pachytene stage


Summary: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.

Top Publications

  1. Börner G, Barot A, Kleckner N. Yeast Pch2 promotes domainal axis organization, timely recombination progression, and arrest of defective recombinosomes during meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We further propose that regulatory surveillance of normal and abnormal interchromosomal interactions in mitotic and meiotic cells may involve "structure-dependent interchromosomal interaction" (SDIX) checkpoints...
  2. Ji Y, Zhao X, Paterson A, Price H, Stelly D. Integrative mapping of Gossypium hirsutum L. by meiotic fluorescent in situ hybridization of a tandemly repetitive sequence (B77). Genetics. 2007;176:115-23 pubmed
    ..However, additional codominant DNA marker information in the affected region excluded the B77 polymorphism detected by Southern blot hybridization from chromosome 20 and, indeed, from the remainder of the genome. ..
  3. Li Z, Qin R, Jin W, Xiong Z, Song Y. FISH analysis of pachytene chromosome and DNA fiber of telomere sequence in rice (Oryza sativa L. indica). Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2005;32:832-6 pubmed
    ..62 +/- 1.32 microm, i.e. 9.09 +/- 3.31 kb. It could be estimated that the longest and the shortest as well as the average value were equal to 2,349,651 and 1298 +/- 473 of copy number respectively. ..
  4. Turner J, Mahadevaiah S, Ellis P, Mitchell M, Burgoyne P. Pachytene asynapsis drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and leads to substantial postmeiotic repression in spermatids. Dev Cell. 2006;10:521-9 pubmed
    ..While this postmeiotic repression occurs after the loss of MSUC-related proteins at the end of prophase, other histone modifications associated with transcriptional repression have by then become established...
  5. Chicheportiche A, Bernardino Sgherri J, de Massy B, Dutrillaux B. Characterization of Spo11-dependent and independent phospho-H2AX foci during meiotic prophase I in the male mouse. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1733-42 pubmed
    ..The presence of these L-foci in Spo11(-/-) spermatocytes raises the interesting possibility of yet uncharacterized alterations in DNA or chromosome structure in Spo11(-/-) cells. ..
  6. Moens P, Marcon E, Shore J, Kochakpour N, Spyropoulos B. Initiation and resolution of interhomolog connections: crossover and non-crossover sites along mouse synaptonemal complexes. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1017-27 pubmed
    ..Relocation of TNs may be associated with the conversion of potential crossovers into non-crossovers...
  7. Mehrotra S, McKim K. Temporal analysis of meiotic DNA double-strand break formation and repair in Drosophila females. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e200 pubmed
    ..oocytes in early prophase exhibit a slower response to X-ray-induced DSBs compared to those in the late pachytene stage. Assuming all DSBs appear as gamma-His2Av foci, there is at least a 3:1 ratio of noncrossover to crossover ..
  8. Wang C, Harper L, Cande W. High-resolution single-copy gene fluorescence in situ hybridization and its use in the construction of a cytogenetic map of maize chromosome 9. Plant Cell. 2006;18:529-44 pubmed
    ..These results provide a starting point toward constructing a high-resolution integrated cytogenetic map of maize. ..
  9. Xu H, Beasley M, Warren W, van der Horst G, McKay M. Absence of mouse REC8 cohesin promotes synapsis of sister chromatids in meiosis. Dev Cell. 2005;8:949-61 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, Rec8 null mice are born in sub-Mendelian frequencies and fail to thrive. These findings illuminate hitherto unknown REC8 functions in chromosome dynamics during mammalian meiosis and possibly in somatic development. ..

More Information


  1. Rogers R, Inselman A, Handel M, Matunis M. SUMO modified proteins localize to the XY body of pachytene spermatocytes. Chromosoma. 2004;113:233-43 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate a role for SUMO modification in regulating the structure and function of the XY body and reveal molecular similarities between the XY body and PML nuclear bodies...
  2. Wang K, Yang Z, Shu C, Hu J, Lin Q, Zhang W, et al. Higher axial-resolution and sensitivity pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol in tetraploid cotton. Chromosome Res. 2009;17:1041-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of our FISH protocol will continue to improve and provide a point of departure for constructing an integrated high axial-resolution cytogenetic map in cotton. ..
