gamma chain t cell antigen receptor gene rearrangement


Summary: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.

Top Publications

  1. Xiong N, Raulet D. Development and selection of gammadelta T cells. Immunol Rev. 2007;215:15-31 pubmed
    ..This research suggests a coordination of molecularly programmed events and cellular selection, which enables specialization of the thymus for production of distinct T-cell subsets at different stages of development. ..
  2. Grigoriadou K, Boucontet L, Pereira P. T cell receptor-gamma allele-specific selection of V gamma 1/V delta 4 cells in the intestinal epithelium. J Immunol. 2002;169:3736-43 pubmed
  3. Shin S, El Diwany R, Schaffert S, Adams E, Garcia K, Pereira P, et al. Antigen recognition determinants of gammadelta T cell receptors. Science. 2005;308:252-5 pubmed
    ..These results show how an antigen-specific gammadelta TCR repertoire can be generated at a high frequency and suggest that gammadelta T cells recognize a limited number of antigens. ..
  4. Maki K, Sunaga S, Ikuta K. The V-J recombination of T cell receptor-gamma genes is blocked in interleukin-7 receptor-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;184:2423-7 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrated that the V-J recombination of the TCR gamma genes is specifically blocked in the IL-7R-deficient mice and suggested the presence of highly specific regulation for TCR gamma gene rearrangement. ..
  5. Grigoriadou K, Boucontet L, Pereira P. Most IL-4-producing gamma delta thymocytes of adult mice originate from fetal precursors. J Immunol. 2003;171:2413-20 pubmed
  6. Dieli F, Ivanyi J, Marsh P, Williams A, Naylor I, Sireci G, et al. Characterization of lung gamma delta T cells following intranasal infection with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin. J Immunol. 2003;170:463-9 pubmed
  7. Xiong N, Baker J, Kang C, Raulet D. The genomic arrangement of T cell receptor variable genes is a determinant of the developmental rearrangement pattern. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:260-5 pubmed
    ..The results support a model in which the 3' location is the key determinant of rearrangement in the fetus, after which there is a promoter-dependent inactivation of Vgamma3 rearrangement in favor of Vgamma2 rearrangement. ..
  8. Newton D, Andrew E, Dalton J, Mears R, Carding S. Identification of novel gammadelta T-cell subsets following bacterial infection in the absence of Vgamma1+ T cells: homeostatic control of gammadelta T-cell responses to pathogen infection by Vgamma1+ T cells. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1097-105 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings identify novel subsets of gammadelta T cells, the recruitment and activity of which is under the control of Vgamma1+ T cells. ..
  9. Agata Y, Katakai T, Ye S, Sugai M, Gonda H, Honjo T, et al. Histone acetylation determines the developmentally regulated accessibility for T cell receptor gamma gene recombination. J Exp Med. 2001;193:873-80 pubmed

More Information


  1. Aono A, Enomoto H, Yoshida N, Yoshizaki K, Kishimoto T, Komori T. Forced expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in fetal thymus resulted in a decrease in gammadelta T cells and random dissemination of Vgamma3Vdelta1 T cells in skin of newborn but not adult mice. Immunology. 2000;99:489-97 pubmed
  2. Durum S, Candeias S, Nakajima H, Leonard W, Baird A, Berg L, et al. Interleukin 7 receptor control of T cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement: role of receptor-associated chains and locus accessibility. J Exp Med. 1998;188:2233-41 pubmed
    ..This data supports the model that IL-7R promotes TCR-gamma gene rearrangement by regulating accessibility of the locus via demethylation and histone acetylation of the locus. ..
