cdc genes


Summary: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).

Top Publications

  1. Admire A, Shanks L, Danzl N, Wang M, Weier U, Stevens W, et al. Cycles of chromosome instability are associated with a fragile site and are increased by defects in DNA replication and checkpoint controls in yeast. Genes Dev. 2006;20:159-73 pubmed
    ..Cycles of instability of this normal yeast chromosome may be relevant to chromosome instability of mammalian fragile sites and of chromosomes in cancer cells. ..
  2. Pinsky B, Nelson C, Biggins S. Protein phosphatase 1 regulates exit from the spindle checkpoint in budding yeast. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that PP1 activity silences the checkpoint by reversing key phosphorylation events. ..
  3. Burke D, Stukenberg P. Linking kinetochore-microtubule binding to the spindle checkpoint. Dev Cell. 2008;14:474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At least eight protein kinases are implicated in spindle checkpoint signaling, arguing that a traditional signal transduction cascade is integral to spindle checkpoint signaling. ..
  4. Tabach Y, Milyavsky M, Shats I, Brosh R, Zuk O, Yitzhaky A, et al. The promoters of human cell cycle genes integrate signals from two tumor suppressive pathways during cellular transformation. Mol Syst Biol. 2005;1:2005.0022 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates how a well-controlled transformation process allows linking between gene expression, promoter architecture, and activity of upstream signaling molecules. ..
  5. Lobrich M, Jeggo P. The impact of a negligent G2/M checkpoint on genomic instability and cancer induction. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7:861-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we consider the impact of a negligent G2/M checkpoint on genomic stability and cancer risk. ..
  6. Weaver B, Cleveland D. Does aneuploidy cause cancer?. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2006;18:658-67 pubmed
    ..Cumulatively, the current evidence suggests that aneuploidy promotes tumorigenesis, at least at low frequency, but a definitive test has not yet been reported. ..
  7. Chang M, Bellaoui M, Zhang C, Desai R, Morozov P, Delgado Cruzata L, et al. RMI1/NCE4, a suppressor of genome instability, encodes a member of the RecQ helicase/Topo III complex. EMBO J. 2005;24:2024-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, rmi1Delta strains fail to fully activate Rad53 upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents, suggesting that Rmi1 is also an important part of the Rad53-dependent DNA damage response. ..
  8. Oliva A, Rosebrock A, Ferrezuelo F, Pyne S, Chen H, Skiena S, et al. The cell cycle-regulated genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e225 pubmed
  9. Musacchio A, Salmon E. The spindle-assembly checkpoint in space and time. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007;8:379-93 pubmed
    ..These studies are finally starting to reveal the mechanisms of checkpoint activation and silencing during mitotic progression. ..

More Information


  1. King E, Rachidi N, Morrice N, Hardwick K, Stark M. Ipl1p-dependent phosphorylation of Mad3p is required for the spindle checkpoint response to lack of tension at kinetochores. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1163-8 pubmed
    ..Our data provide strong evidence for a distinct checkpoint pathway responding to lack of sister kinetochore tension, in which Ipl1p-dependent phosphorylation of Mad3p is a key step. ..
  2. Pines J. Mitosis: a matter of getting rid of the right protein at the right time. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:55-63 pubmed
  3. de Lichtenberg U, Wernersson R, Jensen T, Nielsen H, Fausbøll A, Schmidt P, et al. New weakly expressed cell cycle-regulated genes in yeast. Yeast. 2005;22:1191-201 pubmed
    ..Several of the gene products are believed to be phosphorylated by Cdc28. For many of these new genes, homologues exist in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Homo sapiens for which the expression also varies with cell cycle progression. ..
  4. Hartwell L. Yeast and cancer. Biosci Rep. 2004;24:523-44 pubmed
    ..The discovery of genes that control cell division in yeast, and their relation to cancer, is reviewed. ..
