Summary: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.

Top Publications

  1. Fenton B, Glover D. A conserved mitotic kinase active at late anaphase-telophase in syncytial Drosophila embryos. Nature. 1993;363:637-40 pubmed
    ..embryos can phosphorylate casein in vitro, and that the kinase activity peaks cyclically at late anaphase/telophase. This contrasts with the cyclical activity of cyclin B-associated p34cdc2 kinase, which is maximal upon entry ..
  2. Rank J, Nielsen M. Genotoxicity testing of wastewater sludge using the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. Mutat Res. 1998;418:113-9 pubmed
    ..cepa anaphase-telophase assay, only two sludge samples from the smallest plant with the lowest industrial load induced significant ..
  3. Yen T, Compton D, Wise D, Zinkowski R, Brinkley B, Earnshaw W, et al. CENP-E, a novel human centromere-associated protein required for progression from metaphase to anaphase. EMBO J. 1991;10:1245-54 pubmed
    ..By telophase, the staining is localized exclusively to the midbody...
  4. Bubulya P, Prasanth K, Deerinck T, Gerlich D, Beaudouin J, Ellisman M, et al. Hypophosphorylated SR splicing factors transiently localize around active nucleolar organizing regions in telophase daughter nuclei. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:51-63 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates a previously unrecognized role of NAPs in splicing factor trafficking and nuclear speckle biogenesis. ..
  5. Andreassen P, Palmer D, Wener M, Margolis R. Telophase disc: a new mammalian mitotic organelle that bisects telophase cells with a possible function in cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 1991;99 ( Pt 3):523-34 pubmed
    ..but ultimately participates in formation of an organelle that bisects the cell at late anaphase and during telophase. The organelle, discernible as a three-dimensional disc by confocal microscopy, encompasses the entire midzone ..
  6. Bisgrove S, Henderson D, Kropf D. Asymmetric division in fucoid zygotes is positioned by telophase nuclei. Plant Cell. 2003;15:854-62 pubmed
    ..In zygotes developing normally, telophase nuclei were positioned parallel to the polar growth axis, and the division plane bisected both axes...
  7. Nakazawa N, Mehrotra R, Ebe M, Yanagida M. Condensin phosphorylated by the Aurora-B-like kinase Ark1 is continuously required until telophase in a mode distinct from Top2. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1795-807 pubmed publisher
    ..The results established that mitotic chromosomes require condensin and Top2 throughout mitosis, even in telophase. We then showed that the Cnd2 subunit of condensin (also known as Barren) is the target subunit of Aurora-B-like ..
  8. Matsui Y, Nakayama Y, Okamoto M, Fukumoto Y, Yamaguchi N. Enrichment of cell populations in metaphase, anaphase, and telophase by synchronization using nocodazole and blebbistatin: a novel method suitable for examining dynamic changes in proteins during mitotic progression. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..process to separate replicated chromosomes into two daughter cells through prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Although a number of methods have been established to synchronize cells at different phases of the cell cycle, ..
  9. Fujita Y, Hayashi T, Kiyomitsu T, Toyoda Y, Kokubu A, Obuse C, et al. Priming of centromere for CENP-A recruitment by human hMis18alpha, hMis18beta, and M18BP1. Dev Cell. 2007;12:17-30 pubmed
    ..and function, hMis18alpha, hMis18beta, and M18BP1, the complex of which is accumulated specifically at the telophase-G1 centromere...

More Information


  1. Dimitrova D, Prokhorova T, Blow J, Todorov I, Gilbert D. Mammalian nuclei become licensed for DNA replication during late telophase. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:51-9 pubmed
    Mcm 2-7 are essential replication proteins that bind to chromatin in mammalian nuclei during late telophase. Here, we have investigated the relationship between Mcm binding, licensing of chromatin for replication, and specification of ..
  2. Adams R, Maiato H, Earnshaw W, Carmena M. Essential roles of Drosophila inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora B in histone H3 phosphorylation, metaphase chromosome alignment, kinetochore disjunction, and chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 2001;153:865-80 pubmed
    ..required for the correct localization of the kinesin-like protein Pavarotti (ZEN-4/CHO1/MKLP1) to the midbody at telophase. These experiments reveal that INCENP is required for aurora B kinase function and confirm that the chromosomal ..