  3. Kawamata M, Nishimori K. Mice deficient in Dmrt7 show infertility with spermatogenic arrest at pachytene stage. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6442-6 pubmed
    ..Absence of spermatids in a histological analysis, decreased expression of Ccna1 mRNA and the accumulation of SCP3-positive spermatocytes showed the arrest of spermatogenesis at the pachytene stage in the Dmrt7-knockout mice.
  4. Maleki S, Neale M, Arora C, Henderson K, Keeney S. Interactions between Mei4, Rec114, and other proteins required for meiotic DNA double-strand break formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chromosoma. 2007;116:471-86 pubmed
    ..These studies also suggest that an essential function of Rec102 and Rec104 is to connect Mei4 and Rec114 to Spo11. ..
  5. Li X, Li X, Schimenti J. Mouse pachytene checkpoint 2 (trip13) is required for completing meiotic recombination but not synapsis. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e130 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first model to separate recombination defects from asynapsis in mammalian meiosis, and provides the first evidence that unrepaired DNA damage alone can trigger the pachytene checkpoint response in mice. ..
  6. Fukuda T, Daniel K, Wojtasz L, Toth A, Hoog C. A novel mammalian HORMA domain-containing protein, HORMAD1, preferentially associates with unsynapsed meiotic chromosomes. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:158-71 pubmed publisher
    ..As germ cells progress into the pachytene stage, HORMAD1 disappears from the synapsed chromosomal regions...
  7. Li W, Zhang J, Liu X, Xu R, Zhang Y. Correlation of appearance of metastasis-associated protein1 (Mta1) with spermatogenesis in developing mouse testis. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:351-62 pubmed
    ..These results collectively demonstrate that Mta1 appears during postnatal testis development and suggest that this expression may be crucial for spermatogenesis. ..
  8. van der Heijden G, Derijck A, Pósfai E, Giele M, Pelczar P, Ramos L, et al. Chromosome-wide nucleosome replacement and H3.3 incorporation during mammalian meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Nat Genet. 2007;39:251-8 pubmed
    ..This process therefore provides a means for epigenetic reprogramming of sex chromatin presumably required for gene silencing in the male mammalian germ line. ..
  9. Hayashi M, Chin G, Villeneuve A. C. elegans germ cells switch between distinct modes of double-strand break repair during meiotic prophase progression. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e191 pubmed
    ..Our data further suggest that meiotic cohesin component REC-8 may play a role in limiting the activity of SPO-11 in generating meiotic DSBs and that RAD-50 may function in counteracting this inhibition. ..
  10. Garcia Cruz R, Roig I, Robles P, Scherthan H, Garcia Caldés M. ATR, BRCA1 and gammaH2AX localize to unsynapsed chromosomes at the pachytene stage in human oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:37-44 pubmed
    Asynapsis of homologous chromosomes at the pachytene stage has been associated with gametogenic failure and infertility, but the cellular mechanisms involved are currently unknown in human meiocytes...
  11. Kouznetsova A, Wang H, Bellani M, Camerini Otero R, Jessberger R, Hoog C. BRCA1-mediated chromatin silencing is limited to oocytes with a small number of asynapsed chromosomes. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2446-52 pubmed publisher
  12. Ashley T, Gaeth A, Creemers L, Hack A, de Rooij D. Correlation of meiotic events in testis sections and microspreads of mouse spermatocytes relative to the mid-pachytene checkpoint. Chromosoma. 2004;113:126-36 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the earliest the mid-pachytene checkpoint can be activated is Epithelial Stage IV, but that activities monitored by the checkpoint may not be completed by this time. ..
  13. Phillips C, Wong C, Bhalla N, Carlton P, Weiser P, Meneely P, et al. HIM-8 binds to the X chromosome pairing center and mediates chromosome-specific meiotic synapsis. Cell. 2005;123:1051-63 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that stabilization of homolog pairing is an active process in which the tethering of chromosome sites to the NE may be necessary but is not sufficient. ..
  14. Guillon H, Baudat F, Grey C, Liskay R, de Massy B. Crossover and noncrossover pathways in mouse meiosis. Mol Cell. 2005;20:563-73 pubmed
    ..We show that both products are formed from middle to late pachytene of meiotic prophase and provide evidence for an Mlh1-independent CR pathway, where mismatch repair does not require Mlh1. ..
