jun genes


Summary: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.

Top Publications

  1. Eilers A, Whitfield J, Shah B, Spadoni C, Desmond H, Ham J. Direct inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in sympathetic neurones prevents c-jun promoter activation and NGF withdrawal-induced death. J Neurochem. 2001;76:1439-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, by co-expressing the JBD and a regulatable c-Jun dominant negative mutant we demonstrate that JNK and AP-1 function in the same pro-apoptotic signalling pathway after NGF withdrawal. ..
  2. Folkman J. Angiogenesis and c-Jun. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:644 pubmed
  3. Bos T, Margiotta P, Bush L, Wasilenko W. Enhanced cell motility and invasion of chicken embryo fibroblasts in response to Jun over-expression. Int J Cancer. 1999;81:404-10 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Jun plays an important role in the potentiation of cell motility and invasion through multiple mechanisms. ..
  4. Wisdom R, Johnson R, Moore C. c-Jun regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis by distinct mechanisms. EMBO J. 1999;18:188-97 pubmed
    ..The results reveal critical roles for c-Jun in two different cellular processes and show that different extracellular stimuli can target c-Jun by distinct biochemical mechanisms. ..
  5. Stepniak E, Ricci R, Eferl R, Sumara G, Sumara I, Rath M, et al. c-Jun/AP-1 controls liver regeneration by repressing p53/p21 and p38 MAPK activity. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2306-14 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that c-Jun/AP-1 regulates liver regeneration through a novel molecular pathway that involves p53, p21, and the stress kinase p38alpha. ..
  6. Puntschart A, Wey E, Jostarndt K, Vogt M, Wittwer M, Widmer H, et al. Expression of fos and jun genes in human skeletal muscle after exercise. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:C129-37 pubmed
    ..The signals leading to the expression of these immediate early genes are therefore unclear. ..
  7. Domann F, Levy J, Birrer M, Bowden G. Stable expression of a c-JUN deletion mutant in two malignant mouse epidermal cell lines blocks tumor formation in nude mice. Cell Growth Differ. 1994;5:9-16 pubmed
    ..c. tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that inhibition of AP-1 mediated transcriptional trans-activation alone can be sufficient to suppress the tumorigenic phenotype in a subset of malignant mouse epidermal cells. ..
  8. Ham J, Babij C, Whitfield J, Pfarr C, Lallemand D, Yaniv M, et al. A c-Jun dominant negative mutant protects sympathetic neurons against programmed cell death. Neuron. 1995;14:927-39 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, overexpression of the full-length c-Jun protein is, in itself, sufficient to induce apoptosis in sympathetic neurons. ..
  9. McGlynn H, Baker A, Padua R. Biological consequences of a point mutation at codon 969 of the FMS gene. Leuk Res. 1998;22:365-72 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that there is a biological role for FMS codon 969 phenylalanine mutation which results in transformation of FDC-P1 cells. ..

More Information


  1. Herdegen T, Leah J. Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of gene expression by Jun, Fos and Krox, and CREB/ATF proteins. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998;28:370-490 pubmed
    ..We also describe their expression and possible roles in glial cells. Finally, we discuss the relevance of their expression for nervous system functioning under normal and patho-physiological conditions. ..
  2. Joseph P, Muchnok T, Klishis M, Roberts J, Antonini J, Whong W, et al. Cadmium-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis are associated with transcriptional activation of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc proto-oncogenes: role of cellular calcium and reactive oxygen species. Toxicol Sci. 2001;61:295-303 pubmed
    ..Further, the cadmium-induced overexpression of the proto-oncogenes is dependent on transcriptional activation as well as on pathways involving protein kinase C and MAP kinase. ..
  3. Ma C, Ying C, Yuan Z, Song B, Li D, Liu Y, et al. dp5/HRK is a c-Jun target gene and required for apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30901-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that dp5 is a target gene of c-Jun and plays a critical role in potassium deprivation-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. ..
