serum response element


Summary: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.

Top Publications

  1. Gründker C, Günthert A, Hellriegel M, Emons G. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin inhibits estradiol-induced serum response element (SRE) activation and c-fos expression in human endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer cells. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151:619-28 pubmed
    ..001). In addition, we could show that, in ER alpha-/ER beta-positive cell lines, E2 induces activation of serum response element (SRE) and expression of the immediate early-response gene c-fos...
  2. Montgomery E, Temple B, Peters K, Tolbert C, Booker B, Martin J, et al. G?12 structural determinants of Hsp90 interaction are necessary for serum response element-mediated transcriptional activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:586-97 pubmed publisher
    ..of these residues in G?12 to their deduced ancestral forms revealed a subset necessary for activation of serum response element (SRE)-mediated transcription, a G12/13-stimulated pathway implicated in cell proliferative signaling...
  3. Ishiko K, Sakoda T, Akagami T, Naka T, Doi T, Tsujino T, et al. Hyperglycemia induced cell growth and gene expression via the serum response element through RhoA and Rho-kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;40:139-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The deletion analysis revealed that the c-fos serum response element (SRE) accounts for the c-fos gene expression...
  4. Roupelieva M, Griffiths S, Kremmer E, Meisterernst M, Viejo Borbolla A, Schulz T, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Lana-1 is a major activator of the serum response element and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways via interactions with the Mediator complex. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..cells, a clone collection of KSHV open reading frames (ORFs) was screened for induction of the serum response element (SRE), as SRE is induced by MAPKs...
  5. Wang D, Li Z, Messing E, Wu G. The SPRY domain-containing SOCS box protein 1 (SSB-1) interacts with MET and enhances the hepatocyte growth factor-induced Erk-Elk-1-serum response element pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16393-401 pubmed
    ..We showed that overexpression of SSB-1 but not other SSB proteins enhanced the HGF-induced serum response element (SRE)-luciferase activity...
  6. Theis M, Knorre A, Kellersch B, Moelleken J, Wieland F, Kolanus W, et al. Discriminatory aptamer reveals serum response element transcription regulated by cytohesin-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11221-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that intramer technology can be used not only for assigning novel biological functions to proteins or protein domains but also to prove nonredundancy of highly homologous proteins. ..
  7. Wycuff D, Yanites H, Marriott S. Identification of a functional serum response element in the HTLV-I LTR. Virology. 2004;324:540-53 pubmed
    ..cellular gene expression after binding to its cognate target sequence (CArG box) located within a serum response element (SRE)...
  8. Arnaud M, Mzali R, Gesbert F, Crouin C, Guenzi C, Vermot Desroches C, et al. Interaction of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 with Gab2 regulates Rho-dependent activation of the c-fos serum response element by interleukin-2. Biochem J. 2004;382:545-56 pubmed
    ..kinase) activation and expression of a luciferase reporter plasmid driven by the c-fos SRE (serum response element), indicating that interaction of SHP-2 with Gab2 is required for ERK activation in response to IL-2...
  9. Ishiguro K, Xavier R. Homer-3 regulates activation of serum response element in T cells via its EVH1 domain. Blood. 2004;103:2248-56 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Homer-3 reduced transcriptional activation via the serum response element (SRE) in response to anti-CD3 antibody, phorbol ester, or dominant active Ha-Ras...

More Information


  1. Lin H, Bao J, Sung Y, Walters E, Ambron R, Ying J. Rapid electrical and delayed molecular signals regulate the serum response element after nerve injury: convergence of injury and learning signals. J Neurobiol. 2003;57:204-20 pubmed
    ..the mouse and found short- and long-term activation of an Elk1-SRF transcription complex that binds to the serum response element (SRE)...