  3. Piel M, Nordberg J, Euteneuer U, Bornens M. Centrosome-dependent exit of cytokinesis in animal cells. Science. 2001;291:1550-3 pubmed
  4. Dundr M, Misteli T, Olson M. The dynamics of postmitotic reassembly of the nucleolus. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:433-46 pubmed
    Mammalian cell nucleoli disassemble at the onset of M-phase and reassemble during telophase. Recent studies showed that partially processed preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) is preserved in association with processing components in the ..
  5. Nicol S, Causevic M, Prescott A, Fuller Pace F. The nuclear DEAD box RNA helicase p68 interacts with the nucleolar protein fibrillarin and colocalizes specifically in nascent nucleoli during telophase. Exp Cell Res. 2000;257:272-80 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, both proteins colocalize in nascent nucleoli during late telophase. These data are consistent with a role for p68 either in postmitotic nucleolar reassembly or in the activation ..
  6. Bonaccorsi S, Giansanti M, Gatti M. Spindle assembly in Drosophila neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:54-6 pubmed
  7. Adams R, Tavares A, Salzberg A, Bellen H, Glover D. pavarotti encodes a kinesin-like protein required to organize the central spindle and contractile ring for cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1483-94 pubmed
    ..In mitotic cycle 16, cells of pav mutant embryos undergo normal anaphase but then develop an abnormal telophase spindle and fail to undertake cytokinesis...
  8. Ainsztein A, Kandels Lewis S, Mackay A, Earnshaw W. INCENP centromere and spindle targeting: identification of essential conserved motifs and involvement of heterochromatin protein HP1. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1763-74 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, this interaction does not appear to be involved in targeting INCENP to the centromeric heterochromatin, but may instead have a role in its transfer from the chromosomes to the anaphase spindle. ..
  9. Martineau S, Andreassen P, Margolis R. Delay of HeLa cell cleavage into interphase using dihydrocytochalasin B: retention of a postmitotic spindle and telophase disc correlates with synchronous cleavage recovery. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:191-205 pubmed
    ..The components retained consist prominently of a "postmitotic" spindle and a telophase disc, a structure templated by the mitotic spindle in anaphase that may determine the position and timing of the ..
  10. Yegles M, Janson X, Dong H, Renier A, Jaurand M. Role of fibre characteristics on cytotoxicity and induction of anaphase/telophase aberrations in rat pleural mesothelial cells in vitro: correlations with in vivo animal findings. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16:2751-8 pubmed
    ..There was no correlation between cytotoxicity and mesothelioma induction; in contrast, a correlation was found between the ability of a sample to produce chromosome missegregation in vitro and mesothelioma in vivo...
  11. Varela E, Shimada K, Laroche T, Leroy D, Gasser S. Lte1, Cdc14 and MEN-controlled Cdk inactivation in yeast coordinate rDNA decompaction with late telophase progression. EMBO J. 2009;28:1562-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Brn1 release and the resulting rDNA decompaction in late telophase coincided with mitotic spindle dissociation, and occurred asymmetrically (daughter cells first)...
  12. Bordignon V, Smith L. Telophase-stage host ooplasts support complete reprogramming of roscovitine-treated somatic cell nuclei in cattle. Cloning Stem Cells. 2006;8:305-17 pubmed different stages of the cell cycle were fused to host oocytes either before (metaphase II, M-II) or after (telophase II, T-II) activation...
  13. Schiel J, Simon G, Zaharris C, Weisz J, Castle D, Wu C, et al. FIP3-endosome-dependent formation of the secondary ingression mediates ESCRT-III recruitment during cytokinesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1068-78 pubmed publisher
    ..during cytokinesis to demonstrate that FIP3 endosomes deliver SCAMP2/3 and p50RhoGAP to the ICB during late telophase, proteins required for the formation of the secondary ingression...
  14. Toyn J, Johnson A, Donovan J, Toone W, Johnston L. The Swi5 transcription factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a role in exit from mitosis through induction of the cdk-inhibitor Sic1 in telophase. Genetics. 1997;145:85-96 pubmed
    Deactivation of the B cyclin kinase (Cdc28/Clb) drives the telophase to G1 cell cycle transition...
  15. Haraguchi T, Koujin T, Hayakawa T, Kaneda T, Tsutsumi C, Imamoto N, et al. Live fluorescence imaging reveals early recruitment of emerin, LBR, RanBP2, and Nup153 to reforming functional nuclear envelopes. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 5):779-94 pubmed
    ..the nuclear membrane, nuclear pore complex (NPC) components, and nuclear import function were recovered during telophase in living HeLa cells...
