prophase

Summary

Summary: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.

Top Publications

  1. Pfeifer C, Thomsen P, Scherthan H. Centromere and telomere redistribution precedes homologue pairing and terminal synapsis initiation during prophase I of cattle spermatogenesis. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;93:304-14 pubmed
    ..We observed that the chromosome pairing process in cattle prophase I is preceded by repositioning of centromeres and telomeres to the nuclear periphery during preleptotene...
  2. MacQueen A, COLAIACOVO M, McDonald K, Villeneuve A. Synapsis-dependent and -independent mechanisms stabilize homolog pairing during meiotic prophase in C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2428-42 pubmed
    ..and -independent mechanisms contribute to stable, productive alignment of homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. Early prophase nuclei undergo normal reorganization in syp-1 mutants, and chromosomes initially pair...
  3. Bahler J, Hagens G, Holzinger G, Scherthan H, Heyer W. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the homologous pairing protein p175SEP1 arrest at pachytene during meiotic prophase. Chromosoma. 1994;103:129-41 pubmed
    ..They arrest uniformly at this stage of meiotic prophase, probably revealing a checkpoint in the transition from pachytene to meiosis I...
  4. Damiens E, Baratte B, Marie D, Eisenbrand G, Meijer L. Anti-mitotic properties of indirubin-3'-monoxime, a CDK/GSK-3 inhibitor: induction of endoreplication following prophase arrest. Oncogene. 2001;20:3786-97 pubmed
    ..As soon as indirubin-3'-monoxime is washed away, these polyploid cells become aneuploid and later die from necrosis. This mechanism of endoreplication followed by cell death may contribute to the anti-tumour properties of indirubins. ..
  5. Bass H. Telomere dynamics unique to meiotic prophase: formation and significance of the bouquet. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:2319-24 pubmed
    Telomeres carry out conserved and possibly ancient functions in meiosis. During the specialized prophase of meiosis I, meiotic prophase, telomeres cluster on the nuclear envelope and move the diploid genetic material around within the ..
  6. Soni D, Jacobberger J. Inhibition of cdk1 by alsterpaullone and thioflavopiridol correlates with increased transit time from mid G2 through prophase. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:349-57 pubmed
    ..that cyclin B1/cdk1 regulates the G2 to M transition and that its activity is maximal during the period from prophase to metaphase in mammalian cells...
  7. Su Y, Li Y, Ye P. Mammalian meiosis is more conserved by sex than by species: conserved co-expression networks of meiotic prophase. Reproduction. 2011;142:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..reproduction, we know remarkably little about the genes and pathways that regulate meiotic progression through prophase in any mammalian species...
  8. Molnar M, Bahler J, Kohli J, Hiraoka Y. Live observation of fission yeast meiosis in recombination-deficient mutants: a study on achiasmate chromosome segregation. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:2843-53 pubmed
    ..We have studied meiotic stages in living rec8 and rec7 mutant cells of fission yeast, with special attention to prophase and the first meiotic division...
  9. Liu L, Akhter S, Bae J, Mukhopadhyay S, Richie C, Liu X, et al. SNM1B/Apollo interacts with astrin and is required for the prophase cell cycle checkpoint. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:628-38 pubmed
    ..SNM1B-deficient cells exhibit a defect in the prophase checkpoint...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bürklen T, Hirschy A, Wallimann T. Brain-type creatine kinase BB-CK interacts with the Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 in early prophase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;297:53-64 pubmed
    ..report here for the first time that GM130 and BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase...
  2. Ding D, Sakurai N, Katou Y, Itoh T, Shirahige K, Haraguchi T, et al. Meiotic cohesins modulate chromosome compaction during meiotic prophase in fission yeast. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:499-508 pubmed
    ..pombe, we found an additional role for the meiotic cohesin in the compaction of chromosomes during meiotic prophase. In the absence of Rec8, chromosomes were decompacted relative to those of wild-type cells...
  3. Pandita T, Westphal C, Anger M, Sawant S, Geard C, Pandita R, et al. Atm inactivation results in aberrant telomere clustering during meiotic prophase. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:5096-105 pubmed
    ..individuals frequently display gonadal atrophy, and Atm-/- mice show spermatogenic failure due to arrest at prophase of meiosis I...
  4. Hagting A, Jackman M, Simpson K, Pines J. Translocation of cyclin B1 to the nucleus at prophase requires a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear import signal. Curr Biol. 1999;9:680-9 pubmed
    ..that phosphorylation of human cyclin B1 is required for its rapid translocation to the nucleus towards the end of prophase. Phosphorylation enhances cyclin B1 nuclear import by creating a nuclear import signal...
