suppressor genes


Summary: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.

Top Publications

  1. McLuckie K, Crookston R, Gaskell M, Farmer P, Routledge M, Martin E, et al. Mutation spectra induced by alpha-acetoxytamoxifen-DNA adducts in human DNA repair proficient and deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A) cells. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8198-205 pubmed
    ..Given the high mutagenicity of dG-N(2)-tamoxifen adducts, if not excised, they may potentially contribute to the initiation of endometrial cancer in women. ..
  2. Köhrer C, Sullivan E, RajBhandary U. Complete set of orthogonal 21st aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-amber, ochre and opal suppressor tRNA pairs: concomitant suppression of three different termination codons in an mRNA in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:6200-11 pubmed
  3. Gao G, Goff S. Isolation of suppressor genes that restore retrovirus susceptibility to a virus-resistant cell line. Retrovirology. 2004;1:30 pubmed
    ..The suppressor genes were then recovered from these virus sensitive cells, and their ability to restore virus susceptibility was ..
  4. Primiano T, Baig M, Maliyekkel A, Chang B, Fellars S, Sadhu J, et al. Identification of potential anticancer drug targets through the selection of growth-inhibitory genetic suppressor elements. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:41-53 pubmed
    ..Hence, selection for growth-inhibitory GSEs allows one to find potential targets for new anticancer drugs. ..
  5. Lewis P, Harvey J, Waters E, Skibinski D, Parry J. Spontaneous mutation spectra in supF: comparative analysis of mammalian cell line base substitution spectra. Mutagenesis. 2001;16:503-15 pubmed
    ..The spectra presented here will be a useful reference for analysis and re-analysis of chemically induced spectra as well as for use in comparison with the spontaneous spectra of other gene systems. ..
  6. Majid S, Kikuno N, Nelles J, Noonan E, Tanaka Y, Kawamoto K, et al. Genistein induces the p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4a tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by epigenetic mechanisms involving active chromatin modification. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2736-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Genistein induced the expression of tumor suppressor genes p21 (WAF1/CIP1/KIP1) and p16 (INK4a) with a concomitant decrease in cyclins...
  7. Wells C, Ravasi T, Hume D. Inflammation suppressor genes: please switch out all the lights. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:9-13 pubmed
    ..These inflammation suppressor genes are characterized by their induction in response to pathogen, typically late in the macrophage activation ..
  8. Lewis P, Parry J. In silico p53 mutation hotspots in lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:1099-107 pubmed
    ..The algorithm shows how BPDE target sequence specificity and DNA curvature both shape the overall mutation distribution. ..
  9. Routledge M, McLuckie K, Jones G, Farmer P, Martin E. Presence of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts in target DNA leads to an increase in UV-induced DNA single strand breaks and supF gene mutations. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1231-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest two possibilities: (i) the BPDE adducts are photoactivated to a more mutagenic lesion, or (ii) the presence of UV lesions lead to the BPDE adducts becoming more mutagenic. ..

More Information


  1. McLuckie K, Routledge M, Brown K, Gaskell M, Farmer P, Roberts G, et al. DNA adducts formed from 4-hydroxytamoxifen are more mutagenic than those formed by alpha-acetoxytamoxifen in a shuttle vector target gene replicated in human Ad293 cells. Biochemistry. 2002;41:8899-906 pubmed
    ..Sites of mutational hotspots were observed for both compounds. In conclusion, the quantitatively minor DNA adduct of tamoxifen (dG-N(2)-4-hydroxytamoxifen) is more mutagenic than the major tamoxifen DNA adduct (dG-N(2)-tamoxifen). ..
  2. Biggins S, Bhalla N, Chang A, Smith D, Murray A. Genes involved in sister chromatid separation and segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2001;159:453-70 pubmed
    ..We also report an initial characterization of phenotypes associated with the SMT3/SUMO gene and the isolation of WSS1, a high-copy smt3 suppressor. ..
  3. Dey B, Lightbody J, Boschelli F. CDC37 is required for p60v-src activity in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:1405-17 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Cdc37p is required for maintenance of p60v-src in a soluble, biologically active form. ..