  15. Turner J, Aprelikova O, Xu X, Wang R, Kim S, Chandramouli G, et al. BRCA1, histone H2AX phosphorylation, and male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2135-42 pubmed
    In mammalian spermatogenesis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced during the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, MSCI), forming a condensed chromatin domain termed the sex or XY ..
  16. Yang Q, Zhang D, Li Q, Cheng Z, Xue Y. Heterochromatic and genetic features are consistent with recombination suppression of the self-incompatibility locus in Antirrhinum. Plant J. 2007;51:140-51 pubmed
    ..Possible roles of these features in maintenance of the haplotype specificity involved in both self and non-self recognition are discussed...
  17. Mursalimov S, Deineko E. An ultrastructural study of cytomixis in tobacco pollen mother cells. Protoplasma. 2011;248:717-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible mechanisms determining cytomixis are discussed and the significance of this process in plant development is considered. ..
  18. Xia Y, Zhu W, Hao S, Liang W, Li J. Stereological analysis of age-related changes of testicular peritubular cells in men. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;55:116-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05. It is concluded that the stereological data of peritubular cells from three-dimensional level in testes of aged men suggest a significant decrease when compared with young men, indicating age-related changes. ..
  19. Ocalewicz K, Mota Velasco J, Campos Ramos R, Penman D. FISH and DAPI staining of the synaptonemal complex of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) allow orientation of the unpaired region of bivalent 1 observed during early pachytene. Chromosome Res. 2009;17:773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..80 to 1.00, demonstrating that the unpaired region is located in the distal part of the long arm(s). Finally, differences between mitotic and meiotic measurements are discussed. ..
  20. Zhang H, Denhard L, Zhou H, Liu L, Lan Z. 0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;366:898-904 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis. ..
  21. Wang J, Gu H, Lin H, Chi T. Essential roles of the chromatin remodeling factor BRG1 in spermatogenesis in mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:186 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals the essential role of Brg1 in meiosis and underscores the differences in the mechanisms of DNA repair between germ cells and somatic cells. ..
  22. Meneely P, McGovern O, Heinis F, Yanowitz J. Crossover distribution and frequency are regulated by him-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2012;190:1251-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The localization of HIM-5 to the autosomes depends on the activities of both xnd-1 and him-17 allowing us to begin to establish pathways for the control of crossover distribution and frequency. ..
  23. Belonogova N, Karamysheva T, Biltueva L, Perepelov E, Minina J, Polyakov A, et al. Identification of all pachytene bivalents in the common shrew using DAPI-staining of synaptonemal complex spreads. Chromosome Res. 2006;14:673-9 pubmed
    ..We show that the approach we describe here may be applied to other species and can provide an important tool for identification of individual bivalents in pachytene surface-spreads. ..
  24. Borisov I. [Instability of B-chromosomes in somatic and germline cells of Apodemus peninsulae]. Genetika. 2008;44:1101-7 pubmed
    ..The numbers of B-chromosomes in spermatocytes at the pachytene stage were estimated in ten males...
  25. García Peiró A, Oliver Bonet M, Navarro J, Abad C, Guitart M, Amengual M, et al. Sperm DNA integrity and meiotic behavior assessment in an infertile male carrier of a 9qh+++ polymorphism. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:730847 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). In spermatozoa, significant increases of disomy rates were observed for chromosome 18 and for the sex chromosomes (P < .0001). These disturbances could be present in other male carriers of a less marked 9qh+. ..
  26. Brower J, Lim C, Jorgensen M, Oh S, Terada N. Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 deficiency leads to early meiotic arrest of murine male germ cells. Reproduction. 2009;138:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Large ATP supplies from mitochondria may be critical for normal progression of spermatogenesis during early stages of meiotic prophase I, including DNA double-strand break repair and chromosomal synapsis...