  5. Bartek J, Lukas J. DNA damage checkpoints: from initiation to recovery or adaptation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2007;19:238-45 pubmed
    ..Such studies highlight the dynamic nature of these processes and help us to better understand the molecular basis, spatiotemporal orchestration and biological significance of the DNA damage response in normal and cancerous cells. ..
  6. Burds A, Lutum A, Sorger P. Generating chromosome instability through the simultaneous deletion of Mad2 and p53. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11296-301 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mitotic checkpoint is not essential for viability per se and that a CIN phenotype can be established in culture through the inactivation of both the Mad2- and p53-dependent checkpoint pathways. ..
  7. Morrow C, Tighe A, Johnson V, Scott M, Ditchfield C, Taylor S. Bub1 and aurora B cooperate to maintain BubR1-mediated inhibition of APC/CCdc20. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:3639-52 pubmed
    ..This bifurcation in the signalling mechanism may help explain why many tumour cells mount a robust checkpoint response following spindle damage, despite exhibiting chromosome instability. ..
  8. Callen E, Jankovic M, Difilippantonio S, Daniel J, Chen H, Celeste A, et al. ATM prevents the persistence and propagation of chromosome breaks in lymphocytes. Cell. 2007;130:63-75 pubmed
    ..Silencing this checkpoint permits DNA ends produced by V(D)J recombination in a lymphoid precursor to serve as substrates for translocations with chromosomes subsequently damaged by other means in mature cells. ..
  9. Bachant J, Jessen S, Kavanaugh S, Fielding C. The yeast S phase checkpoint enables replicating chromosomes to bi-orient and restrain spindle extension during S phase distress. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:999-1012 pubmed
    ..We propose that by promoting replication fork integrity under these conditions Rad53 ensures centromere duplication. Replicating chromosomes can then bi-orient in a cohesin-independent manner to restrain untimely spindle extension. ..
  10. Gauthier N, Larsen M, Wernersson R, de Lichtenberg U, Jensen L, Brunak S, et al. comprehensive multi-organism online database of cell-cycle experiments. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D854-9 pubmed
    ..Cyclebase is available at ..
  11. Barlow J, Lisby M, Rothstein R. Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1. Mol Cell. 2008;30:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that the DNA repair machinery distinguishes between different types of damage in G1, which translates into different modes of checkpoint activation in G1 and S/G2 cells. ..
  12. Li M, Fang X, Wei Z, York J, Zhang P. Loss of spindle assembly checkpoint-mediated inhibition of Cdc20 promotes tumorigenesis in mice. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:983-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Cdc20(+/AAA) mice developed spontaneous tumors at highly accelerated rates, indicating that the SAC-mediated inhibition of Cdc20 is an important tumor-suppressing mechanism. ..
  13. Sanders S, Portoso M, Mata J, Bahler J, Allshire R, Kouzarides T. Methylation of histone H4 lysine 20 controls recruitment of Crb2 to sites of DNA damage. Cell. 2004;119:603-14 pubmed
    ..These results argue that H4-K20 methylation functions as a "histone mark" required for the recruitment of the checkpoint protein Crb2. ..
  14. Meraldi P, Draviam V, Sorger P. Timing and checkpoints in the regulation of mitotic progression. Dev Cell. 2004;7:45-60 pubmed
    ..We propose that cytosolic Mad2-BubR1 is essential to restrain anaphase onset early in mitosis when kinetochores are still assembling. ..
  15. Hopkins K, Auerbach W, Wang X, Hande M, Hang H, Wolgemuth D, et al. Deletion of mouse rad9 causes abnormal cellular responses to DNA damage, genomic instability, and embryonic lethality. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7235-48 pubmed
    ..These investigations establish Mrad9 as a key mammalian genetic element of pathways that regulate the cellular response to DNA damage, maintenance of genomic integrity, and proper embryonic development. ..
