Summary: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
- McMullen J, Peterson B, Forst S, Blair H, Stock S. Fitness costs of symbiont switching using entomopathogenic nematodes as a model. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:100 pubmed publisher..Entomopathogenic nematodes and their bacterial symbionts are a useful, tractable, and reliable model for testing hypotheses regarding the evolution, maintenance, persistence, and fate of mutualisms. ..
- EhrlÃ©n J, Raabová J, Dahlgren J. Flowering schedule in a perennial plant; life-history trade-offs, seed predation, and total offspring fitness. Ecology. 2015;96:2280-8 pubmed..At the same time they illustrate that phenotypic selection analyses that fail to account for differences in offspring fitness might be misleading. ..
- Flynn J, Phan C, Hunter R. Genome-Wide Survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 Reveals a Role for the Glyoxylate Pathway and Extracellular Proteases in the Utilization of Mucin. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher..Together, these studies describe a molecular basis for mucin-based nutrient acquisition by P. aeruginosa and reveal a host-pathogen dynamic that may contribute to its persistence within the CF airways. ..
- Abbot P, Abe J, Alcock J, Alizon S, Alpedrinha J, Andersson M, et al. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature. 2011;471:E1-4; author reply E9-10 pubmed publisher..However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues. ..
- Beaghton A, Hammond A, Nolan T, Crisanti A, Godfray H, Burt A. Requirements for Driving Antipathogen Effector Genes into Populations of Disease Vectors by Homing. Genetics. 2017;205:1587-1596 pubmed publisher..Depending upon parameter values, this approach can prolong the duration of protection. Our models highlight the key design criteria needed to achieve a desired level of public health benefit. ..
- Xu G, Yuan M, Ai C, Liu L, Zhuang E, Karapetyan S, et al. uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance without fitness costs. Nature. 2017;545:491-494 pubmed publisher..This broadly applicable strategy may lead to decreased pesticide use and reduce the selective pressure for resistant pathogens. ..
- Hwang S, Park S, Krug J. Genotypic Complexity of Fisher's Geometric Model. Genetics. 2017;206:1049-1079 pubmed publisher..Our results further inform the interpretation of experiments where the parameters of Fisher's model have been inferred from data, and help to elucidate which features of empirical fitness landscapes can be described by this model. ..
- Nakaminami H, Chen C, Truong Bolduc Q, Kim E, Wang Y, Hooper D. Efflux Transporter of Siderophore Staphyloferrin A in Staphylococcus aureus Contributes to Bacterial Fitness in Abscesses and Epithelial Cells. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher..aureus to replicate in abscesses and epithelial cells. Furthermore, fitness of S. aureus in these sites of replication is not compromised by the absence of transporter SbnD. ..
- Gazal S, Finucane H, Furlotte N, Loh P, Palamara P, Liu X, et al. Linkage disequilibrium-dependent architecture of human complex traits shows action of negative selection. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1421-1427 pubmed publisher..We also inferred jointly significant effects of other LD-related annotations and confirmed via forward simulations that they jointly predict deleterious effects. ..
- Galani I, Triantafyllia V, Eleminiadou E, Koltsida O, Stavropoulos A, Manioudaki M, et al. Interferon-? Mediates Non-redundant Front-Line Antiviral Protection against Influenza Virus Infection without Compromising Host Fitness. Immunity. 2017;46:875-890.e6 pubmed publisher..IFN?s therefore constitute the front line of antiviral defense in the lung without compromising host fitness. ..
- Adamczyk Chauvat K, Delaunay S, Vannier A, François C, Thomas G, Eber F, et al. Gene Introgression in Weeds Depends on Initial Gene Location in the Crop: Brassica napus-Raphanus raphanistrum Model. Genetics. 2017;206:1361-1372 pubmed publisher..Our results pinpoint that novel technologies enabling the targeted insertion of transgenes should select genomic regions that are less likely to be introgressed into the weed genome, thereby reducing gene flow. ..
- Le Gac M, Cooper T, Cruveiller S, Medigue C, Schneider D. Evolutionary history and genetic parallelism affect correlated responses to evolution. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:3292-3303 pubmed
- Pausas J, Keeley J. Evolutionary ecology of resprouting and seeding in fire-prone ecosystems. New Phytol. 2014;204:55-65 pubmed..It accounts for patterns of coexistence and environmental changes that contribute to the evolution of seeding from resprouting ancestors. ..
- Shrestha D, McAuslane H, Adkins S, Smith H, Dufault N, Colee J, et al. Host-Mediated Effects of Semipersistently Transmitted Squash Vein Yellowing Virus on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior and Fitness. J Econ Entomol. 2017;110:1433-1441 pubmed publisher..The host-mediated effects of SqVYV infection on whitefly behavior differ on two cucurbit host plants, suggesting the potential for more rapid spread of the virus within watermelon fields...