  16. Mana Capelli S, McLean J, Chen C, Gould K, McCollum D. The kinesin-14 Klp2 is negatively regulated by the SIN for proper spindle elongation and telophase nuclear positioning. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the SIN is also involved in regulating anaphase spindle elongation and telophase nuclear positioning via inhibition of Klp2, a minus end-directed kinesin-14...
  17. Yasuhara H, Muraoka M, Shogaki H, Mori H, Sonobe S. TMBP200, a microtubule bundling polypeptide isolated from telophase tobacco BY-2 cells is a MOR1 homologue. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:595-603 pubmed
    ..a novel microtubule bundling polypeptide with an estimated relative molecular mass of about 200,000 from telophase tobacco BY-2 cells...
  18. Murray A, Desai A, Salmon E. Real time observation of anaphase in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:12327-32 pubmed
    ..Second, in telophase, decondensing chromosomes often moved rapidly (7-23 microns/min) away from the spindle poles toward the centers ..
  19. Giansanti M, Bonaccorsi S, Williams B, Williams E, Santolamazza C, Goldberg M, et al. Cooperative interactions between the central spindle and the contractile ring during Drosophila cytokinesis. Genes Dev. 1998;12:396-410 pubmed
    ..These mutants are severely defective in meiotic cytokinesis. During ana-telophase of both meiotic divisions, they exhibit a central spindle less dense than wild type; certain chic allelic ..
  20. Nakajima H, Yonemura S, Murata M, Nakamura N, Piwnica Worms H, Nishida E. Myt1 protein kinase is essential for Golgi and ER assembly during mitotic exit. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:89-103 pubmed publisher
    ..we report an unexpected finding that Myt1 is essential for Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assembly during telophase in mammalian cells...
  21. De Souza C, Hashmi S, Nayak T, Oakley B, Osmani S. Mlp1 acts as a mitotic scaffold to spatially regulate spindle assembly checkpoint proteins in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2146-59 pubmed publisher
    ..During a normal mitosis, An-Mlp1, An-Mad1, and An-Mad2 localize similarly on, and around, kinetochores until telophase when they transiently localize near the spindle but not at kinetochores...
  22. Hintzsche H, Jastrow C, Kleine Ostmann T, Stopper H, Schmid E, Schrader T. Terahertz radiation induces spindle disturbances in human-hamster hybrid cells. Radiat Res. 2011;175:569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..a spindle-acting agent as predominately indicated by the appearance of spindle disturbances at the anaphase and telophase (especially lagging and non-disjunction of single chromosomes) of cell divisions...
  23. Parra M, Gómez R, Viera A, Page J, Calvente A, Wordeman L, et al. A perikinetochoric ring defined by MCAK and Aurora-B as a novel centromere domain. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e84 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible functions of MCAK at the inner centromere domain and at the perikinetochoric ring during both meiotic divisions. ..
  24. Monzo P, Gauthier N, Keslair F, Loubat A, Field C, Le Marchand Brustel Y, et al. Clues to CD2-associated protein involvement in cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2891-902 pubmed
    ..concentrated in the narrow region of the midzone microtubules during anaphase and in the midbody during late telophase. Moreover, we found that CD2AP is a membrane- and not a microtubule-associated protein...
  25. Prymakowska Bosak M, Hock R, Catez F, Lim J, Birger Y, Shirakawa H, et al. Mitotic phosphorylation of chromosomal protein HMGN1 inhibits nuclear import and promotes interaction with 14.3.3 proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6809-19 pubmed
    ..nucleosomal binding domain (NBD) of the HMGN1 protein prevents its reentry into the newly formed nucleus in late telophase. By microinjecting wild-type and mutant proteins into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells and expressing these proteins ..
  26. Herrmann L, Dittmar T, Erdmann K. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL associates with the midbody and is involved in the regulation of cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:230-40 pubmed
    ..We suggest that PTP-BL plays a role in the regulation of cytokinesis. ..
  27. Williams B, Dernburg A, Puro J, Nokkala S, Goldberg M. The Drosophila kinesin-like protein KLP3A is required for proper behavior of male and female pronuclei at fertilization. Development. 1997;124:2365-76 pubmed
    ..embryonic mitotic divisions, but later accumulates specifically at the midzone of these same spindles during telophase. The protein is also present on two other microtubule structures: the sperm aster; and the radial, monastral ..
  28. Nystul T, Goldmark J, Padilla P, Roth M. Suspended animation in C. elegans requires the spindle checkpoint. Science. 2003;302:1038-41 pubmed
    ..These data provide a model for how a dynamic biological process is arrested in suspended animation. ..