  2. Wu S, Minami T, Donovan D, Aird W. The proximal serum response element in the Egr-1 promoter mediates response to thrombin in primary human endothelial cells. Blood. 2002;100:4454-61 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that thrombin induces Egr-1 expression in endothelial cells by a MAPK-dependent mechanism that involves an interaction between SRF and SRE-1. ..
  3. Westendorf J. The formin/diaphanous-related protein, FHOS, interacts with Rac1 and activates transcription from the serum response element. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46453-9 pubmed
    ..truncation mutants lacking the N- or C-terminal autoregulatory domains stimulated transcription of a c-fos serum response element (SRE)-driven reporter...
  4. Saito Y, Nakagami H, Kurooka M, Takami Y, Kikuchi Y, Hayashi H, et al. Cold shock domain protein A represses angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via inhibition of serum response element. Oncogene. 2008;27:1821-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, of importance, we revealed that CSDA could directly bind to the serum response element (SRE) sequence, resulting in the inhibition of SRE activity, which may lead to growth inhibition in ECs...
  5. Wu J, Zhang L, Bennett A. The noncatalytic amino terminus of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 directs nuclear targeting and serum response element transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4792-803 pubmed
    ..The NH(2) terminus of MKP-1 was also found to inhibit the activation of the serum response element (SRE) by preventing MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of the regulatory serine 383 residue on Elk-1...
  6. Hanlon M, Bundy L, Sealy L. C/EBP beta and Elk-1 synergistically transactivate the c-fos serum response element. BMC Cell Biol. 2000;1:2 pubmed
    The serum response element (SRE) in the c-fos promoter is a convergence point for several signaling pathways that regulate induction of the c-fos gene...
  7. Ho G, Wang Y, Jones P, Young K. Activation of serum response element by D2 dopamine receptor is governed by Gbetagamma-mediated MAPK and Rho pathways and regulated by RGS proteins. Pharmacology. 2007;79:114-21 pubmed
    In this study, we investigated the activation of the serum response element (SRE) by the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R) agonist quinpirole...
  8. Maturana A, Van Haasteren G, Piuz I, Castelbou C, Demaurex N, Schlegel W. Spontaneous calcium oscillations control c-fos transcription via the serum response element in neuroendocrine cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39713-21 pubmed
    ..response element (CRE) had no effect on basal or stimulated expression, whereas inactivation of the serum response element (SRE) had the same marked inhibitory effect as nifedipine...
  9. Cen B, Selvaraj A, Burgess R, Hitzler J, Ma Z, Morris S, et al. Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1, a potent transcriptional coactivator for serum response factor (SRF), is required for serum induction of SRF target genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6597-608 pubmed
    ..leukemia 1 (MKL1) is a myocardin-related transcription factor that we found strongly activated serum response element (SRE)-dependent reporter genes through its direct binding to serum response factor (SRF)...
  10. Cervia D, Fehlmann D, Hoyer D. Native somatostatin sst2 and sst5 receptors functionally coupled to Gi/o-protein, but not to the serum response element in AtT-20 mouse tumour corticotrophs. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;367:578-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, transcriptional effects via the serum response element (SRE) were assessed in AtT-20-SRE-luci cells, engineered to express constitutively SRE upstream of the ..
  11. Kanda T, Yokosuka O, Kato N, Imazeki F, Fujiwara K, Kawai S, et al. Hepatitis A virus VP3 may activate serum response element associated transcription. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:307-13 pubmed
    ..To clarify the effects of HAV infection on intracellular signalling, we examined the influence of 9 FLAG-tagged HAV proteins (VP2, VP3, VP1-2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3BC, 3C and 3D) on signal transduction pathways...
  12. Goto T, Kato N, Yoshida H, Otsuka M, Moriyama M, Shiratori Y, et al. Synergistic activation of the serum response element-dependent pathway by hepatitis B virus x protein and large-isoform hepatitis delta antigen. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:820-8 pubmed
    ..of HBV and HDV coinfection on hepatocytes, we investigated the effect of HBV proteins and HDAgs on the serum response element (SRE)-dependent pathway...