  4. Zoladek T, Tobiasz A, Vaduva G, Boguta M, Martin N, Hopper A. MDP1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene involved in mitochondrial/cytoplasmic protein distribution, is identical to the ubiquitin-protein ligase gene RSP5. Genetics. 1997;145:595-603 pubmed
    ..Identification of MDP1 as RSP5, along with our previous identification of MDP2/VRP1 and MDP3/PAN1, implicate interactions of the ubiquitin system, the actin cytoskeleton and protein synthesis in the subcellular distribution of proteins. ..
  5. Betzner A, Oakes M, Huttner E. Transfer RNA-mediated suppression of amber stop codons in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 1997;11:587-95 pubmed
    ..The suppressor tRNA(Leu) gene may thus be used in transgenic plants for gene transactivation. ..
  6. Yashiroda H, Oguchi T, Yasuda Y, Toh e A, Kikuchi Y. Bul1, a new protein that binds to the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3255-63 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility that Bul1 functions together with Rsp5 in protein ubiquitination. ..
  7. Sugiyama M, Nikawa J. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isw2p-Itc1p complex represses INO1 expression and maintains cell morphology. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4985-93 pubmed
    ..It is conceivable that the repressor function of this complex is regulated by the C-terminal region of Itc1p. ..
  8. Tarasenko T, Kole H, Bolland S. A lupus-suppressor BALB/c locus restricts IgG2 autoantibodies without altering intrinsic B cell-tolerance mechanisms. J Immunol. 2008;180:3807-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, sbb2(a) provides an example of a non-MHC lupus-suppressor locus that protects from disease by restricting the production of pathogenic IgG isotypes even in backgrounds with inefficient Ab editing checkpoints. ..
  9. Moon D, Bae J, Cho H, Yoon J. The fission yeast homologue of Glel is essential for growth and involved in mRNA export. J Microbiol. 2008;46:422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA in the nucleus is exhibited when expression of spglel is repressed or over-expressed. These results suggest that the spGle1 protein is also involved in mRNA export in fission yeast. ..
  10. Guo M, Tian F, Wamboldt Y, Alfano J. The majority of the type III effector inventory of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 can suppress plant immunity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009;22:1069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the construct pLN1965 will likely be a useful tool in determining whether other type III effectors or effectors from other types of pathogens can suppress either ETI, PTI, or both. ..
  11. Bertram J, Peacock J, Fazli L, Mui A, Chung S, Cox M, et al. Loss of PTEN is associated with progression to androgen independence. Prostate. 2006;66:895-902 pubmed
    ..ASO-mediated PTEN inhibition reduced androgen-withdrawal induced regression of Shionogi tumors and accelerated AI progression. These data suggest that PTEN inactivation may play a role in progression to androgen independence. ..
  12. Zhou Y, Kato H, Asanoma K, Kondo H, Arima T, Kato K, et al. Identification of FOXC1 as a TGF-beta1 responsive gene and its involvement in negative regulation of cell growth. Genomics. 2002;80:465-72 pubmed
    ..7% of primary cancers. Evidence that a significant fraction of primary cancers exhibited somatic mutations suggests that FOXC1 functions as a tumor suppressor through TGF-beta1 mediated signals. ..
  13. Boniewska Bernacka E, Wysocki R, Grochowalska R, Machnicka B, Ułaszewski S, Lachowicz T. The YJL185C, YLR376C and YJR129C genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are probably involved in regulation of the glyoxylate cycle. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53:739-45 pubmed
    ..Molecular dissection of the transforming DNA fragments identified two multicopy suppressor genes YJL185C, YJR129C and one allelic YLR376C...
  14. Wieczorek D, Feiss M. Genetics of cosQ, the DNA-packaging termination site of phage lambda: local suppressors and methylation effects. Genetics. 2003;165:11-21 pubmed
    ..cis-acting suppressors that overcome methylation-associated defects, including a methylation-dependent suppressor, were also isolated. Models of cosQ suppression are presented. ..
  15. Qimron U, Kulczyk A, Hamdan S, Tabor S, Richardson C. Inadequate inhibition of host RNA polymerase restricts T7 bacteriophage growth on hosts overexpressing udk. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:448-57 pubmed
    ..5 that affect its interaction with T7 RNA polymerase, also reduce the interference with T7 growth by host RNA polymerase. We propose a general model for the requirement of host RNA polymerase inhibition. ..