  4. Spruill M, Song B, Whong W, Ong T. Proto-oncogene amplification and overexpression in cadmium-induced cell transformation. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002;65:2131-44 pubmed
  5. Daev E, Dukel skaia A. [Induction of meiotic disturbances in spermatocytes I by pheromones as an inhibiting mechanism of male reproductive function in house mice]. Tsitologiia. 2005;47:505-9 pubmed
    ..It is likely that destabilization of chromosomal apparatus in dividing meiotic cells forms the basis of some reproductive effects of murine pheromones. Possible mechanisms of pheromone influence on reproduction are discussed. ..
  6. Reunanen N, Li S, Ahonen M, Foschi M, Han J, Kahari V. Activation of p38 alpha MAPK enhances collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) expression by mRNA stabilization. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32360-8 pubmed
    ..It is conceivable that both modes of action play an important role in controlling the proteolytic phenotype of fibroblasts, e.g. in wound repair and tumor invasion. ..
  7. Teofoli P, Barduagni S, Ribuffo M, Campanella A, de Pita O, Puddu P. Expression of Bcl-2, p53, c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes in keloids and hypertrophic scars. J Dermatol Sci. 1999;22:31-7 pubmed
  8. Doyle J, Hoffman S, Ucla C, Reith W, Mach B, Stubbs L. Locations of human and mouse genes encoding the RFX1 and RFX2 transcription factor proteins. Genomics. 1996;35:227-30 pubmed
    ..These data define the established relationships between these homologous mouse and human regions in further detail and provide new tools for linking cloned genes to phenotypes in both species. ..
  9. Nakahara K, Hanada R, Murakami N, Teranishi H, Ohgusu H, Fukushima N, et al. The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U is involved in the mammalian circadian oscillator system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:156-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that NMU may play some important role in the circadian oscillator by exerting an autocrine or paracrine action in the SCN. ..
  10. Baranova A, Schlauch K, Elariny H, Jarrar M, Bennett C, Nugent C, et al. Gene expression patterns in hepatic tissue and visceral adipose tissue of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1111-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that adipocyte secretion plays an important role in the development of NAFLD. ..
  11. Joels M, Velzing E, Nair S, Verkuyl J, Karst H. Acute stress increases calcium current amplitude in rat hippocampus: temporal changes in physiology and gene expression. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1315-24 pubmed
    ..Prior to the functional change, increased expression of calcium channel subunits was observed, suggesting that the enhanced function could be explained by transcriptional regulation of the channels. ..
  12. Peterson T, Peterson M, Robertson H, During M, Dragunow M. Selective down-regulation of c-jun gene expression by pentoxifylline and c-jun antisense interrupts platelet-derived growth factor signaling: pentoxifylline inhibits phosphorylation of c-Jun on serine 73. Mol Pharmacol. 2002;61:1476-88 pubmed
  13. Ruel M, Bianchi C, Khan T, Xu S, Liddicoat J, Voisine P, et al. Gene expression profile after cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:1521-30 pubmed
  14. Weiss C, Bohmann D. Deregulated repression of c-Jun provides a potential link to its role in tumorigenesis. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:111-3 pubmed
    ..The viral tumorigenic counterpart of c-Jun, v-Jun, escapes this inhibition, suggesting deregulated transcriptional activity of c-Jun as a relevant cause for carcinogenesis. ..
  15. Roux P, Menguy I, Soubigou S, Chinn J, Ricard S, Williams S, et al. Direct measurement of multiple mRNAs in nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cells using electrophoretic tags to monitor biomarkers of neuronal differentiation in 96-well format. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2004;2:637-46 pubmed
  16. Fernandez M, Pirondi S, Antonelli T, Ferraro L, Giardino L, Calza L. Role of c-Fos protein on glutamate toxicity in primary neural hippocampal cells. J Neurosci Res. 2005;82:115-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the synthesis of c-Fos protein after glutamate exposure favors cell death pathway activation in which caspase-3 is also involved. ..