  5. Asakawa H, Hayashi A, Haraguchi T, Hiraoka Y. Dissociation of the Nuf2-Ndc80 complex releases centromeres from the spindle-pole body during meiotic prophase in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2325-38 pubmed
    ..In contrast, during meiotic prophase centromeres dissociate from the SPB...
  6. Berrios S, Ayarza E, Moreno M, Paulos A, Fernandez Donoso R. Non-random distribution of the pericentromeric heterochromatin in meiotic prophase nuclei of mammalian spermatocytes. Genetica. 1999;106:187-95 pubmed
    ..We also discuss some of the biological consequences that could arise from the conservation of such distributions. ..
  7. Nogueira D, Albano C, Adriaenssens T, Cortvrindt R, Bourgain C, Devroey P, et al. Human oocytes reversibly arrested in prophase I by phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1042-52 pubmed
    ..of a selective PDE 3 inhibitor, Org 9935 (10 microM), oocytes retrieved from immature follicles were arrested in prophase I with a high efficiency for up to 72 h...
  8. Li H, Liu X, Yang X, Song B, Wang Y, Liu X. Polo-like kinase 1 phosphorylation of p150Glued facilitates nuclear envelope breakdown during prophase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..that p150(Glued), the major component of the dynein/dynactin complex, localizes in the nuclear envelope during prophase, the exact role of p150(Glued) and its regulation during NEBD are largely elusive...
  9. Bass H, Bordoli S, Foss E. The desynaptic (dy) and desynaptic1 (dsy1) mutations in maize (Zea mays L) cause distinct telomere-misplacement phenotypes during meiotic prophase. J Exp Bot. 2003;54:39-46 pubmed
    During meiotic prophase, telomeres actively attach themselves to the nuclear envelope and cluster in an arrangement called the bouquet...
  10. Jackman M, Lindon C, Nigg E, Pines J. Active cyclin B1-Cdk1 first appears on centrosomes in prophase. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:143-8 pubmed
    ..We show that cyclin B1 is initially phosphorylated on centrosomes in prophase and that Plk1 phosphorylates cyclin B1, but not in the NES...
  11. Jiang R, Liang H. Mitotic reversion in prophase of PTK1 cells induced by argon laser microirradiation. Cell Biophys. 1989;14:271-82 pubmed
    In this paper, we report the effects of laser microirradiation of prophase nucleoli and mitotic chromosomes in cells of female rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cell line PTK1...
  12. Molnar M, Bahler J, Sipiczki M, Kohli J. The rec8 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is involved in linear element formation, chromosome pairing and sister-chromatid cohesion during meiosis. Genetics. 1995;141:61-73 pubmed
    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not form tripartite synaptonemal complexes during meiotic prophase, but axial core-like structures (linear elements)...
  13. Cheng C, Lo Y, Liang S, Ti S, Lin F, Yeh C, et al. SUMO modifications control assembly of synaptonemal complex and polycomplex in meiosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2067-81 pubmed
    ..SC) is a proteinaceous complex that apparently mediates synapsis between homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Zip1 protein is the integral component of the SC...
  14. Park E, Taketo T. Onset and progress of meiotic prophase in the oocytes in the B6.YTIR sex-reversed mouse ovary. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1879-89 pubmed
    ..To identify the primary defect in the XY oocyte, we examined the onset and progress of meiotic prophase in the B6.YTIR fetal ovary...
  15. Li Y, Lam K, Dasgupta N, Ye P. A yeast's eye view of mammalian reproduction: cross-species gene co-expression in meiotic prophase. BMC Syst Biol. 2010;4:125 pubmed publisher
    Meiotic prophase is a critical stage in sexual reproduction. Aberrant chromosome recombination during this stage is a leading cause of human miscarriages and birth defects...
  16. Buheitel J, Stemmann O. Prophase pathway-dependent removal of cohesin from human chromosomes requires opening of the Smc3-Scc1 gate. EMBO J. 2013;32:666-76 pubmed publisher
    ..is removed in late metaphase by Scc1 cleavage, metazoan cohesin at chromosome arms is displaced already in prophase by proteolysis-independent signalling...
  17. Scherthan H, Eils R, Trelles Sticken E, Dietzel S, Cremer T, Walt H, et al. Aspects of three-dimensional chromosome reorganization during the onset of human male meiotic prophase. J Cell Sci. 1998;111 ( Pt 16):2337-51 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that, in mammals, homology search is executed during leptotene, after remodeling of chromosome territories. ..