  16. Oikawa T, Okuda M, Kaneko N, Watanabe M, Hiraoka H, Itamoto K, et al. Cloning of the feline GADD45 cDNA and analysis of its mutation in feline lymphoma cell lines. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:297-301 pubmed
    ..However, no mutations were detected by sequence analysis of feline GADD45 in several feline lymphoma cell lines, indicating that the GADD45 mutation might be uncommon in feline oncogenesis. ..
  17. Shiomi D, Homma M, Kawagishi I. Intragenic suppressors of a mutation in the aspartate chemoreceptor gene that abolishes binding of the receptor to methyltransferase. Microbiology. 2002;148:3265-75 pubmed
    ..This effect was reversed by introducing a mutation in the xWxxF motif. These results reinforce the importance of the xWxxF motif and suggest that the motif does not have to be located at the extreme carboxy terminus. ..
  18. Buentig N, Storkel S, Atzpodien J. [Molecular genetic changes in renal cell carcinomas]. Urologe A. 2002;41:475-81 pubmed
    ..This review provides a discussion of general principles of tumor development as well as the specific mechanisms underlying renal carcinogenesis. ..
  19. Thorstensen L, Qvist H, Nesland J, Giercksky K, Lothe R. Identification of two potential suppressor gene regions on chromosome arm 14q that are commonly lost in advanced colorectal carcinomas. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:1327-31 pubmed
    ..for monosomy in cancer remain unknown, but our data support the hypothesis that deletions of several tumor suppressor genes are more readily obtained by one chromosome loss than by several molecular events, and through this unison ..
  20. Koorstra J, Feldmann G, Habbe N, Maitra A. Morphogenesis of pancreatic cancer: role of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs). Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008;393:561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently developed genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic cancer also demonstrate the stepwise PanIN progression model, underscoring the commonalities in pancreatic neoplasia between mouse and man. ..
  21. Semeshin F, Belyaeva S, Zhimulev F. Electron microscope mapping of the pericentric and intercalary heterochromatic regions of the polytene chromosomes of the mutant Suppressor of underreplication in Drosophila melanogaster. Chromosoma. 2001;110:487-500 pubmed
    ..Suppression of DNA underreplication in the mutant transforms the bands with weak spots into large single bands. ..
  22. Kuroki T, Tajima Y, Kanematsu T. Role of hypermethylation on carcinogenesis in the pancreas. Surg Today. 2004;34:981-6 pubmed
  23. Nishikawa A, Suzuki T, Masumura K, Furukawa F, Miyauchi M, Nakamura H, et al. Reporter gene transgenic mice as a tool for analyzing the molecular mechanisms underlying experimental carcinogenesis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2001;20:111-5 pubmed
  24. Marcus W, Lindsay S, Sierks M. Identification and repair of positive binding antibodies containing randomly generated amber codons from synthetic phage display libraries. Biotechnol Prog. 2006;22:919-22 pubmed
    ..This work also highlights the ability to isolate antibodies against a protein antigen by using only a small peptide (15 amino acids) representing a portion of the antigen. ..
  25. Franzoni M, De Castro Prado M. Characterization and mapping of an informational suppressor in Aspergillus nidulans. Biol Res. 2000;33:11-9 pubmed
    ..The segregation of the genetic markers has also been observed in the mutant strain self crossed. From the above results it may be concluded that suO1 is an informational suppressor. ..
  26. Brumby A, Secombe J, Horsfield J, Coombe M, Amin N, Coates D, et al. A genetic screen for dominant modifiers of a cyclin E hypomorphic mutation identifies novel regulators of S-phase entry in Drosophila. Genetics. 2004;168:227-51 pubmed
    ..DmcycEJP suppressor genes fall into the classes of: (1) chromatin remodeling or transcription factors; (2) signaling pathways; and (3) ..
  27. Cheng J, Sagan S, Assem N, Koukiekolo R, Goto N, Pezacki J. Stabilized recombinant suppressors of RNA silencing: functional effects of linking monomers of Carnation Italian Ringspot virus p19. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1528-35 pubmed
    ..The cross-linked recombinant CIRV-p19s represent novel stabilized suppressors of RNA silencing and may be useful in future biophysical, immunological and cell biology studies. ..