  16. Lisby M, Barlow J, Burgess R, Rothstein R. Choreography of the DNA damage response: spatiotemporal relationships among checkpoint and repair proteins. Cell. 2004;118:699-713 pubmed
  17. de Lichtenberg U, Jensen L, Fausbøll A, Jensen T, Bork P, Brunak S. Comparison of computational methods for the identification of cell cycle-regulated genes. Bioinformatics. 2005;21:1164-71 pubmed
    ..We present a simple permutation-based method that performs better than most existing methods. ..
  18. Zimmerman S, Daga R, Chang F. Intra-nuclear microtubules and a mitotic spindle orientation checkpoint. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1245-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that these microtubules are actually inside the nuclear envelope. ..
  19. Lampson M, Kapoor T. The human mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1 regulates chromosome-spindle attachments. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:93-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that BubR1 links regulation of chromosome-spindle attachment to mitotic checkpoint signalling. ..
  20. Bartek J, Lukas C, Lukas J. Checking on DNA damage in S phase. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:792-804 pubmed
  21. Kalogeropoulos N, Christoforou C, Green A, Gill S, Ashcroft N. chk-1 is an essential gene and is required for an S-M checkpoint during early embryogenesis. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:1196-200 pubmed
    ..More specifically, disruption of chk-1 expression resulted in embryo lethality, which was attributed to a defect in an intrinsic S-M checkpoint hence causing premature entry into M-phase. ..
  22. Privette L, Weier J, Nguyen H, Yu X, Petty E. Loss of CHFR in human mammary epithelial cells causes genomic instability by disrupting the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint. Neoplasia. 2008;10:643-52 pubmed
    ..Importantly, our results suggest a novel role for CHFR regulating chromosome segregation where decreased expression, as seen in cancer cells, contributes to genomic instability by impairing the spindle assembly checkpoint. ..
  23. Gensert J, Baranova O, Weinstein D, Ratan R. CD81, a cell cycle regulator, is a novel target for histone deacetylase inhibition in glioma cells. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;26:671-80 pubmed
    ..Induction of CD81 expression through HDAC inhibition is a novel strategy to promote growth arrest in glioma cells. ..
  24. Yan Y, Akhter S, Zhang X, Legerski R. The multifunctional SNM1 gene family: not just nucleases. Future Oncol. 2010;6:1015-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article we discuss the various functions of SNM1A, SNM1B/Apollo and Artemis. ..
  25. Weinert T. Do telomeres ask checkpoint proteins: "gimme shelter-in"?. Dev Cell. 2005;9:725-6 pubmed
    ..Clearly, normal telomeres neither activate cell cycle arrest nor allow themselves to be repaired; arrest blocks cell division, and repair fuses chromosomes. ..
  26. Watrin E, Peters J. The cohesin complex is required for the DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint in mammalian cells. EMBO J. 2009;28:2625-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that accumulation of cohesin at DNA break sites is not only needed to mediate DNA repair, but also facilitates the recruitment of checkpoint proteins, which activate the intra-S and G2/M checkpoints. ..
  27. Arlt D, Huber W, Liebel U, Schmidt C, Majety M, Sauermann M, et al. Functional profiling: from microarrays via cell-based assays to novel tumor relevant modulators of the cell cycle. Cancer Res. 2005;65:7733-42 pubmed
    ..We have established a novel functional profiling strategy that links genomics to cell biology and showed its potential for discerning cancer relevant modulators of the cell cycle in the candidate lists from microarray studies. ..
  28. Tazuke Y, Wildhaber B, Yang H, Washburn J, Teitelbaum D. Total parenteral nutrition leads to alteration of hepatocyte cell cycle gene expression and proliferation in the mouse. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:920-30 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates significant alterations in cell cycle gene expression with TPN. The findings correlate with a loss of hepatocyte proliferation and may give insight into the potential mechanism of TPN-induced hepatocyte injury. ..