  17. Llanos S, Iglesias T, Riese H, Garrido T, Caelles C, Munoz A. v-erbA oncogene induces invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth in cultured glial cells by mechanisms involving platelet-derived growth factor. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:373-82 pubmed
    ..1 cell line via an increase in c-sis/PDGF B and probably other mechanisms, suggesting a role for (autocrine) PDGF stimulation in glial cell transformation. ..
  18. Weinreb M, Rutledge S, Rodan G. Systemic administration of an anabolic dose of prostaglandin E2 induces early-response genes in rat bones. Bone. 1997;20:347-53 pubmed
    ..The induction of early-response genes may thus be the first step in a chain of events which leads to the anabolic effect of PGE2 in vivo. ..
  19. Dai Y, Sun X, Chen Q. Differential induction of c-Fos and c-Jun in the lateral geniculate nucleus of rats following unilateral optic nerve injury with contralateral retinal blockade. Exp Brain Res. 2009;193:9-18 pubmed publisher
  20. Coss D, Jacobs S, Bender C, Mellon P. A novel AP-1 site is critical for maximal induction of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:152-62 pubmed
    ..Mitogen-activated protein kinase activity is required for induction of FSHbeta and JunB protein. Finally, AP-1 interacts with nuclear factor-Y, which occupies its overlapping site in vivo. ..
  21. Pan Y, Zhang J, Gazi M, Young C. The cyclooxygenase 2-specific nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib and nimesulide inhibit androgen receptor activity via induction of c-Jun in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:769-74 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide a strong rationale for celecoxib and nimesulide as potential agents for prostate cancer prevention and/or treatment. ..
  22. Liu H, Keefer J, Wang Q, Friedman A. Reciprocal effects of C/EBPalpha and PKCdelta on JunB expression and monocytic differentiation depend upon the C/EBPalpha basic region. Blood. 2003;101:3885-92 pubmed
    ..Exogenous JunB restored AP-1 DNA-binding but did not prevent inhibition of macrosialin expression by C/EBPalpha-ER, indicating that JunB is not the only target relevant to inhibition of monopoiesis by C/EBPalpha. ..
  23. Hall M, Young D, Rowan A, Edwards D, Clark I. Cryptic promoter activity of pBLCAT3 induced by overexpression of AP1 factors. Biotechniques. 2002;33:1004, 1006, 1008 pubmed
  24. Fujii M, Minamino T, Nomura M, Miyamoto K, Tanaka J, Seiki M. v-Rel activates the proto-oncogene c-Jun promoter: a correlation with its transforming activity. Leukemia. 1997;11 Suppl 3:402-4 pubmed
    ..Since c-Jun plays pivotal roles on cell proliferation in various types of cells, the activation of c-jun expression by v-Rel may be an essential step for the oncogenic transformation caused by v-Rel. ..
  25. Hass R, Prudovsky I, Kruhøffer M. Differential effects of phorbol ester on signaling and gene expression in human leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 1997;21:589-94 pubmed
  26. Templeton D, Zhao Y, Fan M. Heterogeneity in the response of vascular smooth muscle to heparin: altered signaling in heparin-resistant cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;45:503-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, cells selected for heparin resistance may develop c-fos-independent pathways for proliferation. ..
  27. Zhou Y, Sun H, Danila D, Johnson S, Sigai D, Zhang X, et al. Truncated activin type I receptor Alk4 isoforms are dominant negative receptors inhibiting activin signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:2066-75 pubmed
    ..This may contribute to uncontrolled pituitary cell growth and the development of human pituitary tumors. ..
  28. Tjandrawinata R, Arifin P, Tandrasasmita O, Rahmi D, Aripin A. DLBS1425, a Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extract confers anti proliferative and proapoptosis effects via eicosanoid pathway. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2010;8:187-201 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that DLBS1425 has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties, which make it pharmacologically ideal for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer...