  3. Malissen M, Pereira P, Gerber D, Malissen B, DiSanto J. The common cytokine receptor gamma chain controls survival of gamma/delta T cells. J Exp Med. 1997;186:1277-85 pubmed
  4. Perumal N, Kenniston T, Tweardy D, Dyer K, Hoffman R, Peschon J, et al. TCR-gamma genes are rearranged but not transcribed in IL-7R alpha-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1997;158:5744-50 pubmed
  5. Heyborne K, Fu Y, Kalataradi H, Reardon C, Roark C, Eyster C, et al. Evidence that murine V gamma 5 and V gamma 6 gamma delta-TCR+ lymphocytes are derived from a common distinct lineage. J Immunol. 1993;151:4523-7 pubmed
  6. Itohara S, Mombaerts P, Lafaille J, Iacomini J, Nelson A, Clarke A, et al. T cell receptor delta gene mutant mice: independent generation of alpha beta T cells and programmed rearrangements of gamma delta TCR genes. Cell. 1993;72:337-48 pubmed
  7. Baker J, Kang J, Xiong N, Chen T, Cado D, Raulet D. A novel element upstream of the Vgamma2 gene in the murine T cell receptor gamma locus cooperates with the 3' enhancer to act as a locus control region. J Exp Med. 1999;190:669-79 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that HsA provides chromatin-opening activity and, together with 3'E(Cgamma1), constitutes a T cell-specific locus control region for the TCR-gamma locus. ..
  8. Asarnow D, Kuziel W, Bonyhadi M, Tigelaar R, Tucker P, Allison J. Limited diversity of gamma delta antigen receptor genes of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell. 1988;55:837-47 pubmed
  9. Candeias S, Peschon J, Muegge K, Durum S. Defective T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement in interleukin-7 receptor knockout mice. Immunol Lett. 1997;57:9-14 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that one or both of the two known ligands of IL-7R, IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) serves as an extrinsic signal to specifically rearrange the TCR gamma locus. ..
  10. Zhao H, Nguyen H, Kang J. Interleukin 15 controls the generation of the restricted T cell receptor repertoire of gamma delta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1263-71 pubmed
    ..This cytokine-directed tissue-specific TCR repertoire formation probably reflects distinct TCR repertoire selection criteria for gammadelta and alphabeta T cell lineages adopted for different antigen-recognition strategies. ..
  11. Verkarre V, Asnafi V, Lecomte T, Patey Mariaud de Serre N, Leborgne M, Grosdidier E, et al. Refractory coeliac sprue is a diffuse gastrointestinal disease. Gut. 2003;52:205-11 pubmed
  12. Buresi C, Ghanem N, Huck S, Lefranc G, Lefranc M. Exon duplication and triplication in the human T-cell receptor gamma constant region genes and RFLP in French, Lebanese, Tunisian, and black African populations. Immunogenetics. 1989;29:161-72 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we analyze the TCRG haplotypes in four different populations (French, Lebanese, Tunisian, and Black African) to underline their interest for population genetics. ..
  13. Gerber D, Boucontet L, Pereira P. Early expression of a functional TCRbeta chain inhibits TCRgamma gene rearrangements without altering the frequency of TCRgammadelta lineage cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:2516-23 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a remarkable degree of independence in the generation of alphabeta and gammadelta lineage cells from progenitor cells that, in theory, could simultaneously express a TCRgammadelta and a pre-TCR. ..
  14. Zhao P, Ji X, Zhang H, Jiang T, Sun X. [Gene rearrangement and p53 expression in defining the nature of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2001;30:85-8 pubmed
    ..Gene rearrangement can define the pathological nature of AIL. The expression of p53 is highly related to gene rearrangement, and thus an important immunological marker in research on AIL. ..
  15. Ardouin L, Ismaili J, Malissen B, Malissen M. The CD3-gammadeltaepsilon and CD3-zeta/eta modules are each essential for allelic exclusion at the T cell receptor beta locus but are both dispensable for the initiation of V to (D)J recombination at the T cell receptor-beta, -gamma, and -delta loci. J Exp Med. 1998;187:105-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, the CD3 components are differentially involved in the sequential events that make the TCR-beta locus first accessible to, and later insulated from, the action of the V(D)J recombinase. ..
  16. Ueda Hayakawa I, Mahlios J, Zhuang Y. Id3 restricts the developmental potential of gamma delta lineage during thymopoiesis. J Immunol. 2009;182:5306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicates that Id3 suppresses Vgamma1.1 rearrangement and gammadelta lineage potential among T cell progenitors that have completed TCRbeta gene rearrangement without producing a functional TCRbeta protein. ..