  13. Hirata Y, Maeda S, Mitsuno Y, Tateishi K, Yanai A, Akanuma M, et al. Helicobacter pylori CagA protein activates serum response element-driven transcription independently of tyrosine phosphorylation. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1962-71 pubmed
    ..In HeLa cells, expression of CagA increased serum response element (SRE)-driven and serum response factor (SRF)-driven transcription by 40-fold and 3...
  14. Ghosh S, Gehr T, Ghosh S, Fakhry I, Sica D, Lyall V, et al. PPARgamma ligand attenuates PDGF-induced mesangial cell proliferation: role of MAP kinase. Kidney Int. 2003;64:52-62 pubmed
    ..not affect extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation but inhibited the activation of serum response element (SRE) by 85 +/- 6% (P < 0.01)...
  15. Schuck S, Soloaga A, Schratt G, Arthur J, Nordheim A. The kinase MSK1 is required for induction of c-fos by lysophosphatidic acid in mouse embryonic stem cells. BMC Mol Biol. 2003;4:6 pubmed
    ..In addition, they indicate that MSK1 could act through CRE binding proteins to achieve c-fos promoter activation. Thus, they further our understanding of the complex regulation of the model immediate-early gene c-fos. ..
  16. Xu J, Bai X, Lodyga M, Han B, Xiao H, Keshavjee S, et al. XB130, a novel adaptor protein for signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16401-12 pubmed
    ..XB130 expression in HEK293 cells enhanced serum response element- and AP-1-dependent transcriptional activation mediated by c-Src...
  17. Zhao Y, Zhou L, Liu B, Deng Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. ZNF325, a novel human zinc finger protein with a RBaK-like RB-binding domain, inhibits AP-1- and SRE-mediated transcriptional activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;346:1191-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the ZNF325 protein may act as a novel transcription repressor in MAPK signaling pathway to mediate cellular functions. ..
  18. Chen M, Chen L, Chai K. Mechanisms of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) regulation of human prostasin gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;346:1245-53 pubmed
    ..SRE+98, a novel functional sterol regulatory element, was found to be the major site for the stimulatory response of prostasin gene expression to SREBP-2. ..
  19. Sun Q, Chen G, Streb J, Long X, Yang Y, Stoeckert C, et al. Defining the mammalian CArGome. Genome Res. 2006;16:197-207 pubmed
    ..We suggest one function of SRF is that of an ancient master regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  20. He H, Ping F. The SIE, SRE, CRE, and FAP-1 four intracellular signal pathways between stimulus and the expression of c-fos promoter. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:764-8 pubmed publisher
    ..elements on the promoter of c-fos, that is, CRE (cAMP responsive element), FAP-1 (Fbs-AP-1 site), SRE (serum response element), and SIE (sis-inducible element), as the regulatory mechanism for c-fos gene expression following various ..
  21. Stepanek J, Vincent M, Turpin P, Paulin D, Fermandjian S, Alpert B, et al. C-->G base mutations in the CArG box of c-fos serum response element alter its bending flexibility. Consequences for core-SRF recognition. FEBS J. 2007;274:2333-48 pubmed
    ..domain of the SRF (core-SRF) binds as a dimer to the CArG box C-5C-4A-3T-2A-1T+1T+2A+3G+4G+5 of the c-fos serum response element (SREfos)...
  22. Calella A, Nerlov C, Lopez R, Sciarretta C, Von Bohlen Und Halbach O, Bereshchenko O, et al. Neurotrophin/Trk receptor signaling mediates C/EBPalpha, -beta and NeuroD recruitment to immediate-early gene promoters in neuronal cells and requires C/EBPs to induce immediate-early gene transcription. Neural Dev. 2007;2:4 pubmed
    ..brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB signaling in primary cortical neurons, and show that the Fos serum response element area responds to BDNF/TrkB in a manner dependent on a combined C/EBP-Ebox element...