  28. Kwon S, Kim S, Bhattacharjee S, Noh J, Gassmann W. SRFR1, a suppressor of effector-triggered immunity, encodes a conserved tetratricopeptide repeat protein with similarity to transcriptional repressors. Plant J. 2009;57:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of SRFR1 may therefore provide insight into the regulation of the transcriptional reprogramming that is activated by effector-triggered immunity. ..
  29. Langland G, Elliott J, Li Y, Creaney J, Dixon K, Groden J. The BLM helicase is necessary for normal DNA double-strand break repair. Cancer Res. 2002;62:2766-70 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates that BS cells, lacking the BLM helicase, process DSBs differently than normal cells and strongly suggests a role for the BLM helicase in aligning microhomology elements during recombinational events in DSB repair. ..
  30. Noubissi F, Aparna K, McCluskey K, Kasbekar D. Evidence for dominant suppression of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) in crosses with the wild-isolated Neurospora crassa strains Sugartown and Adiopodoume-7. J Genet. 2001;80:55-61 pubmed
    ..In other experiments, we found no evidence for dominant RIP suppression by the Spore killer haplotypes Sk-2 and Sk-3. ..
  31. Li J, Tetzlaff M, Elledge S. Identification of MSA1, a cell cycle-regulated, dosage suppressor of drc1/sld2 and dpb11 mutants. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:3388-98 pubmed
    ..Msa1 and its paralog, Msa2, both accumulate in highly modified forms just as cells commit to enter S phase and then are rapidly destroyed. MSA1 represents a new cell cycle regulated gene important for S phase entry. ..
  32. Torabi A, Ordóñez J, Su B, Palmer L, Mao C, Lara K, et al. Novel Somatic Copy Number Alteration Identified for Cervical Cancer in the Mexican American Population. Med Sci (Basel). 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 32 CNA regions identified contained tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes...
  33. Deng X, Zhou K, Li R, Li P, Huang G, Chun Z. [Genetic analysis of dominant earliness of rice genic male sterile line 6442S-7]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2001;28:628-34 pubmed
    ..It is considered that dominant earliness genes harbored in 6442S-7 have splendid future in rice improvement. ..
  34. Bennasser Y, LE S, Benkirane M, Jeang K. Evidence that HIV-1 encodes an siRNA and a suppressor of RNA silencing. Immunity. 2005;22:607-19 pubmed
    ..Tat abrogates the cell's RNA-silencing defense by subverting the ability of Dicer to process precursor double-stranded RNAs into siRNAs. ..
  35. Rozenfeld S, Thuriaux P. Genetic interactions within TFIIIC, the promoter-binding factor of yeast RNA polymerase III. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;265:705-10 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a close functional interaction between the two largest subunits of TFIIIC and underscore the importance of the tetratricopeptide motif of tau131. ..
  36. Ji J, Haghnia M, Trusty C, Goldstein L, Schubiger G. A genetic screen for suppressors and enhancers of the Drosophila cdk1-cyclin B identifies maternal factors that regulate microtubule and microfilament stability. Genetics. 2002;162:1179-95 pubmed
    ..Our observations also indicate that microtubules and cortical microfilaments antagonize each other during the preblastoderm stage. ..
  37. Monahan S, Lester H, Dougherty D. Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into receptors expressed in Mammalian cells. Chem Biol. 2003;10:573-80 pubmed
  38. Valouev I, Urakov V, Kochneva Pervukhova N, Smirnov V, Ter Avanesyan M. Translation termination factors function outside of translation: yeast eRF1 interacts with myosin light chain, Mlc1p, to effect cytokinesis. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:687-96 pubmed
    ..The data obtained demonstrate that yeast eRF1 has an important non-translational function effecting cytokinesis via interaction with Mlc1p. ..
  39. Kobayashi M, Okada K, Ikeuchi M. A suppressor mutation in the alpha-phycocyanin gene in the light/glucose-sensitive phenotype of the psbK-disruptant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:1561-7 pubmed
    ..The inverted repeat generated in cpcA probably led to the early termination of transcription. A possible mechanism for such a mutation is discussed. ..
  40. Rak M, Tzagoloff A. F1-dependent translation of mitochondrially encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of yeast ATP synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a mechanism by which expression of ATP6 and ATP8 is translationally regulated by F(1) to achieve a balanced output of two compartmentally separated sets of ATP synthase genes. ..