  17. Kang J, Coles M, Raulet D. Defective development of gamma/delta T cells in interleukin 7 receptor-deficient mice is due to impaired expression of T cell receptor gamma genes. J Exp Med. 1999;190:973-82 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the absence of gamma/delta T cells in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) mice is due to insufficient TCR-gamma gene expression. ..
  18. Fujisaki H, Hara J, Takai K, Nakanishi K, Matsuda Y, Ohta H, et al. Lineage switch in childhood leukemia with monosomy 7 and reverse of lineage switch in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Exp Hematol. 1999;27:826-33 pubmed
  19. Iraji F, Asilian A, Siadat A, Rajabi P, Arbabi A. Unilateral mycosis fungoides. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that MF can be localized and unilateral. Thus, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis of this potentially lethal disease. ..
  20. Hassan R, Franco S, Stefanoff C, Romano S, Diamond H, Franco L, et al. Hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma following seven malaria infections. Pathol Int. 2006;56:668-73 pubmed
    ..Initial lymphomagenic stages might not be direct consequences of antigenic stimulation of Vdelta1 T-cells, but might depend on interactions between gammadelta T and B cells during cooperative or regulatory responses to Plasmodium sp. ..
  21. Christensen M, Funder A, Bendix K, Soerensen F. Comparative investigations of T cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissues by capillary electrophoresis. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:645-54 pubmed
    ..It is important, however, to correlate the results with conventional morphological and immunohistochemical studies. ..
  22. Scrideli C, Kashima S, Cipolloti R, Defavery R, Tone L. Clonal evolution as the limiting factor in the detection of minimal residual disease by polymerase chain reaction in children in Brazil with acute lymphoid leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;24:364-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that clonal evolution for TCRgamma gene rearrangements was not a rare event among children in Brazil and, when present, interfered with the detection of minimal residual disease. ..
  23. Shah Z, Harris S, Smith J, Hodges E. Monoclonality and oligoclonality of T cell receptor beta gene in angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study emphasise that TCR clonality and oligoclonality is a diagnostic feature of AILT and that BV17S1 is over-represented with no other common molecular findings. ..
  24. Eynon E, Livak F, Kuida K, Schatz D, Flavell R. Distinct effects of Jak3 signaling on alphabeta and gammadelta thymocyte development. J Immunol. 1999;162:1448-59 pubmed
    ..The results also emphasize the fundamentally different requirements for differentiation of the alphabeta and gammadelta T cell lineages. ..
  25. Ormsby A, Bergfeld W, Tubbs R, Hsi E. Evaluation of a new paraffin-reactive CD7 T-cell deletion marker and a polymerase chain reaction-based T-cell receptor gene rearrangement assay: implications for diagnosis of mycosis fungoides in community clinical practice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:405-13 pubmed
    ..In the diagnosis of MF, detection of CD7 deletion and monoclonal TCR rearrangements can be successfully performed in a cost-effective, timely fashion using routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. ..
  26. Yagihara H, Uematsu Y, Koike A, Tamura K, Isotani M, Yamaguchi T, et al. Immunophenotyping and gene rearrangement analysis in dogs with lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by small-cell lymphocytosis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:197-202 pubmed
  27. Stefanoff C, Hassan R, Gonzalez A, Andrade L, Tabak D, Romano S, et al. Laboratory strategies for efficient handling of paraffin-embedded tissues for molecular detection of clonality in non-hodgkin lymphomas. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2003;12:79-87 pubmed
  28. Ergas D, Tsimanis A, Shtalrid M, Duskin C, Berrebi A. T-gamma large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura, Sjögren's syndrome, and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II, with subsequent development of pure red cell aplasia. Am J Hematol. 2002;69:132-4 pubmed
    ..PCR analysis confirmed rearrangement for TCR gamma. This case emphasizes the complex association of LGL leukemia with autoimmune disorders. ..
  29. Ishikawa C, Ab Saber A, Parra E, Lin C, Barbas C, Capelozzi V. [Immunophenotyping and gene rearrangement analysis in lymphoid/lymphoproliferative disorders of the lungs]. J Bras Pneumol. 2007;33:625-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, immunophenotyping and polymerase chain reaction should be used as 'gold standard' techniques in routine practice. ..