- Gymrek M, Willems T, Reich D, Erlich Y. Interpreting short tandem repeat variations in humans using mutational constraint. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1495-1501 pubmed publisher..Constraint scores identified known pathogenic variants with early-onset effects. Our metric will provide a valuable tool for prioritizing pathogenic STRs in medical genetics studies. ..
- Takemura A, Corzett C, Hussain F, Arevalo P, Datta M, Yu X, et al. Natural resource landscapes of a marine bacterium reveal distinct fitness-determining genes across the genome. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19:2422-2433 pubmed publisher..The results further indicate that substrate replete conditions may lead to relatively relaxed selection on catabolic genes. ..
- Tseng M. The Effect of Parasitism and Interpopulation Hybridization on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Fitness. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:1236-1242 pubmed publisher..Although this was a laboratory experiment extending only to the F2 generation, many other invasive insects also carry coevolved parasites, and thus the patterns seen in this mosquito system may be broadly relevant. ..
- Stockton D, Pescitelli L, Ebert T, Martini X, Stelinski L. Induced Preference Improves Offspring Fitness in a Phytopathogen Vector. Environ Entomol. 2017;46:1090-1097 pubmed publisher..citri reproductive strategies, allowing females to discriminate among potential host species in favor of those to which her offspring are best adapted...
- Krasovec R, Richards H, Gifford D, Hatcher C, Faulkner K, Belavkin R, et al. Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002731 pubmed publisher..Such a prevalent environmental association and conserved mechanism suggest that mutation has varied plastically with population density since the early origins of life. ..
- Matlak D, Szczurek E. Epistasis in genomic and survival data of cancer patients. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005626 pubmed publisher..With the ability to detect not only pairwise but twelve different types of triple epistasis, applicability of SurvLRT goes beyond cancer therapy, to the level of characterization of shapes of fitness landscapes. ..
- Armbruster C, Forsyth DeOrnellas V, Johnson A, Smith S, Zhao L, Wu W, et al. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of Proteus mirabilis: Essential genes, fitness factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and the impact of polymicrobial infection on fitness requirements. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006434 pubmed publisher..mirabilis CAUTI incidence and severity. ..
- Schaeffer R. Yeasts in nectar enhance male fitness in a montane perennial herb. Ecology. 2014;95:1792-8 pubmed..reukaufii. Our results provide evidence of effects of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on male plant fitness and highlight the importance of microorganisms in mediating plant-pollinator interactions and subsequent plant fitness...
- Le Breton Y, Belew A, Freiberg J, Sundar G, Islam E, Lieberman J, et al. Genome-wide discovery of novel M1T1 group A streptococcal determinants important for fitness and virulence during soft-tissue infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006584 pubmed publisher..We hypothesize that scfAB play an integral role in enhancing adaptation and fitness of GAS during localized skin infection, and potentially in propagation to other deeper host environments...
- Mostafavi H, Berisa T, Day F, Perry J, Przeworski M, Pickrell J. Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002458 pubmed publisher..Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans. ..
- Haerty W, Ponting C. Mutations within lncRNAs are effectively selected against in fruitfly but not in human. Genome Biol. 2013;14:R49 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that while the sequences of lncRNAs will be well conserved across insect species, such loci in mammals will accumulate greater proportions of deleterious changes through genetic drift. ..
- Pigeon G, Festa Bianchet M, Pelletier F. Long-term fitness consequences of early environment in a long-lived ungulate. Proc Biol Sci. 2017;284: pubmed publisher..Early-life conditions can induce long-term changes in fitness components, and their effects on cohort fitness vary according to adult environment. ..
- Dobrovolny H, Beauchemin C. Modelling the emergence of influenza drug resistance: The roles of surface proteins, the immune response and antiviral mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180582 pubmed publisher..These findings improve our understanding of the factors that contribute to the emergence of drug resistance during the course of a single influenza infection. ..
- Weber J, Gibson R, Sácká L, Strunin D, Hodek J, Weberova J, et al. Impaired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replicative fitness in atypical viremic non-progressor individuals. AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:15 pubmed publisher..e., high CD4+ cell counts with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA load), reduced viral replicative fitness seems to be linked to slow disease progression in these antiretroviral-naïve individuals. ..
- Francuski L, Djurakic M, Ludoski J, Hurtado P, Pérez Bañón C, Ståhls G, et al. Shift in phenotypic variation coupled with rapid loss of genetic diversity in captive populations of Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae): consequences for rearing and potential commercial use. J Econ Entomol. 2014;107:821-32 pubmed..Hence, our results have implications for captive bred Eristalis flies, which have been used in crop pollination and biodegradation of organic waste under synanthropic conditions. ..