  27. Robles P, Roig I, Garcia R, Brieño M, Martin M, Barbero J, et al. Analysis of recombination along chromosome 21 during human female pachytene stage. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18:784-94 pubmed
  28. Lin B, Reinke V. The candidate MAP kinase phosphorylation substrate DPL-1 (DP) promotes expression of the MAP kinase phosphatase LIP-1 in C. elegans germ cells. Dev Biol. 2008;316:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans germ cell development. These two highly conserved pathways with major regulatory roles in proliferation and differentiation likely have multiple mechanisms for cross-talk during development across many species. ..
  29. Morales A, Mohamed F, Cavicchia J. Apoptosis and blood-testis barrier during the first spermatogenic wave in the pubertal rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:206-14 pubmed
    ..The zygotene-pachytene spermatocytes are left exposed in an open environment instead of being isolated in the adluminal compartment to which they are destined...
  30. Chizaki R, Yao I, Katano T, Matsuda T, Ito S. Restricted expression of Ovol2/MOVO in XY body of mouse spermatocytes at the pachytene stage. J Androl. 2012;33:277-86 pubmed publisher 2 weeks after birth and that Ovol2/MOVO expression was restricted to the XY body in spermatocytes at the pachytene stage. In a reporter assay, Ovol2/MOVO repressed the histone H1t promoter activity in the spermatogenic cell line ..
  31. Sarrate Z, Blanco J, Vidal F. Acrocentric bivalents positioned preferentially nearby to the XY pair in metaphase I human spermatocytes. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:1241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation of non-interindividual variability, despite different infertility etiology, suggests that the nuclear organization pattern remains largely unaffected even if spermatogenesis is compromised. ..
  32. Horvath G, Kistler W, Kistler M. RFX2 is a potential transcriptional regulatory factor for histone H1t and other genes expressed during the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1551-9 pubmed
    ..These results call attention to RFX2 as a transcription factor with obvious potential for the regulation of gene expression during meiosis and the early development of spermatids. ..
  33. Geurts R, de Jong H. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) on pachytene chromosomes as a tool for genome characterization. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1069:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter we describe a general-purpose protocol for FISH on pachytene chromosomes. ..
  34. Shanks R, Bascom Slack C, Dawson D. Analysis of the kar3 meiotic arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:363-71 pubmed
  35. Mu C, Wang S, Zhang S, Pan J, Chen N, Li X, et al. Small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 protects pollen mother cells and tapetal cells against extreme temperatures during late zygotene to pachytene stages of meiotic prophase I in David Lily. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:1981-9 pubmed publisher
    ..45, working as molecular chaperone, possibly protects pollen mother cells and tapetal cells against extreme temperatures during late zygotene to pachytene stages of meiotic prophase I in David Lily. ..
  36. Garcia Cruz R, Pacheco S, Brieño M, Steinberg E, Mudry M, Ruiz Herrera A, et al. A comparative study of the recombination pattern in three species of Platyrrhini monkeys (primates). Chromosoma. 2011;120:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..libidinosus and C. nigritus) but are significantly different between Cebus and Alouatta. This heterogeneity in recombination behaviour among Ceboidea species may reflect differences in genetic diversity and genome composition. ..
  37. Zheng K, Wang P. Blockade of pachytene piRNA biogenesis reveals a novel requirement for maintaining post-meiotic germline genome integrity. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003038 pubmed publisher
  38. Sciurano R, De Luca G, Rahn I, Solari A. The XY Body of the Cat (Felis catus): Structural Differentiations and Protein Immunolocalization. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2017;152:137-147 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequential changes in the mass and location of SYCP3-containing fibers vary among the clades because of specific processes of axial assembly/disassembly occurring in different species. ..
  39. Lian J, Yin Y, Oliver Bonet M, Liehr T, Ko E, Turek P, et al. Variation in crossover interference levels on individual chromosomes from human males. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2583-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that the interference level varies significantly across the whole genome and that, at least in the human male, anomalies in chromosome synapsis play an important role in altering CO interference levels...
  40. Dutrillaux A, Moulin S, Dutrillaux B. Use of meiotic pachytene stage of spermatocytes for karyotypic studies in insects. Chromosome Res. 2006;14:549-57 pubmed
    ..A method for obtaining chromosome banding on well-spread bivalents from the pachytene stage of the meiotic prophase, the most frequent stage in young imagines, is described...