  41. Grishchuk E, Frolov D, Savchenko G. [Overexpression of the apc10+ gene in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe can suppress temperature sensitivity of the nuc2-663 mutant,but not its sterility]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2000;34:809-15 pubmed
  42. Rodriguez E, Lester H, Dougherty D. Improved amber and opal suppressor tRNAs for incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vivo. Part 1: minimizing misacylation. RNA. 2007;13:1703-14 pubmed
    ..We have created a library of Tetrahymena thermophila Gln amber suppressor tRNAs that will be useful for determining optimal suppressor tRNAs for use in other eukaryotic cells. ..
  43. Ueng T, Hung C, Kuo M, Chan P, Hu S, Yang P, et al. Induction of fibroblast growth factor-9 and interleukin-1alpha gene expression by motorcycle exhaust particulate extracts and benzo(a)pyrene in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Toxicol Sci. 2005;87:483-96 pubmed
    ..This present study shows that MEP and benzo(a)pyrene can induce metabolic enzyme, inflammatory cytokine, and growth factor gene expression in CL5 cells and stimulate lung epithelium-fibroblast interaction. ..
  44. Lund P, Weisshaupt K, Mikeska T, Jammas D, Chen X, Kuban R, et al. Oncogenic HRAS suppresses clusterin expression through promoter hypermethylation. Oncogene. 2006;25:4890-903 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that silencing of individual genes by DNA methylation is controlled by oncogenic signalling pathways, yet the mechanisms responsible for initial target gene suppression are variable. ..
  45. Buscher B, Conover G, Miller J, Vogel S, Meyers S, Isberg R, et al. The DotL protein, a member of the TraG-coupling protein family, is essential for Viability of Legionella pneumophila strain Lp02. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:2927-38 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a model in which the DotL protein plays a role in regulating the activity of the L. pneumophila type IV secretion apparatus. ..
  46. Hemminki A. From molecular changes to customised therapy. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38:333-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the future of cancer treatment could be customised treatment based on the molecular properties of the tumour, utilising combinations of novel and conventional agents. ..
  47. Funakoshi M, Sasaki T, Nishimoto T, Kobayashi H. Budding yeast Dsk2p is a polyubiquitin-binding protein that can interact with the proteasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:745-50 pubmed
    ..We discuss a possible role of adaptor function of Dsk2p via its UbL and UBA domains in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ..
  48. Tummler B, Stanke F, Bronsveld I, Veeze H, Ballmann M. Transient correction of the basic defect in sweat glands in an individual with cystic fibrosis carrying the complex CFTR allele F508del-R553Q. Thorax. 2009;64:179-80 pubmed publisher
    ..R553Q caused a delay in diagnosis because of false negative sweat tests but was not a disease reverting suppressor mutation as had been inferred from cellular models...
  49. Hage R, Tung L, Du H, Stands L, Rosbash M, Chang T. A targeted bypass screen identifies Ynl187p, Prp42p, Snu71p, and Cbp80p for stable U1 snRNP/Pre-mRNA interaction. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3941-52 pubmed publisher
  50. Kohrer C, Xie L, Kellerer S, Varshney U, RajBhandary U. Import of amber and ochre suppressor tRNAs into mammalian cells: a general approach to site-specific insertion of amino acid analogues into proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14310-5 pubmed
  51. Dechamps C, Portetelle D, Vandenbol M. Multicopy suppression screen in the msb3 msb4 Saccharomyces cerevisiae double mutant, affected in Ypt/RabGAP activity. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:1439-49 pubmed
    ..genetically with the products of the MSB3 and MSB4 genes, we screened a genomic library for multicopy suppressor genes restoring normal growth of the double mutant in the presence of DMSO and caffeine...
  52. Clement M, Lavallée F, Barbès Morin G, de Repentigny L, Belhumeur P. Overexpression of Bud5p can suppress mutations in the Gsp1p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Prp20p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:20-7 pubmed
    ..These,findings raise the possibility that Bud5p could act as a cytoplasmic exchange factor for Gsp1p and, therefore, that a complete GDP/GTP cycle could take place in the cytoplasm. ..
  53. Wolfson W. Amber codon flashing ambrx augments proteins with unnatural amino acids. Chem Biol. 2006;13:1011-2 pubmed