  29. Hannah J, Zhou P. Regulation of DNA damage response pathways by the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases. DNA Repair (Amst). 2009;8:536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss recent progress in delineating the roles of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases in orchestrating the cellular DNA damage response through ubiquitination of NER factors, histones, and checkpoint effectors. ..
  30. Weaver B, Cleveland D. Decoding the links between mitosis, cancer, and chemotherapy: The mitotic checkpoint, adaptation, and cell death. Cancer Cell. 2005;8:7-12 pubmed
    ..These lead to chronic mitotic arrest from sustained activation of the mitotic checkpoint. Here, we review the linkage between the mitotic checkpoint, aneuploidy, adaptation from mitotic arrest, and antimitotic drug-induced cell death. ..
  31. Soto Martínez J, Cabrera Morales C, Serrano Ortega S, Lopez Nevot M. Mutation and homozygous deletion analyses of genes that control the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in skin melanoma: p53, p21, p16 and p15. Clin Transl Oncol. 2005;7:156-64 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that these genes are involved in melanoma tumorigenesis; but perhaps not in the major targets. Other suppressor genes that may be informative of the mechanism of tumorigenesis in skin melanomas need to be studied. ..
  32. Healy J, Bourgey M, Richer C, Sinnett D, Roy Gagnon M. Detection of fetomaternal genotype associations in early-onset disorders: evaluation of different methods and their application to childhood leukemia. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:369534 pubmed publisher
    ..017) and CDKN2B rs36229158 (P = .022) that modulate the risk of childhood ALL. These data further corroborate the importance of the mother's genotype on the susceptibility to early-onset diseases. ..
  33. Elowe S, Dulla K, Uldschmid A, Li X, Dou Z, Nigg E. Uncoupling of the spindle-checkpoint and chromosome-congression functions of BubR1. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:84-94 pubmed publisher
  34. Marchetti M, Weinberger M, Murakami Y, Burhans W, Huberman J. Production of reactive oxygen species in response to replication stress and inappropriate mitosis in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:124-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, studies in fission yeast are likely to prove helpful in understanding the pathways that lead from replication stress and inappropriate mitosis to cell death in mammalian cells. ..
  35. Machida Y, Hamlin J, Dutta A. Right place, right time, and only once: replication initiation in metazoans. Cell. 2005;123:13-24 pubmed
    ..Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding how replication is initiated in metazoans at the correct chromosome positions, at the appropriate time, and only once per cell cycle. ..
  36. Alfieri R, Merelli I, Mosca E, Milanesi L. The cell cycle DB: a systems biology approach to cell cycle analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D641-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of our resource is to give an exhaustive view of the cell cycle process starting from its building-blocks, genes and proteins, toward the pathway they create, represented by the models. ..
  37. Jacob N, Lescasse R, Linger B, Price C. Tetrahymena POT1a regulates telomere length and prevents activation of a cell cycle checkpoint. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1592-601 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the essential function of POT1a is to prevent a catastrophic DNA damage response. This response may be activated when nontelomeric ssDNA-binding proteins bind and protect the G overhang...
  38. Wysong D, Chakravarty A, Hoar K, Ecsedy J. The inhibition of Aurora A abrogates the mitotic delay induced by microtubule perturbing agents. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:876-88 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Aurora A is necessary for the maintenance of the mitotic delay induced in response to microtubule-perturbing agents. ..
  39. Kudo N, Wassmann K, Anger M, Schuh M, Wirth K, Xu H, et al. Resolution of chiasmata in oocytes requires separase-mediated proteolysis. Cell. 2006;126:135-46 pubmed
    ..Both types of mRNA restore PBE. Proteolytic activity of separase is therefore essential for Rec8's removal from chromosome arms and for chiasma resolution but not for PBE. ..