  30. Gessain A, Moulonguet I, Flageul B, Perrin P, Capesius C, D Agay M, et al. Cutaneous type of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma in a French West Indian woman. Clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor beta and gamma genes and monoclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in the skin infiltrate. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:994-1000 pubmed
    ..This illustrates the need for such molecular studies to differentiate, in HTLV-I seropositive patients from endemic areas, a HTLV-I-induced T cell lymphoma from HTLV-I-nonrelated cutaneous T cell lymphomas. ..
  31. Miazek A, Macha K, Łaszkiewicz A, Kissenpfennig A, Malissen B, Kisielow P. Peripheral Thy1+ lymphocytes rearranging TCR-gammadelta genes in LAT-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2596-605 pubmed publisher
  32. Regauer S, Beham Schmid C. Detailed analysis of the T-cell lymphocytic infiltrate in penile lichen sclerosus: an immunohistochemical and molecular investigation. Histopathology. 2006;48:730-5 pubmed
    ..The target antigen of the clonal outgrowth is unknown, but an exaggerated antigen-dependent proliferation of T cells due to chronic local antigen exposure, probably an infectious antigen, is the most likely explanation. ..
  33. Aoyama Y, Yamane T, Hino M, Ota K, Hasegawa T, Sakamoto C, et al. Nodal gamma/delta T cell lymphoma in complete remission following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor. Acta Haematol. 2001;105:49-52 pubmed
    ..Our patient's tumor responded to combination chemotherapy and subsequent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor. He has remained well and free of disease for 35 months. ..
  34. Tzankov A, Bourgau C, Kaiser A, Zimpfer A, Maurer R, Pileri S, et al. Rare expression of T-cell markers in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1542-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, T-cell antigen expression on Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg cells is aberrant in the majority of cases and only infrequently classical Hodgkin's lymphomas are of T-cell origin. ..
  35. Ikuta K. [Recombination control of the lymphocyte antigen receptor genes by chromatin structural changes]. Seikagaku. 2004;76:29-36 pubmed
  36. Tai Y, Kim L, Peh S. High frequency of EBV association and 30-bp deletion in the LMP-1 gene in CD56 lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Pathol Int. 2004;54:158-66 pubmed
    ..The NK/T-phenotype lymphomas are comprised of both NK-cell and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-derived tumors. ..
  37. Morgan S, Prince H, Westerman D, McCormack C, Glaspole I. Clonal T-helper lymphocytes and elevated IL-5 levels in episodic angioedema and eosinophilia (Gleich's syndrome). Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:1623-5 pubmed
    ..However, the disease appears to have a similar pathogenesis, with elevated levels of the eosinophil-specific cytokine interleukin-5 (IL-5) produced by the T-cell clone. ..
  38. Kuwabara H, Tsuji M, Yoshii Y, Kakuno Y, Akioka T, Kotani T, et al. Nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma of the orbit with distant metastases. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:290-2 pubmed
    ..TCR and Ig genes of a cardiac lesion were in germ line configuration. This case demonstrated that nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas with a poor prognosis can occur in the orbit. ..
  39. Sen F, Kang S, Cangiarella J, Kamino H, Hymes K. CD20 positive mycosis fungoides: a case report. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangements were not identified. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CD20 positive MF involving a lymph node to be reported in the literature. ..
  40. Thurber S, Zhang B, Kim Y, Schrijver I, Zehnder J, Kohler S. T-cell clonality analysis in biopsy specimens from two different skin sites shows high specificity in the diagnosis of patients with suggested mycosis fungoides. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:782-90 pubmed
    ..6% and the specificity is 95.7%. The number of patients in the study group was limited. These data suggest that dual TCR-PCR is a very promising technique with high specificity in distinguishing MF from inflammatory dermatoses. ..
  41. Sanchez Muñoz L, Santon A, Cano A, Lopez A, Almeida J, Orfao A, et al. Flow cytometric analysis of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in the diagnosis of refractory celiac sprue. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:478-87 pubmed publisher
  42. Griesinger F, Greenberg J, Kersey J. T cell receptor gamma and delta rearrangements in hematologic malignancies. Relationship to lymphoid differentiation. J Clin Invest. 1989;84:506-16 pubmed
    ..One T-ALL, which demonstrated a different staining pattern with monoclonal antibodies against the products of the TCR gamma/delta genes than the PEER cell line, rearranges J delta 1 to a currently unidentified variable region. ..
