Summary: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.

Top Publications

  1. Cadart C, Zlotek Zlotkiewicz E, Le Berre M, Piel M, Matthews H. Exploring the function of cell shape and size during mitosis. Dev Cell. 2014;29:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss how mitotic rounding contributes to spindle assembly and positioning, as well as the potential consequences of abnormal mitotic cell shape and size on chromosome segregation, tissue growth, and cancer. ..
  2. Orthwein A, Fradet Turcotte A, Noordermeer S, Canny M, Brun C, Strecker J, et al. Mitosis inhibits DNA double-strand break repair to guard against telomere fusions. Science. 2014;344:189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we unravel how mitosis blocks DSB repair and determine the consequences of repair reactivation...
  3. Smoyer C, Jaspersen S. Breaking down the wall: the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2014;26:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review how studies of divergent mitotic strategies have helped elucidate common properties of NE biology that allow it to function throughout the cell cycle. ..
  4. Hong C, Zámborszky J, Baek M, Labiscsak L, Ju K, Lee H, et al. Circadian rhythms synchronize mitosis in Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock-dependent molecular dynamics of cell cycle components that result in synchronized nuclear divisions in Neurospora. ..
  5. Jiang Y, Li X, Yang W, Hawke D, Zheng Y, Xia Y, et al. PKM2 regulates chromosome segregation and mitosis progression of tumor cells. Mol Cell. 2014;53:75-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that PKM2, but not PKM1, binds to the spindle checkpoint protein Bub3 during mitosis and phosphorylates Bub3 at Y207...
  6. Bazzi H, Anderson K. Acentriolar mitosis activates a p53-dependent apoptosis pathway in the mouse embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E1491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a short delay in the prometaphase caused by the absence of centrioles activates a previously undescribed p53-dependent cell death pathway in the rapidly dividing cells of the mouse embryo. ..
  7. Conduit P, Feng Z, Richens J, Baumbach J, Wainman A, Bakshi S, et al. The centrosome-specific phosphorylation of Cnn by Polo/Plk1 drives Cnn scaffold assembly and centrosome maturation. Dev Cell. 2014;28:659-69 pubmed publisher
    ..They consist of a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM) that expands dramatically during mitosis-a process termed centrosome maturation. How centrosomes mature remains mysterious...
  8. Eissler C, Mazon G, Powers B, Savinov S, Symington L, Hall M. The Cdk/cDc14 module controls activation of the Yen1 holliday junction resolvase to promote genome stability. Mol Cell. 2014;54:80-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The precise timing of Yen1 activation, governed by core cell-cycle regulators, helps coordinate DNA repair with chromosome segregation and safeguards against genome destabilization. ..
  9. Cireşan D, Giusti A, Gambardella L, Schmidhuber J. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images with deep neural networks. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2013;16:411-8 pubmed
    We use deep max-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mitosis in breast histology images. The networks are trained to classify each pixel in the images, using as context a patch centered on the pixel...

More Information


  1. Wilkins B, Rall N, Ostwal Y, Kruitwagen T, Hiragami Hamada K, Winkler M, et al. A cascade of histone modifications induces chromatin condensation in mitosis. Science. 2014;343:77-80 pubmed publisher
    Metaphase chromosomes are visible hallmarks of mitosis, yet our understanding of their structure and of the forces shaping them is rudimentary...
  2. Campbell C, Desai A. Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization. Nature. 2013;497:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..eliminates association with the inner centromere nevertheless supports proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis...
  3. Itoh G, Sugino S, Ikeda M, Mizuguchi M, Kanno S, Amin M, et al. Nucleoporin Nup188 is required for chromosome alignment in mitosis. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:871-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nup188 localizes to spindle poles during mitosis, through the C-terminal region of Nup188...