  23. Hanna M, Liu H, Amir J, Sun Y, Morris S, Siddiqui M, et al. Mechanical regulation of the proangiogenic factor CCN1/CYR61 gene requires the combined activities of MRTF-A and CREB-binding protein histone acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that signal-controlled activation of SRF, MRTF-A, and CBP provides a novel connection between mechanical stimuli and angiogenic gene expression. ..
  24. Takayama S, Takahashi H, Matsuo Y, Okada Y, Manabe T. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on human pancreatic cancer cell line. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:2387-91 pubmed
    ..activities of proliferation factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and serum response element (SRE) of human pancreatic cancer cells were increased by H. pylori infection...
  25. Wang Y, Young K. Analysis of RGSZ1 protein interaction with Galphai subunits. Methods Enzymol. 2004;390:31-52 pubmed
    ..assay systems to identify the functional relationship between RGSZ1 and Galphai, such as the single turnover GTPase assay, yeast pheromone response assay, mitogen-activated protein kinase assay, and serum response element reporter assay.
  26. Adiseshaiah P, Peddakama S, Zhang Q, Kalvakolanu D, Reddy S. Mitogen regulated induction of FRA-1 proto-oncogene is controlled by the transcription factors binding to both serum and TPA response elements. Oncogene. 2005;24:4193-205 pubmed
    ..that a 40-bp (-276/-237) segment, comprising a TCF binding site and the CArG box (collectively known as serum response element, SRE), and an ATF site, is also necessary for the FRA-1 induction by TPA and EGF...
  27. Aksan Kurnaz I. Kinetic analysis of RSK2 and Elk-1 interaction on the serum response element and implications for cellular engineering. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;88:890-900 pubmed
    Immediate early gene activation upon mitogenic activation occurs through the serum response element (SRE), which makes the delineation of the upstream pathways a powerful means to engineer cellular responses...
  28. Duan W, Ito M, Park Y, Maizels E, Hunzicker Dunn M, Jameson J. GnRH regulates early growth response protein 1 transcription through multiple promoter elements. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:221-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that GnRH stimulation of Egr-1 gene expression requires several distinct SREs/Ets elements and a cAMP response element and is mediated via activation of PKC/ERK signaling pathways. ..
  29. Abramova M, Kukushkin A, Pospelova T, Svetlikova S, Pospelov V. [Role of the TCF phosphorylation state and the chromatin structure in the negative transcription regulation of the c-fos proto-oncogene in E1A + c-Ha-ras transformed cells]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2002;36:66-75 pubmed
    ..The c-fos suppression in transformed REF was explained by formation of a transcriptionally inactive chromatin structure in the fos promoter region as a result of histone deacetylation, rather than by insufficient TCF phosphorylation. ..
  30. Booy E, Henson E, Gibson S. Epidermal growth factor regulates Mcl-1 expression through the MAPK-Elk-1 signalling pathway contributing to cell survival in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:2367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the EGF induced activation of Elk-1 is an important mediator of Mcl-1 expression and cell survival and therefore a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. ..
  31. Shen X, Mao H, Miao S. Substitution pattern of the CArG element in human and mouse genomes. Genome. 2011;54:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the study further revealed the sequence character and substitution pattern of CArG elements and provided useful information for the study of the SRF-binding efficiencies of CArG promoters in functional assays. ..
  32. Chang S, Cho J, Kim D, Jang H, Ko S, Jo Y, et al. Molecular mechanisms of early growth response protein-1 (EGR-1) expression by quercetin in INS-1 beta-cells. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:1559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Study using truncated EGR-1 promoter constructs showed that serum response element (SRE) sites, not cAMP response element site, were essential for EGR-1 transcription...