  29. Li C, Cheung W, Lin Z, Li T, Lim J, Wang D. Oral steroids enhance epithelial repair in nasal polyposis via upregulation of the AP-1 gene network. Thorax. 2009;64:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral steroids promote epithelial repair in NP via upregulation of the AP-1 (especially c-Jun) network and its related genes. ..
  30. Qian M, Sanders B, Kline K. RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate induces apoptosis in avian retrovirus-transformed lymphoid cells. Nutr Cancer. 1996;25:9-26 pubmed
  31. Han H, Kwon Y, Park M, Park S, Cho S, Rho Y, et al. Efficacy validation of synthesized retinol derivatives In vitro: stability, toxicity, and activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003;11:3839-45 pubmed
  32. Oster H, Leitges M. Protein kinase C alpha but not PKCzeta suppresses intestinal tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6955-63 pubmed
  33. Faubert B, Kaminski N. AP-1 activity is negatively regulated by cannabinol through inhibition of its protein components, c-fos and c-jun. J Leukoc Biol. 2000;67:259-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, cannabinoid-induced immunosuppression involves disruption of the ERK signaling cascade. ..
  34. Zhang S, He X. [The molecular mechanism of warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in liver graft]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:767-8 pubmed
  35. Hermann D, Hossmann K, Mies G. Expression of c-jun, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1, caspase-3 and glial fibrillary acidic protein following cortical cold injury in rats: relationship to metabolic disturbances and delayed cell death. Neuroscience. 2004;123:371-9 pubmed
    ..The dissociated responses of c-jun, mkp-1 and caspase-3 mRNAs may represent important factors influencing tissue viability. ..
  36. Yang Y, Ikezoe T, Saito T, Kobayashi M, Koeffler H, Taguchi H. Proteasome inhibitor PS-341 induces growth arrest and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer cells via the JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 signaling. Cancer Sci. 2004;95:176-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, PS-341 might be useful for the treatment of individuals with NSCLC. ..
  37. Birder L, Kiss S, de Groat W, Lecci A, Maggi C. Effect of nepadutant, a neurokinin 2 tachykinin receptor antagonist, on immediate-early gene expression after trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:272-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that nepadutant suppresses the responses of colonic afferent neurons to nociceptive stimuli and that NK2 receptor antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of sensory symptoms of colitis. ..
  38. Svenningsson P, Fredholm B. Caffeine mimics the effect of a dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist on the expression of immediate early genes in globus pallidus. Neuropharmacology. 1997;36:1309-17 pubmed
    ..The fact that pallidal c-fos mRNA expression decreased upon repeated administration of caffeine may be related to the development of tolerance to locomotion stimulation that occurs following chronic caffeine ingestion. ..
  39. Mitsuno Y, Yoshida H, Maeda S, Ogura K, Hirata Y, Kawabe T, et al. Helicobacter pylori induced transactivation of SRE and AP-1 through the ERK signalling pathway in gastric cancer cells. Gut. 2001;49:18-22 pubmed
    ..Direct contact with viable bacteria possessing intact cag PAI is a prerequisite for the onset of intracellular signalling leading to AP-1 transactivation. ..
  40. Wach S, Schirmacher P, Protschka M, Blessing M. Overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in murine epidermis suppresses skin tumor formation by induction of apoptosis and downregulation of fos/jun family members. Oncogene. 2001;20:7761-9 pubmed
    ..Thus expression of BMP-6 augments apoptosis and downregulates the transcription of AP-1 family members thereby establishing tumor resistance. ..
  41. Kolko M, Nielsen M, Bazan N, Diemer N. Secretory phospholipase A(2) induces delayed neuronal COX-2 expression compared with glutamate. J Neurosci Res. 2002;69:169-77 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sPLA(2) may modulate neuronal COX-2 expression through mechanisms that differ from those of glutamate-induced COX-2 expression. ..
  42. Mathas S, Hinz M, Anagnostopoulos I, Krappmann D, Lietz A, Jundt F, et al. Aberrantly expressed c-Jun and JunB are a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma cells, stimulate proliferation and synergize with NF-kappa B. EMBO J. 2002;21:4104-13 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest an important role of AP-1 in lymphoma pathogenesis...