  4. Jørgensen A, Nielsen J, Almstrup K, Toft B, Petersen B, Rajpert De Meyts E. Dysregulation of the mitosis-meiosis switch in testicular carcinoma in situ. J Pathol. 2013;229:588-98 pubmed publisher
    ..this study indicates that meiosis signalling is dysregulated in CIS cells and that a key regulator of the mitosis-meiosis switch, DMRT1, is expressed in 'early-stage' CIS cells but is down-regulated with further invasive ..
  5. Hussain M, Baig S, Neumann S, Peche V, Szczepanski S, Nurnberg G, et al. CDK6 associates with the centrosome during mitosis and is mutated in a large Pakistani family with primary microcephaly. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:5199-214 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here for the first time that CDK6 associates with the centrosome during mitosis; however, this was not observed in patient fibroblasts...
  6. Samejima K, Samejima I, Vagnarelli P, Ogawa H, Vargiu G, Kelly D, et al. Mitotic chromosomes are compacted laterally by KIF4 and condensin and axially by topoisomerase IIα. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:755-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These three proteins are major determinants in shaping the characteristic mitotic chromosome morphology. ..
  7. Petsalaki E, Zachos G. Chk1 and Mps1 jointly regulate correction of merotelic kinetochore attachments. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Chk1 and Mps1 jointly regulate Aurora-B, MCAK, Kif2b and Hec1 to correct merotelic attachments. These results suggest a role for Chk1 and Mps1 in error correction. ..
  8. Salmela A, Kallio M. Mitosis as an anti-cancer drug target. Chromosoma. 2013;122:431-49 pubmed publisher
    Suppression of cell proliferation by targeting mitosis is one potential cancer intervention. A number of existing chemotherapy drugs disrupt mitosis by targeting microtubule dynamics. While efficacious, these drugs have limitations, i.e...
  9. Stevens J, Spang A. N-glycosylation is required for secretion and mitosis in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63687 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, we detected a chromosome segregation defect in ribo-1(RNAi) embryos suggesting an essential role of at least one N-glycosylated protein in metaphase-anaphase transition...
  10. Hunt T. On the regulation of protein phosphatase 2A and its role in controlling entry into and exit from mitosis. Adv Biol Regul. 2013;53:173-8 pubmed publisher
    The process of mitosis involves a comprehensive reorganization of the cell: chromosomes condense, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the mitotic spindle is assembled, cells round up and release their ties to the substrate and so on and so ..
  11. Rao C, Kurkjian C, Yamada H. Mitosis-targeting natural products for cancer prevention and therapy. Curr Drug Targets. 2012;13:1820-30 pubmed
    b>Mitosis is a complex process resulting in division of a cell into two daughter cells, and its failure often results in the death of the daughter cells (via apoptotic, necrotic, or proliferative/senescent death)...
  12. Kimura M, Yoshioka T, Saio M, Banno Y, Nagaoka H, Okano Y. Mitotic catastrophe and cell death induced by depletion of centrosomal proteins. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e603 pubmed publisher
    Mitotic catastrophe, which refers to cell death or its prologue triggered by aberrant mitosis, can be induced by a heterogeneous group of stimuli, including chromosome damage or perturbation of the mitotic apparatus...
  13. Bhat A, Andersen P, Qin Z, Xiao W. Rev3, the catalytic subunit of Pol?, is required for maintaining fragile site stability in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2328-39 pubmed publisher
  14. Takatsu H, Katoh Y, Ueda T, Waguri S, Murayama T, Takahashi S, et al. Mitosis-coupled, microtubule-dependent clustering of endosomal vesicles around centrosomes. Cell Struct Funct. 2013;38:31-41 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate that ERC clustering around centrosomes plays a fundamental role in restricting membrane delivery to the plasma membrane during early mitotic phases, when the cell surface-to-volume ratio reaches its minimum...
  15. Caravaca J, Donahue G, Becker J, He X, Vinson C, Zaret K. Bookmarking by specific and nonspecific binding of FoxA1 pioneer factor to mitotic chromosomes. Genes Dev. 2013;27:251-60 pubmed publisher
    While most transcription factors exit the chromatin during mitosis and the genome becomes silent, a subset of factors remains and "bookmarks" genes for rapid reactivation as cells progress through the cell cycle...