  18. LaFountain J, Siegel A, Rickards G. Chromosome movement during meiotic prophase in crane-fly spermatocytes: IV. Actin and the effects of cytochalasin D. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1999;43:199-212 pubmed
    ..None of those treatments resulted in cessation of prophase movements in living cells...
  19. Scherthan H. A bouquet makes ends meet. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001;2:621-7 pubmed
    ..There have been many hypotheses about its role in the pairing of meiotic chromosomes, but until recently these have been difficult to test. ..
  20. Hong A, Lee Kong S, Iida T, Sugimura I, Lilly M. The p27cip/kip ortholog dacapo maintains the Drosophila oocyte in prophase of meiosis I. Development. 2003;130:1235-42 pubmed
    Animal oocytes undergo a highly conserved developmental arrest in prophase of meiosis I...
  21. Oliveira R, Heidmann S, Sunkel C. Condensin I binds chromatin early in prophase and displays a highly dynamic association with Drosophila mitotic chromosomes. Chromosoma. 2007;116:259-74 pubmed
    ..We find that, in Drosophila, Barren-EGFP associates with chromatin early in prophase concomitantly with the initiation of chromosome condensation...
  22. Mu X, Lee Y, Liu N, Chen Y, Kim E, Shyr C, et al. Targeted inactivation of testicular nuclear orphan receptor 4 delays and disrupts late meiotic prophase and subsequent meiotic divisions of spermatogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5887-99 pubmed
    ..TR4 can be detected at postnatal days 16 to 21 when the first wave of spermatogenesis progresses to late meiotic prophase. Using a knockout strategy to delete TR4 in mice, we found that sperm production in TR4(-/-) mice is reduced...
  23. Kyozuka K, Deguchi R, Yoshida N, Yamashita M. Change in intracellular Ca2+ is not involved in serotonin-induced meiosis reinitiation from the first prophase in oocytes of the marine bivalve Crassostrea gigas. Dev Biol. 1997;182:33-41 pubmed
    In response to the neurohormone serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), prophase-arrested oocytes of the marine bivalve Crassostrea gigas (oyster) reinitiate meiosis, undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and are arrested again at ..
  24. Page J, Berríos S, Rufas J, Parra M, Suja J, Heyting C, et al. The pairing of X and Y chromosomes during meiotic prophase in the marsupial species Thylamys elegans is maintained by a dense plate developed from their axial elements. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:551-60 pubmed
    Unlike eutherian males, pairing of the sex chromosomes in marsupial males during the first meiotic prophase is not mediated by a synaptonemal complex...
  25. Freudzon L, Norris R, Hand A, Tanaka S, Saeki Y, Jones T, et al. Regulation of meiotic prophase arrest in mouse oocytes by GPR3, a constitutive activator of the Gs G protein. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:255-65 pubmed
    The arrest of meiotic prophase in mouse oocytes within antral follicles requires the G protein G(s) and an orphan member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, GPR3...
  26. Miyagishima H, Isono K, Fujimura Y, Iyo M, Takihara Y, Masumoto H, et al. Dissociation of mammalian Polycomb-group proteins, Ring1B and Rae28/Ph1, from the chromatin correlates with configuration changes of the chromatin in mitotic and meiotic prophase. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;120:111-9 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that Rae28/Ph1 and Ring1B dissociate from the chromatin upon its condensation in mitotic prophase in the U2-OS human osteosarcoma cell line...
  27. Furuno N, den Elzen N, Pines J. Human cyclin A is required for mitosis until mid prophase. J Cell Biol. 1999;147:295-306 pubmed
    ..We find that p21N will prevent S phase or G2 phase cells from entering mitosis, and will cause early prophase cells to return to interphase...
  28. Labbé J, McCarthy E, Goldstein B. The forces that position a mitotic spindle asymmetrically are tethered until after the time of spindle assembly. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:245-56 pubmed
    ..We find that asymmetric pulling forces, regulated by cortical PAR proteins, begin to act as early as prophase and prometaphase, even before the spindle forms and shifts to a posterior position...
  29. Hiraoka Y, Ding D, Yamamoto A, Tsutsumi C, Chikashige Y. Characterization of fission yeast meiotic mutants based on live observation of meiotic prophase nuclear movement. Chromosoma. 2000;109:103-9 pubmed
    ..Mei1 and mei4 both arrest during meiotic prophase; our observations, however, show that the timing of mei1 arrest is quite different from that of mei4: the mei1 ..