  29. Zeng K, Bastos R, Barr F, Gruneberg U. Protein phosphatase 6 regulates mitotic spindle formation by controlling the T-loop phosphorylation state of Aurora A bound to its activator TPX2. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1315-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a hitherto unappreciated role for PP6 as the T-loop phosphatase regulating Aurora A activity during spindle formation and suggest the general importance of this form of regulation. ..
  30. Bione N, Pagliarini M, de Almeida L. A male-sterile mutation in soybean (Glycine max) affecting chromosome arrangement in metaphase plate and cytokinesis. Biocell. 2005;29:177-81 pubmed
    ..However, the main cause of male sterility was the absence of cytokinesis after telophase II. Instead of the typical tetrads of microspores, four nucleate coenocytic microspores were formed...
  31. Rizkallah R, Alexander K, Hurt M. Global mitotic phosphorylation of C2H2 zinc finger protein linker peptides. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:3327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This global phosphorylation is completely reversed in telophase. In addition, the exclusion of the phospho-linker signal from condensed DNA clearly demonstrates a common ..
  32. Kim A, Vogt S, O Halloran T, Woodruff T. Zinc availability regulates exit from meiosis in maturing mammalian oocytes. Nat Chem Biol. 2010;6:674-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Perturbation of zinc homeostasis with a cell-permeable small-molecule chelator blocked meiotic progression past telophase I. Zinc supplementation rescued this phenotype when administered before this meiotic block...
  33. Fernandes N, Guntipalli P, Mo H. d-?-Tocotrienol-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:4937-44 pubmed
    ..1 ± 0.5 ?mol/l), a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase. d-?-Tocotrienol may have potential application in melanoma chemoprevention and/or therapy. ..
  34. Rank J, Nielsen M. Allium cepa anaphase-telophase root tip chromosome aberration assay on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, maleic hydrazide, sodium azide, and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mutat Res. 1997;390:121-7 pubmed
    The Allium anaphase-telophase assay was used to show genotoxicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), maleic hydrazide (MH), sodium azide (NaN3) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)...
  35. Montembault E, Zhang W, Przewloka M, Archambault V, Sevin E, Laue E, et al. Nessun Dorma, a novel centralspindlin partner, is required for cytokinesis in Drosophila spermatocytes. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:1351-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that Nesd is a novel carbohydrate-binding protein that functions together with centralspindlin in late cytokinesis, thus highlighting the importance of glycosylation in this process...
  36. Truţă E, Vochita G, Rosu C, Zamfirache M, Olteanu Z. Evaluation of Roundup-induced toxicity on genetic material and on length growth of barley seedlings. Acta Biol Hung. 2011;62:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..43%, whereas in 6-h treatment this parameter declined from 3.86 ± 0.92% to 0.62 ± 0.15%. The highest ana-telophase aberration rates were noted in 3-h treatments (8.91%, 9.19%, 9.47%, 11.25%, comparatively to control - 5.99%)...
  37. Long B, Fairchild C. Paclitaxel inhibits progression of mitotic cells to G1 phase by interference with spindle formation without affecting other microtubule functions during anaphase and telephase. Cancer Res. 1994;54:4355-61 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that this is the primary cytotoxic mechanism of paclitaxel. ..
  38. Marshall W, Dernburg A, Harmon B, Agard D, Sedat J. Specific interactions of chromatin with the nuclear envelope: positional determination within the nucleus in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:825-42 pubmed
    ..These NE interactions are not established until after telophase, by which time the nuclear envelope has reassembled around the chromosomes, and they are thus unlikely to be ..
  39. Wang H, Cai Y, Chia W, Yang X. Drosophila homologs of mammalian TNF/TNFR-related molecules regulate segregation of Miranda/Prospero in neuroblasts. EMBO J. 2006;25:5783-93 pubmed the basal cell cortex at metaphase and segregate exclusively to the future ganglion mother cells (GMCs) at telophase. In inscuteable mutant NBs, these basal proteins are mislocalized during metaphase...
  40. Bordignon V, Keyston R, Lazaris A, Bilodeau A, Pontes J, Arnold D, et al. Transgene expression of green fluorescent protein and germ line transmission in cloned calves derived from in vitro-transfected somatic cells. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:2013-23 pubmed
    ..outcome, GFP-expressing fibroblasts were fused to oocytes reconstructed either before (metaphase) or after (telophase) activation...
  41. El Ghamery A, el Kholy M, Abou El Yousser M. Evaluation of cytological effects of Zn2+ in relation to germination and root growth of Nigella sativa L. and Triticum aestivum L. Mutat Res. 2003;537:29-41 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities (chromosome breaks and chromosomal bridges at ana-telophases) indicate true clastogenic potential of the ions tested...