  16. Gascoigne K, Cheeseman I. CDK-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion coordinately control kinetochore assembly state. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear exclusion of the Ndc80 complex helped restrict kinetochore formation to mitosis. Combining constitutive CDK-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-T and forced nuclear localization of the Ndc80 ..
  17. Cook G, Grønlund A, Siciliano I, Spadafora N, Amini M, Herbert R, et al. Plant WEE1 kinase is cell cycle regulated and removed at mitosis via the 26S proteasome machinery. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:2093-106 pubmed publisher
    In yeasts and animals, premature entry into mitosis is prevented by the inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) by WEE1 kinase, and, at mitosis, WEE1 protein is removed through the action of the 26S proteasome...
  18. Aizer A, Kafri P, Kalo A, Shav Tal Y. The P body protein Dcp1a is hyper-phosphorylated during mitosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e49783 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates the control of PB dynamics during the cell cycle via phosphorylation. ..
  19. Tacheva Grigorova S, Santos A, Boucrot E, Kirchhausen T. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis persists during unperturbed mitosis. Cell Rep. 2013;4:659-68 pubmed publisher
    How does mitosis influence the critical process of endocytosis? Some experiments lead to the conclusion that endocytosis arrests completely during mitosis, whereas others indicate that endocytosis persists...
  20. Dykhuizen E, Hargreaves D, Miller E, Cui K, Korshunov A, Kool M, et al. BAF complexes facilitate decatenation of DNA by topoisomerase II?. Nature. 2013;497:624-7 pubmed publisher decatenating newly replicated sister chromatids, a requirement for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. We find that deletion of Brg1 in mouse cells, as well as the expression of BRG1 point mutants identified in ..
  21. St Charles J, Petes T. High-resolution mapping of spontaneous mitotic recombination hotspots on the 1.1 Mb arm of yeast chromosome IV. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003434 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that different genetic elements are associated with reciprocal crossover conversion tracts depending on the cell cycle timing of the initiating DSB. ..
  22. Lackey L, Law E, Brown W, Harris R. Subcellular localization of the APOBEC3 proteins during mitosis and implications for genomic DNA deamination. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that only a subset of APOBEC3s have contact with nuclear DNA. However, during mitosis, the nuclear envelope breaks down and cytoplasmic proteins may enter what was formerly a privileged zone...
  23. Ruggiero R, Kale A, Thomas B, Baker N. Mitosis in neurons: Roughex and APC/C maintain cell cycle exit to prevent cytokinetic and axonal defects in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003049 pubmed publisher
    ..After mitosis, the binucleated R8 neurons usually transport one daughter nucleus away from the cell body into the developing ..
  24. Bergoglio V, Boyer A, Walsh E, Naim V, Legube G, Lee M, et al. DNA synthesis by Pol ? promotes fragile site stability by preventing under-replicated DNA in mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Pol ? deficiency led to persistence of checkpoint-blind under-replicated CFS regions in mitosis, detectable as FANCD2-associated chromosomal sites that were transmitted to daughter cells in 53BP1-shielded ..
  25. Khan D, He S, Yu J, Winter S, Cao W, Seiser C, et al. Protein kinase CK2 regulates the dimerization of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 during mitosis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:16518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that during mitosis, HDAC2 and, to a lesser extent, HDAC1 phosphorylation levels dramatically increase...
  26. Deng L, Moseley J. Compartmentalized nodes control mitotic entry signaling in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:1872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Fission yeast cells enter into mitosis at a defined size due to the conserved cell cycle kinases Cdr1 and Cdr2, which localize to a set of cortical ..
  27. Aravamudhan P, Felzer Kim I, Joglekar A. The budding yeast point centromere associates with two Cse4 molecules during mitosis. Curr Biol. 2013;23:770-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These molecules are deposited during S phase and they remain stably bound through late anaphase. Our studies suggest that the budding yeast centromere incorporates a Cse4-H4 tetramer...