  43. Toubai T, Tanaka J, Ota S, Fukuhara T, Hashino S, Kondo T, et al. Minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring using rearrangement of T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin H gene in the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Am J Hematol. 2005;80:181-7 pubmed
    ..013). A lower MRD in BM value after induction chemotherapy was associated significantly with longer survival in the log-rank test. Our data provide evidence that molecular MRD status of BM is a strong predictor of outcome in adult ALL. ..
  44. Lu C, Li G, Liu W, Guo J, Li F, Liao D, et al. [Detection of TCR-gamma chain gene rearrangement in malignant histiocytosis]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2004;25:220-2 pubmed
    ..Monoclonal TCR-gamma gene rearrangements were detected in 12 out of the 28 samples (43%). Most cases diagnosed as malignant histiocytosis in Southwest China seems to be peripheral T-cell lymphomas. ..
  45. Jacobs M, Kocher W, Murphy G. Combined folliculotropic/syringotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma without epidermal involvement: report of 2 cases and pathogenic implications. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:1216-20 pubmed
    ..Additionally, its occurrence in sun-damaged skin in some patients may provide insight into mechanisms of selective epitheliotropism by malignant T cells. ..
  46. Ballinger S, Judice S, Nicklas J, Albertini R, O Neill J. DNA sequence analysis of interlocus recombination between the human T-cell receptor gamma variable (GV) and beta diversity-joining (BD/BJ) sequences on chromosome 7 (inversion 7). Environ Mol Mutagen. 2002;40:85-92 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology for assessing GV/BJ interlocus rearrangements mediated by V(D)J recombinase. ..
  47. Matsuo Y, Drexler H, Takeuchi M, Tanaka M, Orita K. Establishment of the T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOTN-1 carrying natural killer-cell antigens. Leuk Res. 2002;26:873-9 pubmed
    ..The scientific significance of MOTN-1 lies in (1) the rarity of this type of leukemia cell lines, (2) the co-expression of various T- and natural killer (NK)-cell-associated markers, and (3) its unique chromosomal aberrations. ..
  48. Tsujioka T, Wada H, Suemori S, Sadahira Y, Sugihara T. [CD56-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma primarily presenting with tonsillar swelling]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2004;45:1119-23 pubmed
    ..Because small bowel ulcers were revealed during the course of induction chemotherapy, we report a valuable case in which suspected CD56-positive enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) occurred primarily in the tonsils. ..
  49. Ferrara G, Di Blasi A, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G, Cerroni L. Regarding the algorithm for the diagnosis of early mycosis fungoides proposed by the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas: suggestions from routine histopathology practice. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of eMF still rests upon clinical features and conventional histology; a new skin biopsy is recommended for cases with no clear-cut diagnostic features. ..
  50. Benhattar J, Gebhard S. PCR diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies. Methods Mol Med. 2004;97:209-16 pubmed
  51. Ghosh J, Romanow W, Murre C. Induction of a diverse T cell receptor gamma/delta repertoire by the helix-loop-helix proteins E2A and HEB in nonlymphoid cells. J Exp Med. 2001;193:769-76 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a distinct but diverse TCR repertoire can be induced in nonlymphoid cells by the mere presence of the V(D)J recombinase and the transcriptional regulators, E2A and HEB. ..
  52. Saggioro D, D Andrea E, Chieco Bianchi L. In vitro immune-receptor gene rearrangements in clonal thymic lymphomas induced by Abelson murine leukemia virus. Tumori. 1989;75:341-4 pubmed
    ..Since the recombination mechanism is operative only in very immature lymphoid cells, these data provide indirect evidence for the lack of differentiation of A-MuLV cell targets in the thymus...
  53. Martinet L, Jean C, Dietrich G, Fournie J, Poupot R. PGE2 inhibits natural killer and gamma delta T cell cytotoxicity triggered by NKR and TCR through a cAMP-mediated PKA type I-dependent signaling. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In the discussion, we focused on how these data should impact particular approaches in the treatment of cancer...