- Kim B, Huber C, Lohmueller K. Inference of the Distribution of Selection Coefficients for New Nonsynonymous Mutations Using Large Samples. Genetics. 2017;206:345-361 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that nearly neutral forces play a larger role in human evolution than previously thought. ..
- Sagawa S, Price M, Deutschbauer A, Arkin A. Validating regulatory predictions from diverse bacteria with mutant fitness data. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178258 pubmed publisher..Thus, high-throughput genetics can be used to identify a high-confidence subset of the sequence-based regulatory predictions. ..
- Russell C, Richards A, Chang A, Mulvey M. The Rhomboid Protease GlpG Promotes the Persistence of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli within the Gut. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher..This work reveals a novel biological role for a rhomboid protease and highlights new avenues for defining mechanisms by which ExPEC strains colonize the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. ..
- Lioy V, Goussard S, Guerineau V, Yoon E, Courvalin P, Galimand M, et al. Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host. RNA. 2014;20:382-91 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness. ..
- Kolenda K, Najbar A, Ogielska M, Balá V. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is present in Poland and associated with reduced fitness in wild populations of Pelophylax lessonae. Dis Aquat Organ. 2017;124:241-245 pubmed publisher..These data highlight the importance of emerging diseases, and the need to recognize them as an important factor in conservation of the genus Pelophylax in Poland and Central and Eastern Europe. ..
- Eisler M, Lee M, Tarlton J, Martin G, Beddington J, Dungait J, et al. Agriculture: Steps to sustainable livestock. Nature. 2014;507:32-4 pubmed
- Jeler C. Is there such a thing as "group selection" in the, contextual analysis framework?. Hist Philos Life Sci. 2015;36:484-502 pubmed
- Li X, Wan Y, Yuan G, Hussain S, Xu B, Xie W, et al. Fitness Trade-Off Associated With Spinosad Resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). J Econ Entomol. 2017;110:1755-1763 pubmed publisher..occidentalis, and that the development of resistance in this pest species may be reduced by rotating spinosad with other pesticides lacking cross-resistance. ..
- Willoughby J, Ivy J, Lacy R, Doyle J, DeWoody J. Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175996 pubmed publisher..Therefore, minimizing inbreeding and selection in captive populations is critical to increasing the probability of releasing fit individuals into the wild. ..
- Echave J, Wilke C. Biophysical Models of Protein Evolution: Understanding the Patterns of Evolutionary Sequence Divergence. Annu Rev Biophys. 2017;46:85-103 pubmed publisher..We also propose future research directions to develop this nascent field. ..
- Abil Z, Ellefson J, Gollihar J, Watkins E, Ellington A. Compartmentalized partnered replication for the directed evolution of genetic parts and circuits. Nat Protoc. 2017;12:2493-2512 pubmed publisher..A single round of CPR should take ?3-5 d, whereas a whole directed evolution can be performed in 3-10 rounds, depending on selection efficiency...
- Muller D, Giron D, Desouhant E, Rey B, Casas J, Lefrique N, et al. Maternal age affects offspring nutrient dynamics. J Insect Physiol. 2017;101:123-131 pubmed publisher..Maternal effects on egg nutrient provisioning may thus affect nutrient availability and fitness of future generations in oviparous animals. ..
- Hu J, Lei L, de Meaux J. Temporal fitness fluctuations in experimental Arabidopsis thaliana populations. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178990 pubmed publisher..Experiments aiming at dissecting the molecular basis of local adaptation must apprehend the complexity introduced by temporal fluctuations because they massively affect the expression of phenotype and fitness differences. ..
- Varano G, Raffel S, Sormani M, Zanardi F, Lonardi S, Zasada C, et al. The B-cell receptor controls fitness of MYC-driven lymphoma cells via GSK3? inhibition. Nature. 2017;546:302-306 pubmed publisher..Thus, while BCR expression enhances lymphoma cell fitness, BCR-targeted therapies may profit from combinations with drugs targeting BCR- tumour cells. ..
- ShuQi H, Ying L, Lei Q, Zhihua L, Chao X, Lu Y, et al. The Influence of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Fitness Traits of Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Environ Entomol. 2017;46:722-728 pubmed publisher..Results suggest that the population fitness of invasive thrips species might be enhanced with increase in CO2 concentration, and accordingly change the local thrips population composition with their invasion. ..
- Nozoe T, Kussell E, Wakamoto Y. Inferring fitness landscapes and selection on phenotypic states from single-cell genealogical data. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006653 pubmed publisher..The method is applicable in diverse fields, from single cell biology to stem cell differentiation and viral evolution. ..