  28. Liu H, Rankin S, Yu H. Phosphorylation-enabled binding of SGO1-PP2A to cohesin protects sororin and centromeric cohesion during mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:40-9 pubmed publisher
    Timely dissolution of sister-chromatid cohesion in mitosis ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy and tumorigenesis...
  29. Moon H, Youn Y, Pemble H, Yingling J, Wittmann T, Wynshaw Boris A. LIS1 controls mitosis and mitotic spindle organization via the LIS1-NDEL1-dynein complex. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:449-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used detailed cellular approaches and time-lapse live cell imaging of mitosis from Lis1 mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts to reveal critical roles of LIS1 in mitotic spindle regulation...
  30. Eichinger C, Kurze A, Oliveira R, Nasmyth K. Disengaging the Smc3/kleisin interface releases cohesin from Drosophila chromosomes during interphase and mitosis. EMBO J. 2013;32:656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cohesin's DNA entry and exit gates are distinct. ..
  31. Burgos Rivera B, Dawe R. An Arabidopsis tissue-specific RNAi method for studying genes essential to mitosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51388 pubmed publisher
    ..that CENPC knockdown causes cell cycle arrest but provided no evidence that either MAD2 or BUBR1 are required for mitosis (although both genes are required for petal growth by this assay)...
  32. Ganem N, Pellman D. Linking abnormal mitosis to the acquisition of DNA damage. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:871-81 pubmed publisher
    Cellular defects that impair the fidelity of mitosis promote chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy...
  33. Fisher D, Krasinska L, Coudreuse D, Novak B. Phosphorylation network dynamics in the control of cell cycle transitions. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdk1 triggers the onset of S phase; when its activity level exceeds a specific threshold, it promotes entry into mitosis. This model has redefined our understanding of the essential functional inputs that organize cell cycle ..
  34. Carmena M, Wheelock M, Funabiki H, Earnshaw W. The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC): from easy rider to the godfather of mitosis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012;13:789-803 pubmed publisher
    ..This complex targets to different locations at differing times during mitosis, where it regulates key mitotic events: correction of chromosome-microtubule attachment errors; activation of the ..
  35. Bruinsma W, Raaijmakers J, Medema R. Switching Polo-like kinase-1 on and off in time and space. Trends Biochem Sci. 2012;37:534-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review a number of newly discovered functions of Plk1 that provide more insights into the spatiotemporal control of Plk1-dependent substrate phosphorylation. ..
  36. Macurek L, Benada J, Müllers E, Halim V, Krejcikova K, Burdova K, et al. Downregulation of Wip1 phosphatase modulates the cellular threshold of DNA damage signaling in mitosis. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Wip1 activity is downregulated by several mechanisms during mitosis. Wip1 protein abundance increases from G(1) phase to G(2) and declines in mitosis...
  37. Giovinazzi S, Morozov V, Summers M, Reinhold W, Ishov A. USP7 and Daxx regulate mitosis progression and taxane sensitivity by affecting stability of Aurora-A kinase. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:721-31 pubmed publisher
    ..USP7) that interacts and cooperates with protein death domain-associated protein (Daxx) in the regulation of mitosis and taxane resistance...
  38. Beck J, Maerki S, Posch M, Metzger T, Persaud A, Scheel H, et al. Ubiquitylation-dependent localization of PLK1 in mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:430-9 pubmed publisher
    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) critically regulates mitosis through its dynamic localization to kinetochores, centrosomes and the midzone...
  39. Zhang C, Wu X, Zhang M, Zhu L, Zhao R, Xu D, et al. Small molecule R1498 as a well-tolerated and orally active kinase inhibitor for hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer treatment via targeting angiogenesis and mitosis pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65264 pubmed publisher
  40. Topham C, Taylor S. Mitosis and apoptosis: how is the balance set?. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013;25:780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Following a prolonged mitotic arrest, cells either die in mitosis via apoptosis, or exit mitosis without dividing and survive, a process known as slippage...
