TCRs can cross-recognize their antigen in the context of both HLA-A3 and HLA-A11. ..
  39. Bousso P, Levraud J, Kourilsky P, Abastado J. The composition of a primary T cell response is largely determined by the timing of recruitment of individual T cell clones. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1591-600 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the contribution of a T cell clone to the immune response is mostly determined by the time of its entry into the immune repertoire, i.e., the time of first cell division after antigen encounter. ..
  40. Vaillant F, Blyth K, Andrew L, Neil J, Cameron E. Enforced expression of Runx2 perturbs T cell development at a stage coincident with beta-selection. J Immunol. 2002;169:2866-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, Runx2 joins a small group of transcription factors that can interfere with early T cell development, cause an expansion of a specific subset, and predispose to lymphoma. ..
  41. Eguchi Ogawa T, Toki D, Uenishi H. Genomic structure of the whole D-J-C clusters and the upstream region coding V segments of the TRB locus in pig. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:1111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the TRBJ segments were available in public databases, suggesting that all three TRBD-J-C clusters are functional in pigs. ..
  42. Franchini D, Benoukraf T, Jaeger S, Ferrier P, Payet Bornet D. Initiation of V(D)J recombination by Dbeta-associated recombination signal sequences: a critical control point in TCRbeta gene assembly. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4575 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results provide the molecular explanation to the B12/23 constraint and also uncover a 'Dbeta1 23RSS-mediated' restriction operating beyond chromatin accessibility, which directs Dbeta1 ordered rearrangements. ..
  43. Fontenot A, Maier L, Canavera S, Hendry Hofer T, Boguniewicz M, Barker E, et al. Beryllium skin patch testing to analyze T cell stimulation and granulomatous inflammation in the lung. J Immunol. 2002;168:3627-34 pubmed
    ..These studies using skin patch testing provide new insight into the dynamics of T cell influx and mobilization during granulomatous inflammation...
  44. Cabaniols J, Fazilleau N, Casrouge A, Kourilsky P, Kanellopoulos J. Most alpha/beta T cell receptor diversity is due to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1385-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, while Tdt activity is not involved in the combinatorial diversity resulting from alpha/beta pairing, it contributes to at least 90% of TCRalpha/beta diversity. ..
  45. Marvar P, Thabet S, Guzik T, Lob H, McCann L, Weyand C, et al. Central and peripheral mechanisms of T-lymphocyte activation and vascular inflammation produced by angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Circ Res. 2010;107:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also support a feed-forward mechanism in which modest degrees of blood pressure elevation lead to T-cell activation, which in turn promotes inflammation and further raises blood pressure, leading to severe hypertension. ..
  46. Freeman J, Warren R, Webb J, Nelson B, Holt R. Profiling the T-cell receptor beta-chain repertoire by massively parallel sequencing. Genome Res. 2009;19:1817-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct sequence-based immunoprofiling will likely prove to be a useful tool for understanding repertoire dynamics in response to immune challenge, without a priori knowledge of antigen. ..
  47. Eberle A, Lykke Andersen S, Mühlemann O, Jensen T. SMG6 promotes endonucleolytic cleavage of nonsense mRNA in human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data lead to a revised mechanistic model for degradation of nonsense mRNA in human cells and suggest that endonucleolytic cleavage is a conserved feature in metazoan NMD. ..
  48. Donaldson I, Shefta J, Hill A, Boylston A. Malaria is not responsible for the selection of TCR beta-subunit variable gene haplotypes in The Gambia. Immunogenetics. 2002;53:894-9 pubmed
    ..Again no differences between the two groups were detected. Therefore, the evidence suggests that malaria is not responsible for haplotype selection in The Gambia. ..
  49. Li Pira G, Fenoglio D, Bottone L, Terranova P, Pontali E, Caroli F, et al. Preservation of clonal heterogeneity of the Pneumocystis carinii-specific CD4 T cell repertoire in HIV infected, asymptomatic individuals. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;128:155-62 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a horizontal, rather than vertical, depletion in these asymptomatic patients. ..
  50. McFarland E, Harding P, Striebich C, Mawhinney S, Kuritzkes D, Kotzin B. Clonal CD8+ T cell expansions in peripheral blood from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:477-85 pubmed
    ..Children with expansions were not more likely to have increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells, a finding consistent with the possibility that the CD8(+) TCR repertoire has limited diversity. ..
  51. Ueno T, Tomiyama H, Takiguchi M. Single T cell receptor-mediated recognition of an identical HIV-derived peptide presented by multiple HLA class I molecules. J Immunol. 2002;169:4961-9 pubmed
  52. Yang Y, Li H, Zhu P. [The T-lymphocyte clonal proliferation in a patient with chronic eosinophilic leukemia]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2003;11:405-8 pubmed
    ..The other TCRbetaV families remained unchanged. It is concluded that the monoclonal T cells in TCRbetaV13.2 may be related to CEL and it is conjectured that the monoclonal T cells proliferation is induced by CEL malignant cells. ..
  53. Jones T, Hart R, Popovich P. Molecular control of physiological and pathological T-cell recruitment after mouse spinal cord injury. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6576-83 pubmed