  30. Smirnova N, Romanienko P, Khil P, Camerini Otero R. Gene expression profiles of Spo11-/- mouse testes with spermatocytes arrested in meiotic prophase I. Reproduction. 2006;132:67-77 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discovered unknown genes that are affected by the disruption of the Spo11 gene and therefore may be specifically involved in meiosis and spermatogenesis. ..
  31. Kueng S, Hegemann B, Peters B, Lipp J, Schleiffer A, Mechtler K, et al. Wapl controls the dynamic association of cohesin with chromatin. Cell. 2006;127:955-67 pubmed
    ..Wapl depletion also increases the residence time of cohesin on chromatin in interphase. Our data indicate that Wapl is required to unlock cohesin from a particular state in which it is stably bound to chromatin. ..
  32. Nimmo E, Pidoux A, Perry P, Allshire R. Defective meiosis in telomere-silencing mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Nature. 1998;392:825-8 pubmed
    During meiotic prophase, chromosomes frequently adopt a bouquet-like arrangement, with their telomeres clustered close to the nuclear periphery...
  33. Toyoshima Morimoto F, Taniguchi E, Shinya N, Iwamatsu A, Nishida E. Polo-like kinase 1 phosphorylates cyclin B1 and targets it to the nucleus during prophase. Nature. 2001;410:215-20 pubmed
    In vertebrate cells, the nuclear entry of Cdc2-cyclin B1 (MPF) during prophase is thought to be essential for the induction and coordination of M-phase events...
  34. Akmal K, Dufour J, Kim K. Retinoic acid receptor alpha gene expression in the rat testis: potential role during the prophase of meiosis and in the transition from round to elongating spermatids. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:549-56 pubmed
    ..The protein was also expressed in germ cells in the prophase of meiosis and at very low levels in Sertoli cells...
  35. Rusan N, Tulu U, Fagerstrom C, Wadsworth P. Reorganization of the microtubule array in prophase/prometaphase requires cytoplasmic dynein-dependent microtubule transport. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:997-1003 pubmed
    ..Microtubules in cells stably expressing GFP-alpha-tubulin were directly observed from prophase to just after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) in early prometaphase...
  36. Vazquez J, Belmont A, Sedat J. The dynamics of homologous chromosome pairing during male Drosophila meiosis. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1473-83 pubmed
    ..also suggest that the formation of chromosome territories in the spermatocyte nucleus may play an active role in ensuring the specificity of meiotic pairing in late prophase by disrupting interactions between nonhomologous chromosomes.
  37. Cheng C, Lin F, Lo Y, Wang T. Tying SUMO modifications to dynamic behaviors of chromosomes during meiotic prophase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biomed Sci. 2007;14:481-90 pubmed
    ..Immediately after cells enter meiotic prophase, chromosomes undergo global reorganization, including bouquet formation (telomere clustering), non-homologous ..
  38. Salina D, Bodoor K, Eckley D, Schroer T, Rattner J, Burke B. Cytoplasmic dynein as a facilitator of nuclear envelope breakdown. Cell. 2002;108:97-107 pubmed
    During prophase in higher cells, centrosomes localize to deep invaginations in the nuclear envelope in a microtubule-dependent process...
  39. d Erfurth I, Cromer L, Jolivet S, Girard C, Horlow C, Sun Y, et al. The cyclin-A CYCA1;2/TAM is required for the meiosis I to meiosis II transition and cooperates with OSD1 for the prophase to first meiotic division transition. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000989 pubmed publisher
    ..This process involves two cell transitions, the transition from prophase to the first meiotic division (meiosis I) and the unique meiosis I to meiosis II transition...
  40. Kalinowski R, Berlot C, Jones T, Ross L, Jaffe L, Mehlmann L. Maintenance of meiotic prophase arrest in vertebrate oocytes by a Gs protein-mediated pathway. Dev Biol. 2004;267:1-13 pubmed
    Maintenance of meiotic prophase arrest in fully grown vertebrate oocytes depends on an elevated level of cAMP in the oocyte...
  41. Colanzi A, Sutterlin C, Malhotra V. RAF1-activated MEK1 is found on the Golgi apparatus in late prophase and is required for Golgi complex fragmentation in mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;161:27-32 pubmed
    ..We show that activated MEK1 is found on the Golgi apparatus in late prophase. The fragmented and dispersed Golgi membranes in prometaphase and later stages of mitosis do not contain ..