  43. Kim D, Han J, Kwon H. NF-kappaB and c-Jun-dependent regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 gene expression in response to lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells. Mol Immunol. 2003;40:633-43 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data suggest that both NF-kappaB and c-Jun contribute to LPS-induced mouse MIP-2 gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. ..
  44. Gibellini D, Re M, Bassini A, Guidotti L, Catani L, La Placa M, et al. HIV-1 gp120 induces the activation of both c-fos and c-jun immediate-early genes in HEL megakaryocytic cells. Br J Haematol. 1999;104:81-6 pubmed
  45. Takahashi S. Identification of Flt3 internal tandem duplications downstream targets by high-throughput immunoblotting protein array system. Am J Hematol. 2006;81:717-9 pubmed
    ..As a result, c-Jun and c-Raf were markedly induced, suggesting that these factors are functional downstream targets of Flt3-ITD. ..
  46. Lang D, Del Mar Romero Aleman M, Arbelo Galvan J, Stuermer C, Monzon Mayor M. Regeneration of retinal axons in the lizard Gallotia galloti is not linked to generation of new retinal ganglion cells. J Neurobiol. 2002;52:322-35 pubmed
    ..galloti is due to axon regrowth from the resident population of RGCs, which remain in a reactive state over an extended time interval. Neurogenesis does not appear to be involved in RGC axon regrowth in G. galloti. ..
  47. Yam H, Kwok A, Chan K, Lai T, Chu K, Lam D, et al. Effect of indocyanine green and illumination on gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:370-7 pubmed
    ..25 mg/mL ICG. ICG in the presence of acute illumination can elicit cell-cycle arrest and even apoptosis in RPE cells. The establishment of a safety level in the application of ICG in the region of 0.25 mg/mL is recommended. ..
  48. Vayalil P, Katiyar S. Treatment of epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 via inhibition of activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, c-jun and NF-kappaB in human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells. Prostate. 2004;59:33-42 pubmed
    ..EGCG may play a role in prevention of invasive metastatic processes of both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate carcinoma. ..
  49. Tice D, Soloviev I, Polakis P. Activation of the Wnt pathway interferes with serum response element-driven transcription of immediate early genes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6118-23 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that Wnt signaling can repress the expression of certain immediate early genes, and that this effect is consistent with changes in gene expression observed in human colorectal tumors. ..
  50. You H, Yu W, Munoz Medellin D, Brown P, Sanders B, Kline K. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate-induced differentiation of human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2002;33:228-36 pubmed
    ..In summary, MEK1, ERK1, the transcription factor c-jun, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (Waf1/Cip1) play a part in VES-induced differentiation of human MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. ..
  51. Shin M, Yan C, Boyd D. An inhibitor of c-jun aminoterminal kinase (SP600125) represses c-Jun activation, DNA-binding and PMA-inducible 92-kDa type IV collagenase expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1589:311-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate the efficacy of SP600125 in inhibiting c-Jun activation, DNA-binding and the PMA-dependent induction of MMP-9 expression. ..
  52. Konishi N, Shimada K, Nakamura M, Ishida E, Ota I, Tanaka N, et al. Function of JunB in transient amplifying cell senescence and progression of human prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4408-16 pubmed publisher
    ..JunB thus apparently plays an important role in controlling prostate carcinogenesis and may be a new target for cancer prevention and therapy. ..
  53. Han H, Yoon B, Lee S, Park S, Park J, Oh Y, et al. Ginsenosides inhibit EGF-induced proliferation of renal proximal tubule cells via decrease of c-fos and c-jun gene expression in vitro. Planta Med. 2002;68:971-4 pubmed
    ..Abbreviations. EGF:epidermal growth factor PD:protopanaxadiol PT:protopanaxatriol PTCs:primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells ..