chromosome segregation


Summary: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Reynolds A, Qiao H, Yang Y, Chen J, Jackson N, Biswas K, et al. RNF212 is a dosage-sensitive regulator of crossing-over during mammalian meiosis. Nat Genet. 2013;45:269-78 pubmed publisher
    Crossing-over ensures accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, and every pair of chromosomes obtains at least one crossover, even though the majority of recombination sites yield non-crossovers...
  2. Lampert F, Mieck C, Alushin G, Nogales E, Westermann S. Molecular requirements for the formation of a kinetochore-microtubule interface by Dam1 and Ndc80 complexes. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..complex, but how they work in combination and whether a physical association between them is critical for chromosome segregation is poorly understood...
  3. Tedeschi A, Wutz G, Huet S, Jaritz M, Wuensche A, Schirghuber E, et al. Wapl is an essential regulator of chromatin structure and chromosome segregation. Nature. 2013;501:564-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In mitosis, Wapl-mediated release of cohesin from DNA is essential for proper chromosome segregation and protects cohesin from cleavage by the protease separase, thus enabling mitotic exit in the presence of ..
  4. Elabd C, Cousin W, Chen R, Chooljian M, Pham J, Conboy I, et al. DNA methyltransferase-3-dependent nonrandom template segregation in differentiating embryonic stem cells. J Cell Biol. 2013;203:73-85 pubmed publisher
  5. Cundell M, Bastos R, Zhang T, Holder J, Gruneberg U, Novak B, et al. The BEG (PP2A-B55/ENSA/Greatwall) pathway ensures cytokinesis follows chromosome separation. Mol Cell. 2013;52:393-405 pubmed publisher
    Cytokinesis follows separase activation and chromosome segregation. This order is ensured in budding yeast by the mitotic exit network (MEN), where Cdc14p dephosphorylates key conserved Cdk1-substrates exemplified by the anaphase spindle-..
  6. Usongo V, Tanguay C, Nolent F, Bessong J, Drolet M. Interplay between type 1A topoisomerases and gyrase in chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:1758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in vivo, a chromosome segregation defect is seen only when both type 1A topoisomerases are absent...
  7. Woglar A, Daryabeigi A, Adamo A, Habacher C, Machacek T, La Volpe A, et al. Matefin/SUN-1 phosphorylation is part of a surveillance mechanism to coordinate chromosome synapsis and recombination with meiotic progression and chromosome movement. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003335 pubmed publisher
    Faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis I depends on the establishment of a crossover between homologous chromosomes...
  8. Westhorpe F, Straight A. Functions of the centromere and kinetochore in chromosome segregation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013;25:334-40 pubmed publisher
    Centromeres play essential roles in equal chromosome segregation by directing the assembly of the microtubule binding kinetochore and serving as the cohesion site between sister chromatids...
  9. Paradzik T, Ivic N, Filic Z, Manjasetty B, Herron P, Luic M, et al. Structure-function relationships of two paralogous single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Streptomyces coelicolor: implication of SsbB in chromosome segregation during sporulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3659-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Following mutational analysis, we concluded that ssbA is essential, whereas ssbB plays a key role in chromosome segregation during sporulation. In the ssbB mutant, ?30% of spores lacked DNA...

More Information


  1. Davydenko O, Schultz R, Lampson M. Increased CDK1 activity determines the timing of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in meiosis I. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:221-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromosome segregation during cell division depends on stable attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules...
  2. Lemmens B, Johnson N, Tijsterman M. COM-1 promotes homologous recombination during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis by antagonizing Ku-mediated non-homologous end joining. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003276 pubmed publisher
    ..joining (NHEJ), yet only repair via HR can generate the interhomolog crossovers (COs) needed for meiotic chromosome segregation. Here we identify COM-1, the homolog of CtIP/Sae2/Ctp1, as a crucial regulator of DSB repair pathway ..
  3. Matos J, Blanco M, West S. Cell-cycle kinases coordinate the resolution of recombination intermediates with chromosome segregation. Cell Rep. 2013;4:76-86 pubmed publisher
    Homologous recombination leads to the formation of DNA joint molecules (JMs) that must be resolved to allow chromosome segregation, but how resolution is temporally coupled with chromosome segregation is unknown...
  4. Hinshaw S, Harrison S. An Iml3-Chl4 heterodimer links the core centromere to factors required for accurate chromosome segregation. Cell Rep. 2013;5:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that at the core centromere, the Chl4-Iml3 complex participates in recruiting factors, such as Sgo1, that influence sister chromatid cohesion and encourage sister kinetochore biorientation. ..
  5. Kim S, Meyer R, Chuong H, Dawson D. Dual mechanisms prevent premature chromosome segregation during meiosis. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, kinetochores reassemble. Thus, dual mechanisms controlled by Ipl1 and Ntd80 coordinate chromosome and spindle behaviors to prevent the attachment of unpartnered chromosomes to the meiotic spindle. ..
  6. Stephens A, Haggerty R, Vasquez P, Vicci L, Snider C, Shi F, et al. Pericentric chromatin loops function as a nonlinear spring in mitotic force balance. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:757-72 pubmed publisher which sister chromatids maintain biorientation on the metaphase spindle are critical to the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Active force interplay exists between predominantly extensional microtubule-based spindle forces and ..
  7. Cheerambathur D, Gassmann R, Cook B, Oegema K, Desai A. Crosstalk between microtubule attachment complexes ensures accurate chromosome segregation. Science. 2013;342:1239-42 pubmed publisher
    The microtubule-based mitotic spindle segregates chromosomes during cell division. During chromosome segregation, the centromeric regions of chromosomes build kinetochores that establish end-coupled attachments to spindle microtubules...
  8. Campbell C, Desai A. Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization. Nature. 2013;497:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of budding yeast CPC that eliminates association with the inner centromere nevertheless supports proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis...
  9. Akiyoshi B, Gull K. Evolutionary cell biology of chromosome segregation: insights from trypanosomes. Open Biol. 2013;3:130023 pubmed publisher
    Faithful transmission of genetic material is essential for the survival of all organisms. Eukaryotic chromosome segregation is driven by the kinetochore that assembles onto centromeric DNA to capture spindle microtubules and govern the ..
  10. Kuwada N, Cheveralls K, Traxler B, Wiggins P. Mapping the driving forces of chromosome structure and segregation in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:7370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed map is most consistent with force generation by an active mechanism, but one that generates much smaller forces than canonical molecular motors, including those driving eukaryotic chromosome segregation.
  11. Wang X, Montero Llopis P, Rudner D. Organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. Nat Rev Genet. 2013;14:191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar principles and common proteins are used in eukaryotes to condense and to resolve sister chromatids at metaphase. ..
  12. Ditkowski B, Holmes N, Rydzak J, Donczew M, Bezulska M, Ginda K, et al. Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor. Open Biol. 2013;3:130006 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA-Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation...
  13. Eissler C, Mazon G, Powers B, Savinov S, Symington L, Hall M. The Cdk/cDc14 module controls activation of the Yen1 holliday junction resolvase to promote genome stability. Mol Cell. 2014;54:80-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The precise timing of Yen1 activation, governed by core cell-cycle regulators, helps coordinate DNA repair with chromosome segregation and safeguards against genome destabilization.
  14. Kotadia S, Montembault E, Sullivan W, Royou A. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:745-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells...
  15. Gerton J. Translational mechanisms at work in the cohesinopathies. Nucleus. 2012;3:520-5 pubmed publisher
    Chromosome cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for the process of chromosome segregation. Mutations in cohesin and its regulators are associated with a group of human diseases known as the cohesinopathies...
  16. Touati S, Cladière D, Lister L, Leontiou I, Chambon J, Rattani A, et al. Cyclin A2 is required for sister chromatid segregation, but not separase control, in mouse oocyte meiosis. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1077-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we found that cyclin B1, but not cyclin A2, inhibits separase in meiosis I. These findings indicate that separase-dependent cohesin removal is differentially regulated by cyclin B1 and A2 in mammalian meiosis. ..
  17. Di Ventura B, Knecht B, Andreas H, Godinez W, Fritsche M, Rohr K, et al. Chromosome segregation by the Escherichia coli Min system. Mol Syst Biol. 2013;9:686 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms underlying chromosome segregation in prokaryotes remain a subject of debate and no unifying view has yet emerged...
  18. Berchowitz L, Gajadhar A, van Werven F, De Rosa A, Samoylova M, Brar G, et al. A developmentally regulated translational control pathway establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern. Genes Dev. 2013;27:2147-63 pubmed publisher
    ..cluster of genes at the meiosis I-meiosis II transition, including the critical determinant of the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern CLB3...
  19. Jiang Y, Li X, Yang W, Hawke D, Zheng Y, Xia Y, et al. PKM2 regulates chromosome segregation and mitosis progression of tumor cells. Mol Cell. 2014;53:75-87 pubmed publisher essential for correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment, mitotic/spindle-assembly checkpoint, accurate chromosome segregation, cell survival and proliferation, and active EGF receptor-induced brain tumorigenesis...
  20. Ginda K, Bezulska M, Zi kiewicz M, Dziadek J, Zakrzewska Czerwi ska J, Jakimowicz D. ParA of Mycobacterium smegmatis co-ordinates chromosome segregation with the cell cycle and interacts with the polar growth determinant DivIVA. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:998-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..that the genes encoding ParA and ParB (ATPase and DNA binding protein, respectively, required for active chromosome segregation) may be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  21. Jones K, Lane S. Molecular causes of aneuploidy in mammalian eggs. Development. 2013;140:3719-30 pubmed publisher
  22. Ng T, Lenstra T, Duggan N, Jiang S, Ceto S, Holstege F, et al. Kinetochore function and chromosome segregation rely on critical residues in histones H3 and H4 in budding yeast. Genetics. 2013;195:795-807 pubmed publisher
    Accurate chromosome segregation requires that sister kinetochores biorient and attach to microtubules from opposite poles...
  23. Sauer S, Burkett S, Lewandoski M, Klar A. A CO-FISH assay to assess sister chromatid segregation patterns in mitosis of mouse embryonic stem cells. Chromosome Res. 2013;21:311-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our straightforward protocol represents a useful resource for future studies on chromatid segregation patterns of in vitro-cultured cells from distinct model organisms. ..
  24. Syrovatkina V, Fu C, Tran P. Antagonistic spindle motors and MAPs regulate metaphase spindle length and chromosome segregation. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Spindle length is further proposed to be important for chromosome segregation fidelity, as cells with shorter- or longer-than-normal metaphase spindles, generated through deletion or ..
  25. Howard Till R, Lukaszewicz A, Novatchkova M, Loidl J. A single cohesin complex performs mitotic and meiotic functions in the protist tetrahymena. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003418 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi knockdown experiments demonstrated that cohesin is crucial for normal chromosome segregation and meiotic DSB repair...
  26. Yadlapalli S, Yamashita Y. Chromosome-specific nonrandom sister chromatid segregation during stem-cell division. Nature. 2013;498:251-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that nonrandom sister chromatid segregation may serve to transmit distinct information carried on two sister chromatids to the daughters of asymmetrically dividing stem cells. ..
  27. Bush M, Bibb M, Chandra G, Findlay K, Buttner M. Genes required for aerial growth, cell division, and chromosome segregation are targets of WhiA before sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae. MBio. 2013;4:e00684-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Construction of a null mutant showed that whiA is required for the initiation of sporulation septation and chromosome segregation in S...
  28. Falconer E, Lansdorp P. Strand-seq: a unifying tool for studies of chromosome segregation. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2013;24:643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is expected to help unify the field by testing previous claims of non-random segregation in an unbiased way in many model systems in vitro and in vivo. ..
  29. Jayaram M, Chang K, Ma C, Huang C, Liu Y, Sau S. Topological similarity between the 2?m plasmid partitioning locus and the budding yeast centromere: evidence for a common evolutionary origin?. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013;41:501-7 pubmed publisher
    ..with STB in a Rep1- and Rep2-dependent manner also interact with centromeres, and play important roles in chromosome segregation. They include the cohesin complex and the centromere-specific histone H3 variant Cse4...
  30. Ma P, Schultz R. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) regulates chromosome segregation and kinetochore function via H4K16 deacetylation during oocyte maturation in mouse. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003377 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the results provide additional support that histone deacetylation that occurs during oocyte maturation is critical for proper chromosome segregation.
  31. Boeckmann L, Takahashi Y, Au W, Mishra P, Choy J, Dawson A, et al. Phosphorylation of centromeric histone H3 variant regulates chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2034-44 pubmed publisher
    The centromeric histone H3 variant (CenH3) is essential for chromosome segregation in eukaryotes. We identify posttranslational modifications of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CenH3, Cse4...
  32. Westermann S, Schleiffer A. Family matters: structural and functional conservation of centromere-associated proteins from yeast to humans. Trends Cell Biol. 2013;23:260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This connection, provided by a large, multiprotein complex, is essential for precise chromosome segregation and thus ensures genetic stability...
  33. Liu Y, Ma C, Jayaram M. Co-segregation of yeast plasmid sisters under monopolin-directed mitosis suggests association of plasmid sisters with sister chromatids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4144-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Circumstantial evidence suggests that the partitioning system couples plasmid segregation to chromosome segregation during mitosis. However, the coupling mechanism has not been elucidated...
  34. Nilsson J. Looping in on Ndc80 - how does a protein loop at the kinetochore control chromosome segregation?. Bioessays. 2012;34:1070-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here I discuss these recent findings that suggest that the Ndc80 internal loop functions as a binding site for proteins required for kinetochore-microtubule interactions. ..
  35. Vallet Gely I, Boccard F. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003492 pubmed publisher
    ..We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed...
  36. Kabeche L, Compton D. Cyclin A regulates kinetochore microtubules to promote faithful chromosome segregation. Nature. 2013;502:110-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin A creates a cellular environment that promotes microtubule detachment from kinetochores in prometaphase to ensure efficient error correction and faithful chromosome segregation.
  37. Foley E, Kapoor T. Microtubule attachment and spindle assembly checkpoint signalling at the kinetochore. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013;14:25-37 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotes, chromosome segregation during cell division is facilitated by the kinetochore, a multiprotein structure that is assembled on centromeric DNA...
  38. Biggins S. The composition, functions, and regulation of the budding yeast kinetochore. Genetics. 2013;194:817-46 pubmed publisher
    ..served as an outstanding model organism to identify the components and underlying mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation. This review focuses on the kinetochore, the macromolecular protein complex that assembles on centromeric ..
  39. Mishra P, Ottmann A, Basrai M. Structural integrity of centromeric chromatin and faithful chromosome segregation requires Pat1. Genetics. 2013;195:369-79 pubmed publisher
    The kinetochore (centromeric DNA and associated protein complex) is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and maintenance of genome stability...
  40. Drechsler H, McAinsh A. Exotic mitotic mechanisms. Open Biol. 2012;2:120140 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of eukaryotes around two billion years ago provided new challenges for the chromosome segregation machineries: the physical separation of multiple large and linear chromosomes from the microtubule-organizing centres by the ..
  41. Buttrick G, Meadows J, Lancaster T, Vanoosthuyse V, Shepperd L, Hoe K, et al. Nsk1 ensures accurate chromosome segregation by promoting association of kinetochores to spindle poles during anaphase B. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4486-502 pubmed publisher
    ..two catalytic subunits of PP1 in fission yeast, and identified Nsk1, a novel protein required for accurate chromosome segregation. During interphase, Nsk1 resides in the nucleolus but spreads throughout the nucleoplasm as cells enter ..
  42. Chen J, Lu L, Ohi M, Creamer K, English C, Partridge J, et al. Cdk1 phosphorylation of the kinetochore protein Nsk1 prevents error-prone chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..many aspects of mitotic chromosome behavior and spindle microtubule (MT) dynamics to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. In this paper, we characterize a new kinetochore substrate of fission yeast Cdk1, Nsk1, which promotes ..
  43. Guse A, Carroll C, Moree B, Fuller C, Straight A. In vitro centromere and kinetochore assembly on defined chromatin templates. Nature. 2011;477:354-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that two of the primary requirements for accurate chromosome segregation, the assembly of the kinetochore and the propagation of CENP-A chromatin, are specified by different ..
  44. Takeo S, Lake C, Morais de Sá E, Sunkel C, Hawley R. Synaptonemal complex-dependent centromeric clustering and the initiation of synapsis in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the synaptonemal complex (SC) are essential for subsequent meiotic processes including recombination and chromosome segregation. Here we show that the centromere clustering plays an important role in initiating homolog synapsis during ..
  45. Guacci V, Koshland D. Cohesin-independent segregation of sister chromatids in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:729-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Smc3-K113Q is defective for condensation, whereas eco1? wpl1? and smc3-K112R,K113Q strains are competent for condensation. We suggest that Smc3p acetylation and Wpl1p antagonistically regulate cohesin's essential role in condensation. ..
  46. Zhang G, Kelstrup C, Hu X, Kaas Hansen M, Singleton M, Olsen J, et al. The Ndc80 internal loop is required for recruitment of the Ska complex to establish end-on microtubule attachment to kinetochores. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3243-53 pubmed publisher
    The Ndc80 complex establishes end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules, which is essential for chromosome segregation. The Ndc80 subunit is characterized by an N-terminal region that binds directly to microtubules, and a long ..
  47. Umbreit N, Davis T. Mitosis puts sisters in a strained relationship: force generation at the kinetochore. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:1361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..attachments, kinetochores also integrate and respond to regulatory signals that ensure the accuracy of chromosome segregation during each cell division...
  48. Sasagawa Y, Higashitani A, Urano T, Ogura T, Yamanaka K. CDC-48/p97 is required for proper meiotic chromosome segregation via controlling AIR-2/Aurora B kinase localization in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Struct Biol. 2012;179:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that CDC-48s are required for proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in C. elegans...
  49. Wan J, Subramonian D, Zhang X. SUMOylation in control of accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012;13:467-81 pubmed small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for chromosome segregation during mitosis...
  50. Sebestova J, Danylevska A, Novakova L, Kubelka M, Anger M. Lack of response to unaligned chromosomes in mammalian female gametes. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3011-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromosome segregation errors are highly frequent in mammalian female meiosis, and their incidence gradually increases with maternal age...
  51. Reyes Lamothe R, Nicolas E, Sherratt D. Chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:121-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe what is known about the three conserved families of ATP-binding proteins that contribute to chromosome segregation and discuss their inter-relationships in a range of disparate bacteria.
  52. Foley E, Maldonado M, Kapoor T. Formation of stable attachments between kinetochores and microtubules depends on the B56-PP2A phosphatase. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1265-71 pubmed publisher
    Error-free chromosome segregation depends on the precise regulation of phosphorylation to stabilize kinetochore-microtubule attachments (K-fibres) on sister chromatids that have attached to opposite spindle poles (bi-oriented)...
  53. Passot F, Calderon V, Fichant G, Lane D, Pasta F. Centromere binding and evolution of chromosomal partition systems in the Burkholderiales. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that we are witnessing a plasmid-chromosome interaction from which a third chromosome will emerge in a two-chromosome species...