  42. Barlow C, Liyanage M, Moens P, Tarsounas M, Nagashima K, Brown K, et al. Atm deficiency results in severe meiotic disruption as early as leptonema of prophase I. Development. 1998;125:4007-17 pubmed
    ..Spermatocyte degeneration begins between postnatal days 8 and 16.5, soon after entry into prophase I of meiosis, while oocytes degenerate late in embryogenesis prior to dictyate arrest...
  43. Nakajo N, Oe T, Uto K, Sagata N. Involvement of Chk1 kinase in prophase I arrest of Xenopus oocytes. Dev Biol. 1999;207:432-44 pubmed
    ..Immature Xenopus oocytes are arrested naturally at the first meiotic prophase (prophase I) or the late G2 phase, with sustained Cdc2 Tyr-15 phosphorylation...
  44. Mochizuki K, Gorovsky M. A Dicer-like protein in Tetrahymena has distinct functions in genome rearrangement, chromosome segregation, and meiotic prophase. Genes Dev. 2005;19:77-89 pubmed
    ..Dcl1p also is required for proper mitotic and meiotic segregation of micronuclear chromosomes and for normal chromosome alignment in meiotic prophase, suggesting that DCL1 has multiple functions in regulating chromosome dynamics.
  45. Ferenz N, Wadsworth P. Prophase microtubule arrays undergo flux-like behavior in mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3993-4002 pubmed
    ..5-4.5 microm/min) in prophase cells. Rapid microtubule motion in both directions is dynein dependent...
  46. MacQueen A, Villeneuve A. Nuclear reorganization and homologous chromosome pairing during meiotic prophase require C. elegans chk-2. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1674-87 pubmed
    ..elegans chk-2 in initial establishment of pairing between homologous chromosomes during early meiotic prophase. chk-2 is also required for the major spatial reorganization of nuclei that normally accompanies the onset of ..
  47. Bashkirov V, Solinger J, Heyer W. Identification of functional domains in the Sep1 protein (= Kem1, Xrn1), which is required for transition through meiotic prophase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chromosoma. 1995;104:215-22 pubmed
    ..The most striking phenotype of SEP1 null mutations is quantitative arrest during meiotic prophase at the pachytene stage...
  48. Kang Y, Park J, Yu L, Soung N, Yun S, Bang J, et al. Self-regulated Plk1 recruitment to kinetochores by the Plk1-PBIP1 interaction is critical for proper chromosome segregation. Mol Cell. 2006;24:409-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, Plk1 self-regulates the Plk1-PBIP1 interaction to timely localize to the kinetochores and promote proper chromosome segregation. ..
  49. Chikashige Y, Tsutsumi C, Yamane M, Okamasa K, Haraguchi T, Hiraoka Y. Meiotic proteins bqt1 and bqt2 tether telomeres to form the bouquet arrangement of chromosomes. Cell. 2006;125:59-69 pubmed
    ..Significantly, when both Bqt1 and Bqt2 are ectopically expressed in mitotic cells, they also form a bridge between Rap1 and Sad1. Thus, a complex including Bqt1 and Bqt2 is essential for connecting telomeres to the SPB. ..
  50. Muller J, Beck M, Mettbach U, Komis G, Hause G, Menzel D, et al. Arabidopsis MPK6 is involved in cell division plane control during early root development, and localizes to the pre-prophase band, phragmoplast, trans-Golgi network and plasma membrane. Plant J. 2010;61:234-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In dividing root cells, MPK6 was localized on the subcellular level to distinct fine spots in the pre-prophase band and phragmoplast, representing the two most important cytoskeletal structures controlling the cell division ..
  51. McKee A, Kleckner N. A general method for identifying recessive diploid-specific mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its application to the isolation of mutants blocked at intermediate stages of meiotic prophase and characterization of a new gene SAE2. Genetics. 1997;146:797-816 pubmed
    ..the application of this method to the identification of mutations that confer an intermediate block in meiotic prophase chromosome metabolism...
  52. Lee C, Conrad M, Dresser M. Meiotic chromosome pairing is promoted by telomere-led chromosome movements independent of bouquet formation. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002730 pubmed publisher
    Chromosome pairing in meiotic prophase is a prerequisite for the high fidelity of chromosome segregation that haploidizes the genome prior to gamete formation...
  53. Hirota T, Gerlich D, Koch B, Ellenberg J, Peters J. Distinct functions of condensin I and II in mitotic chromosome assembly. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6435-45 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that in mammalian cells condensin II associates with chromatin in prophase, in contrast to condensin I which is cytoplasmic and can thus interact with chromosomes only after nuclear ..