  33. Mahata S, Mahapatra N, Mahata M, O Connor D. Neuroendocrine cell type-specific and inducible expression of chromogranin/secretogranin genes: crucial promoter motifs. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;971:27-38 pubmed
    ..In addition to CRE, GC-rich domains in chromogranin B (CgB) and serum response element (SRE) in secretogranin II (SgII) promoters appear to play important roles in neuroendocrine cell type-..
  34. Stepanek J, Kopecký V, Mezzetti A, Turpin P, Paulin D, Alpert B, et al. Structural and dynamic changes of the serum response element and the core domain of serum response factor induced by their association. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..activity of serum response factor (SRF) is dependent on its binding to the CC(A/T)(6)GG box (CArG box) of serum response element (SRE)...
  35. Köenig A, Linhart T, Schlengemann K, Reutlinger K, Wegele J, Adler G, et al. NFAT-induced histone acetylation relay switch promotes c-Myc-dependent growth in pancreatic cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1189-99.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers a novel mechanism regulating cell growth and identifies the NFAT/ELK complex as modulators of early stages of mitogen-stimulated proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. ..
  36. Shin S, Bahk Y, Ko J, Chung I, Lee Y, Downward J, et al. Suppression of Egr-1 transcription through targeting of the serum response factor by oncogenic H-Ras. EMBO J. 2006;25:1093-103 pubmed
    ..SRF) protein through the acceleration of proteolysis, which resulted in decreased SRF binding to the serum response element (SRE) sites within the Egr-1 promoter, leading to the suppression of Egr-1 transcription...
  37. Acquaviva C, Brockly F, Ferrara P, Bossis G, Salvat C, Jariel Encontre I, et al. Identification of a C-terminal tripeptide motif involved in the control of rapid proteasomal degradation of c-Fos proto-oncoprotein during the G(0)-to-S phase transition. Oncogene. 2001;20:7563-72 pubmed
    ..We, however, showed that the PTL motif does not exert its effect by counteracting a stabilizing effect of these phosphorylations under our experimental conditions. ..
  38. Obara Y, Nemoto W, Kohno S, Murata T, Kaneda N, Nakahata N. Basic fibroblast growth factor promotes glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression mediated by activation of ERK5 in rat C6 glioma cells. Cell Signal. 2011;23:666-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking these results together, bFGF promotes GDNF expression accompanied by the activation of ERK5, ERK1/2 and their downstream transcription factors in C6 glioma cells. ..
  39. Chow C, Suzuki N, Kawamura T, Hamakubo T, Kozasa T. Modification of p115RhoGEF Ser(330) regulates its RhoGEF activity. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2085-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of Ser(330) leads to a decrease in serum response element-mediated transcription as well as decreased activation by G?13 in vitro...
  40. Tobo M, Tomura H, Mogi C, Wang J, Liu J, Komachi M, et al. Previously postulated "ligand-independent" signaling of GPR4 is mediated through proton-sensing mechanisms. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1745-53 pubmed
    ..The serum response element (SRE)-driven transcriptional activity was also clearly higher in GPR4-expressing HEK293 cells than in ..
  41. Guo Z, Yuan J, Tang W, Chen X, Gu X, Luo K, et al. Cloning and characterization of the human gene RAP2C, a novel member of Ras family, which activates transcriptional activities of SRE. Mol Biol Rep. 2007;34:137-44 pubmed
    ..assays showed that overexpression of RAP2C in HEK293T cells activated the transcriptional activities of serum response element (SRE)...
  42. Wei K, Che N, Chen F. Myocardin-related transcription factor B is required for normal mouse vascular development and smooth muscle gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:416-25 pubmed
    ..These data support our hypothesis that MRTF-B has a unique role in regulating smooth muscle genes important for liver, yolk sac, and portal vascular development. ..
  43. Do Carmo S, Seguin D, Milne R, Rassart E. Modulation of apolipoprotein D and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression by growth arrest and identification of key elements in the promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:5514-23 pubmed
    ..Evidence is also presented that SREs in the apoE promoter may contribute to the up-regulation of apoE gene expression following growth arrest. ..