  42. Fatoba S, Okorokov A. Human SIRT1 associates with mitotic chromatin and contributes to chromosomal condensation. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:2317-22 pubmed that SIRT1 levels rise in prometaphase leading to SIRT1 global association with mitotic chromatin until telophase. Moreover, SIRT1 contributes to chromosomal condensation by mediating chromosomal loading of histone H1 and the ..
  43. Lordier L, Jalil A, Aurade F, Larbret F, Larghero J, Debili N, et al. Megakaryocyte endomitosis is a failure of late cytokinesis related to defects in the contractile ring and Rho/Rock signaling. Blood. 2008;112:3164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a defect in cell elongation was observed in dipolar endomitotic MKs during telophase. RhoA and F-actin were partially concentrated at the site of furrowing...
  44. Clotet J, Posas F. Control of cell cycle in response to osmostress: lessons from yeast. Methods Enzymol. 2007;428:63-76 pubmed
    ..Studies from yeast, both Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have served to start understanding how SAPKs control cell cycle progression in response to stress. ..
  45. Kutsuna N, Hasezawa S. Dynamic organization of vacuolar and microtubule structures during cell cycle progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:965-73 pubmed the premitotic cytoplasmic band (phragmosome), surrounding the mitotic apparatus; (2) from anaphase to telophase, these tubular structures invaded the region of the phragmoplast within which the cell plate was being formed; (..
  46. Chia W, Yang X. Asymmetric division of Drosophila neural progenitors. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002;12:459-64 pubmed
    ..Recent findings also suggest possible mechanisms by which the processes of cell-cycle progression, neuronal lineage development and asymmetric divisions may be integrated. ..
  47. Watanabe S, Ando Y, Yasuda S, Hosoya H, Watanabe N, Ishizaki T, et al. mDia2 induces the actin scaffold for the contractile ring and stabilizes its position during cytokinesis in NIH 3T3 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..mDia2 accumulates in the cleavage furrow during anaphase to telophase, and concentrates in the midbody at the end of cytokinesis...
  48. Smirnov E, Kalmárová M, Koberna K, Zemanova Z, Malinsky J, Masata M, et al. NORs and their transcription competence during the cell cycle. Folia Biol (Praha). 2006;52:59-70 pubmed
    ..NORs that were loaded with UBF incorporated bromo-uridine in metaphase after stimulation with roscovitine and in telophase, suggesting that competent and only competent NORs contain ribosomal genes transcriptionally active during ..
  49. Bothos J, Tuttle R, Ottey M, Luca F, Halazonetis T. Human LATS1 is a mitotic exit network kinase. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6568-75 pubmed
    ..Reciprocally, small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of LATS1 or MOB1A prolonged telophase, but had no effect on the length of the earlier phases of mitosis...
  50. Angelier N, Tramier M, Louvet E, Coppey Moisan M, Savino T, De Mey J, et al. Tracking the interactions of rRNA processing proteins during nucleolar assembly in living cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2862-71 pubmed
    ..Interestingly interactions between such proteins also occur in PNBs but not at the chromosome periphery. The dynamics of these interactions suggests that PNBs are preassembly platforms for rRNA processing complexes. ..
  51. Zachariadis M, Quader H, Galatis B, Apostolakos P. Organization of the endoplasmic reticulum in dividing cells of the gymnosperms Pinus brutia and Pinus nigra, and of the pterophyte Asplenium nidus. Cell Biol Int. 2003;27:31-40 pubmed
    ..Observations made on P. nigra root-cells affected by oryzalin, colchicine and cytochalasin D favour the conclusion that the pattern of ER organization is controlled during mitosis and cytokinesis by the MT cytoskeleton. ..
  52. Maddox P, Bloom K, Salmon E. The polarity and dynamics of microtubule assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:36-41 pubmed
    ..These results show for astral and anaphase interpolar spindle microtubules, and possibly for metaphase spindle microtubules, that microtubule assembly and disassembly occur at plus, and not minus, ends. ..
  53. Shandilya J, Senapati P, Dhanasekaran K, Bangalore S, Kumar M, Kishore A, et al. Phosphorylation of multifunctional nucleolar protein nucleophosmin (NPM1) by aurora kinase B is critical for mitotic progression. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:2198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Aurora kinase B-mediated phosphorylation of NPM1 plays a critical role during mitosis, which could have wider implications in oncogenesis. ..