  40. Jiang R, Xu W, Zhu W, Chen M, Qian H, Qiao C, et al. Histological type of oncogenity and expression of cell cycle genes in tumor cells from human mesenchymal stem cells. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1021-8 pubmed
  41. Wurmbach E, Chen Y, Khitrov G, Zhang W, Roayaie S, Schwartz M, et al. Genome-wide molecular profiles of HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2007;45:938-47 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a comprehensive molecular portrait of genomic changes in progressive HCV-related HCC. ..
  42. Tuttle R, Bothos J, Summers M, Luca F, Halazonetis T. Defective in mitotic arrest 1/ring finger 8 is a checkpoint protein that antagonizes the human mitotic exit network. Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5:1304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of MAD2, a spindle checkpoint protein, also compromised mitotic arrest, but in a MEN-independent manner. Thus, two distinct checkpoint pathways maintain mitotic arrest in cells exposed to microtubule poisons. ..
  43. Druart N, Johansson A, Baba K, Schrader J, Sjodin A, Bhalerao R, et al. Environmental and hormonal regulation of the activity-dormancy cycle in the cambial meristem involves stage-specific modulation of transcriptional and metabolic networks. Plant J. 2007;50:557-73 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data reveal the dynamics of transcriptional and metabolic networks and identify potential targets of environmental and hormonal signals in the regulation of the activity-dormancy cycle in cambial meristem. ..
  44. Gu J, Li G, Sun T, Su Y, Zhang X, Shen J, et al. Blockage of the STAT3 signaling pathway with a decoy oligonucleotide suppresses growth of human malignant glioma cells. J Neurooncol. 2008;89:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeted blockade of the STAT3 signaling pathway with a decoy ODN is a potential anti-glioma therapeutic approach. ..
  45. Landi M, Dracheva T, Rotunno M, Figueroa J, Liu H, Dasgupta A, et al. Gene expression signature of cigarette smoking and its role in lung adenocarcinoma development and survival. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1651 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are candidate targets for chemoprevention and treatment of lung cancer in smokers. ..
  46. Samejima K, Ogawa H, Cooke C, Hudson D, Hudson D, MacIsaac F, et al. A promoter-hijack strategy for conditional shutdown of multiply spliced essential cell cycle genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We used chicken DT40 cells, but the same strategy should be applicable to ES cells and, eventually, to mice. ..
  47. Yen T, Kao G. Mitotic checkpoint, aneuploidy and cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2005;570:477-99 pubmed publisher
  48. Hernandez Vargas H, Palacios J, Moreno Bueno G. Telling cells how to die: docetaxel therapy in cancer cell lines. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:780-3 pubmed
    ..Recently, we described two different forms of mitotic exit in breast cancer cell lines exposed to docetaxel. The causes and consequences of the dual mechanism of cytotoxicity of this agent are discussed here. ..
  49. Trojanowicz B, Brodauf L, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Finke R, Dralle H, et al. The role of AUF1 in thyroid carcinoma progression. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:857-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AUF1 may be considered as a new, additional marker for thyroid carcinoma. ..
  50. Castro A, Lorca T. Exploring meiotic division in Cargèse. Meeting on meiotic divisions and checkpoints. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:821-5 pubmed
  51. Wu X, Shell S, Zou Y. Interaction and colocalization of Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 checkpoint complex with replication protein A in human cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:4728-35 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that 9-1-1 and RPA complexes collaboratively function in DNA damage responses, and that the RPA may serve as a regulator for the activity of 9-1-1 complex in the cellular checkpoint network. ..
  52. Ray R, Raychoudhuri A, Steele R, Nerurkar P. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results show that BME modulates signal transduction pathways for inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and can be used as a dietary supplement for prevention of breast cancer. ..
  53. Pal G, Paraz M, Kellogg D. Regulation of Mih1/Cdc25 by protein phosphatase 2A and casein kinase 1. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:931-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Because casein kinase 1 is associated with sites of polar growth, it may regulate Mih1 as part of a signaling mechanism that links successful completion of growth-related events to cell cycle progression. ..