  44. Pi M, Spurney R, Tu Q, Hinson T, Quarles L. Calcium-sensing receptor activation of rho involves filamin and rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3830-8 pubmed
    ..R isomer of N-(3-[2-chlorophenyl]propyl)-(R)-alpha-methyl-3-methoxybenzylamine (NPS-R568) stimulated serum response element (SRE) activity human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with CasR and an SRE-luciferase reporter ..
  45. Chang H, Shyu K, Lin S, Tsai S, Wang B, Liu Y, et al. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene is induced by cell adhesion through the MEK/ERK pathway. J Biomed Sci. 2003;10:738-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, we illustrate that two transcription response elements, the serum response element (SRE) and the hypoxia response element (HRE), which exist in the PAI-1 promoter, might be correlated with ..
  46. Farhang Fallah J, Randhawa V, Nimnual A, Klip A, Bar Sagi D, Rozakis Adcock M. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-interacting protein couples the insulin receptor substrate 1 PH domain to insulin signaling pathways leading to mitogenesis and GLUT4 translocation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7325-36 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHIP represents a physiological protein ligand of the IRS-1 PH domain, which plays an important role in insulin receptor-mediated mitogenic and metabolic signal transduction. ..
  47. Iwahara T, Akagi T, Shishido T, Hanafusa H. CrkII induces serum response factor activation and cellular transformation through its function in Rho activation. Oncogene. 2003;22:5946-57 pubmed
    ..were examined for their activation by CrkII-expression, and we found that CrkII selectively activates the serum response element (SRE), a transcriptional control element of immediate-early genes...
  48. Numazawa S, Watabe M, Nishimura S, Kurosawa M, Izuno M, Yoshida T. Regulation of ERK-mediated signal transduction by p38 MAP kinase in human monocytic THP-1 cells. J Biochem. 2003;133:599-605 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the steady-state level of p38 MAP kinase activity modulates ERK signaling. ..
  49. Zhao D, Kuhnt Moore S, Zeng H, Wu J, Moyer M, Pothoulakis C. Neurotensin stimulates IL-8 expression in human colonic epithelial cells through Rho GTPase-mediated NF-kappa B pathways. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;284:C1397-404 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings indicate that NT-stimulated IL-8 expression is mediated via a Rho-dependent NF-kappaB-mediated pathway. ..
  50. EVELYN C, Wade S, Wang Q, Wu M, INIGUEZ LLUHI J, Merajver S, et al. CCG-1423: a small-molecule inhibitor of RhoA transcriptional signaling. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2249-60 pubmed
    ..Through a transcription-based high-throughput serum response element-luciferase screening assay, we identified two small-molecule inhibitors of this pathway...
  51. Cui M, Laag E, Sun L, Tan M, Zhao G, Xu X. Lysophosphatidic acid induces early growth response gene 1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: CRE and SRE mediate the transcription. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:1029-35 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that elevated LPA levels may, through activation of Egr-1, which regulates an array of atherogenic genes, exacerbate atheromatous lesions. ..
  52. Oyama Y, Kawai Kowase K, Sekiguchi K, Sato M, Sato H, Yamazaki M, et al. Homeobox protein Hex facilitates serum responsive factor-mediated activation of the SM22alpha gene transcription in embryonic fibroblasts. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1602-7 pubmed
    ..These findings will provide the clue for understanding the mechanisms by which bone marrow-derived SMC precursor cells undergo differentiation. ..
  53. Jahn T, Seipel P, Coutinho S, Miething C, Peschel C, Duyster J. Grb4/Nckbeta acts as a nuclear repressor of v-Abl-induced transcription from c-jun/c-fos promoter elements. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43419-27 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a novel role for Grb4 in the inhibition of promitogenic enhancer elements such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element and SRE. ..