  41. Koo D, Choi H, Cho J, Hur Y, Bang J. A high-resolution karyotype of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. 'Winter Long') revealed by C-banding, pachytene analysis, and RAPD-aided fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genome. 2005;48:534-40 pubmed
    ..All homologous chromosome pairs could be distinguished by FISH using 2 RAPD markers. This is the first report on molecular karyotyping of mitotic and meiotic spreads of cucumber. ..
  42. Damestoy A, Perrard M, Vigier M, Sabido O, Durand P. Transforming growth factor beta-1 decreases the yield of the second meiotic division of rat pachytene spermatocytes in vitro. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest strongly that TGF beta participates in an auto/paracrine pathway of regulation of the meiotic differentiation of rat spermatocytes. ..
  43. Howell E, Kearsey M, Jones G, King G, Armstrong S. A and C genome distinction and chromosome identification in brassica napus by sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization. Genetics. 2008;180:1849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Two translocated segments were detected in pollen mother cells at the pachytene stage of meiosis. Using B...
  44. Codina Pascual M, Navarro J, Egozcue J, Benet J. A human tetraploid pachytene spermatocyte as the possible origin of diploid sperm: a case report. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:1795-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it indicates that diploid sperm may also originate from mitotic errors (endoreduplication) occurring before meiosis. ..
  45. da Silva M, Matoso D, Vicari M, De Almeida M, Margarido V, Artoni R. Repetitive DNA and meiotic behavior of sex chromosomes in Gymnotus pantanal (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;135:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..meiotic behavior of sex chromosomes involved in this system in males is from a trivalent totally pared in the pachytene stage, with a high degree of similarity...
  46. Li B, Nair M, Mackay D, Bilanchone V, Hu M, Fallahi M, et al. Ovol1 regulates meiotic pachytene progression during spermatogenesis by repressing Id2 expression. Development. 2005;132:1463-73 pubmed
    ..spermatocytes of the meiotic prophase, Ovol1-deficient germ cells were defective in progressing through the pachytene stage. The pachytene arrest was accompanied by an inefficient exit from proliferation, increased apoptosis and an ..
  47. Russell L, Hunsicker P, Kerley M, Pyle A, Saxton A. Etoposide exposure during male mouse pachytene has complex effects on crossing-over and causes nondisjunction. Mutat Res. 2004;565:61-77 pubmed
    ..Whether, however, etoposide-induced changes in recombination patterns are direct causes of the observed malsegregation requires additional investigation. ..
  48. White E, Cowan C, Cande W, Kaback D. In vivo analysis of synaptonemal complex formation during yeast meiosis. Genetics. 2004;167:51-63 pubmed
    ..ZIP1::GFP also facilitated the enrichment of fluorescent SC and the identification of meiosis-specific proteins by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. ..
  49. Gil Krzewska A, Farber E, Buttner E, Hunter C. Regulators of the actin cytoskeleton mediate lethality in a Caenorhabditis elegans dhc-1 mutant. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2707-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an unexpected direct or indirect interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and dynein activity. ..
  50. Sheehan M, Pawlowski W. Live imaging of rapid chromosome movements in meiotic prophase I in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20989-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the vigorous nuclear motility provides a mechanism for homologous loci to find each other during zygonema. ..
  51. Molin L, Puisieux A. C. elegans homologue of the Caf1 gene, which encodes a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is essential for embryonic and larval development and for meiotic progression. Gene. 2005;358:73-81 pubmed
    ..It also resulted in sterility in both males and hermaphrodites by blocking germ cell development at the pachytene stage of meiosis I...
  52. Poels J, Van Langendonckt A, Many M, Wese F, Wyns C. Vitrification preserves proliferation capacity in human spermatogonia. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:578-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Does vitrification of human immature testicular tissue (ITT) have potential benefits for future fertility preservation? Does vitrification of human ITT have potential benefits in an in vivo murine xenotransplantation model?..
  53. Anderson L, Salameh N, Bass H, Harper L, Cande W, Weber G, et al. Integrating genetic linkage maps with pachytene chromosome structure in maize. Genetics. 2004;166:1923-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, this new, high-resolution, cytogenetic map enables one to predict the chromosomal location of any genetically mapped marker in maize with a high degree of accuracy. This novel approach can be applied to other organisms as well. ..