  41. Hayashi M, Karlseder J. DNA damage associated with mitosis and cytokinesis failure. Oncogene. 2013;32:4593-601 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitosis is a highly dynamic process, aimed at separating identical copies of genomic material into two daughter cells. A failure of the mitotic process generates cells that carry abnormal chromosome numbers...
  42. Weiss E. Mitotic exit and separation of mother and daughter cells. Genetics. 2012;192:1165-202 pubmed publisher
    ..process reflects coordination of diverse cytological events by regulatory systems that drive the cell from mitosis into G1...
  43. Januschke J, Reina J, Llamazares S, Bertran T, Rossi F, Roig J, et al. Centrobin controls mother-daughter centriole asymmetry in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They also reveal an interphase function for POLO in this process that seems to have co-opted part of the protein network involved in mitotic centrosome maturation. ..
  44. Tamura N, Draviam V. Microtubule plus-ends within a mitotic cell are 'moving platforms' with anchoring, signalling and force-coupling roles. Open Biol. 2012;2:120132 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mitotic regulation of plus-ends is only beginning to be understood in mammalian cells. During mitosis, the plus-ends are tethered to specialized microtubule capture sites...
  45. Cubeñas Potts C, Goeres J, Matunis M. SENP1 and SENP2 affect spatial and temporal control of sumoylation in mitosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms regulating spatial and temporal sumoylation of proteins in mitosis, however, are not well understood...
  46. McCormick C, Akamatsu M, Ti S, Pollard T. Measuring affinities of fission yeast spindle pole body proteins in live cells across the cell cycle. Biophys J. 2013;105:1324-35 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ?M when Sid2p binds Mob1p-Cdc11p and Kd in the micromolar range when Mob1p binds Sid2p-Cdc11p. During mitosis an additional species presumed to be the phosphorylated Sid2p-Mob1p heterodimer binds SPBs with a lower affinity...
  47. Clijsters L, Ogink J, Wolthuis R. The spindle checkpoint, APC/C(Cdc20), and APC/C(Cdh1) play distinct roles in connecting mitosis to S phase. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:1013-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In animal cells, relicensing after S phase but before mitosis is prevented by the Cdt1 inhibitor geminin and mitotic cyclin activity...
  48. Tay Y, Patel A, Kaemena D, Hagan I. Mutation of a conserved residue enhances the sensitivity of analogue-sensitised kinases to generate a novel approach to the study of mitosis in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:5052-61 pubmed publisher
  49. Heijink A, Krajewska M, van Vugt M. The DNA damage response during mitosis. Mutat Res. 2013;750:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing ..
  50. Wang F, Higgins J. Histone modifications and mitosis: countermarks, landmarks, and bookmarks. Trends Cell Biol. 2013;23:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mitotic histone marks, particularly phosphorylation, were discovered four decades ago, their roles in mitosis have been outlined only in the past few years...
  51. Naim V, Wilhelm T, Debatisse M, Rosselli F. ERCC1 and MUS81-EME1 promote sister chromatid separation by processing late replication intermediates at common fragile sites during mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1008-15 pubmed publisher
    ..affects accurate processing of replication intermediates or under-replicated DNA that persist at CFSs until mitosis. Depletion of these endonucleases also leads to an increase in the frequency of chromosome bridges during ..
  52. Telley I, Gaspar I, Ephrussi A, Surrey T. A single Drosophila embryo extract for the study of mitosis ex vivo. Nat Protoc. 2013;8:310-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay enables a unique combination of genetic, biochemical, optical and mechanical manipulations of the mitotic machinery. ..
  53. Gómez R, Jordan P, Viera A, Alsheimer M, Fukuda T, Jessberger R, et al. Dynamic localization of SMC5/6 complex proteins during mammalian meiosis and mitosis suggests functions in distinct chromosome processes. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:4239-52 pubmed publisher
    ..During mitosis, SMC6 and DNA Topoisomerase II? colocalize at the centromeres and chromatid axes...