Summary: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.

Top Publications

  1. Lin Y, Yang C, Lu K, Huang K, Zheng Y. Synthesis of agar microparticles using temperature-controlled microfluidic devices for Cordyceps militaris cultivation. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:3157-63 pubmed publisher
    A temperature-controlled microfluidic approach was developed for fabricating monodispersed agar beads with the potential to be a brand-new strategy for cultivating Cordyceps militaris...
  2. Martins M, Viveiros M, Couto I, Costa S, Pacheco T, Fanning S, et al. Identification of efflux pump-mediated multidrug-resistant bacteria by the ethidium bromide-agar cartwheel method. In Vivo. 2011;25:171-8 pubmed
    ..The agar-based method, previously reported, has been modified to evaluate as many as twelve bacterial strains and has been ..
  3. Eckert C, Burghoffer B, Lalande V, Barbut F. Evaluation of the chromogenic agar chromID C. difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1002-4 pubmed publisher
    Three selective media (chromID C. difficile agar, taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin agar [TCCA; homemade], and CLO medium) were compared from 406 stool samples of patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection...
  4. Wuthiekanun V, Amornchai P, Paris D, Langla S, Thaipadunpanit J, Chierakul W, et al. Rapid isolation and susceptibility testing of Leptospira spp. using a new solid medium, LVW agar. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..These included the type of base agar, the concentration of rabbit serum (RS), and the concentration and duration of CO(2) incubation during the initial ..
  5. Seo J, Kim P, Lee J, Song J, Peck K, Chung D, et al. Evaluation of PCR-based screening for vancomycin-resistant enterococci compared with a chromogenic agar-based culture method. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:945-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a prospective study of VRE screening tests to compare the performance of PCR to that of a chromogenic agar-based culture method...
  6. Canizalez Roman A, Flores Villaseñor H, Zazueta Beltran J, Muro Amador S, Leon Sicairos N. Comparative evaluation of a chromogenic agar medium-PCR protocol with a conventional method for isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from environmental and clinical samples. Can J Microbiol. 2011;57:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Vibrio (CV) medium-PCR protocol and the conventional method (TCBS (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) agar plus biochemical and Wagatsuma agar tests) for detection of V...
  7. Francavilla M, Pineda A, Lin C, Franchi M, Trotta P, Romero A, et al. Natural porous agar materials from macroalgae. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;92:1555-60 pubmed publisher
    Porous agar materials have been prepared from marine macroalgae species using a simple microwave-assisted extraction/drying methodology, providing a new family of polysaccharide derived porous solids...
  8. Riederer K, Shemes S, Chase P, Musta A, Mar A, Khatib R. Detection of intermediately vancomycin-susceptible and heterogeneous Staphylococcus aureus isolates: comparison of Etest and Agar screening methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth on BHI-V4 was noted in all VISA and four (12.1%) hVISA isolates. None of the S-MRSA isolates grew on BHI-V4 agar. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 75.0%, 89.0%, 38...
  9. Coban A, Akgunes A, Durupinar B. [Evaluation of blood agar medium for the growth of mycobacteria]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011;45:617-22 pubmed
    This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of blood agar for the growth of mycobacteria from clinical specimens sent to Mycobacteriology Laboratory of Samsun Chest Diseases Hospital...

Scientific Experts

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  1. Santoro M, Marchetti P, Rossi F, Perale G, Castiglione F, Mele A, et al. Smart approach to evaluate drug diffusivity in injectable agar-carbomer hydrogels for drug delivery. J Phys Chem B. 2011;115:2503-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, two injectable agar-carbomer-based hydrogels were studied, both being loaded with sodium fluorescein, a harmless fluorophore with a ..
  2. Hehemann J, Smyth L, Yadav A, Vocadlo D, Boraston A. Analysis of keystone enzyme in Agar hydrolysis provides insight into the degradation (of a polysaccharide from) red seaweeds. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This latter feature differs from the vast majority of glycoside hydrolases, which use a carboxylic acid, highlighting the alternative strategies that enzymes may utilize in catalyzing the cleavage of glycosidic bonds. ..
  3. Unger C, Luck C. Inhibitory effects of silver ions on Legionella pneumophila grown on agar, intracellular in Acanthamoeba castellanii and in artificial biofilms. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;112:1212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook a series of experiments to investigate the susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila grown under extracellular and intracellular conditions and other water-related bacteria to silver ions...
  4. Brugger S, Baumberger C, Jost M, Jenni W, Brügger U, Mühlemann K. Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33695 pubmed publisher
    Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone...
  5. Cannon L, Fagan A, Browne J. Novel tissue mimicking materials for high frequency breast ultrasound phantoms. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2011;37:122-35 pubmed publisher
    The development and acoustical characterisation of a range of novel agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMMs) for use in clinically relevant, quality assurance (QA) and anthropomorphic breast phantoms are presented...
  6. Sun C, Pye S, Browne J, Janeczko A, Ellis B, Butler M, et al. The speed of sound and attenuation of an IEC agar-based tissue-mimicking material for high frequency ultrasound applications. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2012;38:1262-70 pubmed publisher
    This study characterized the acoustic properties of an International Electromechanical Commission (IEC) agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMM) at ultrasound frequencies in the range 10-47 MHz...
  7. Aal Saraj A, Ariffin Z, Masudi S. An agar diffusion study comparing the antimicrobial activity of Nanoseal with some other endodontic sealers. Aust Endod J. 2012;38:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Agar diffusion was used in this study...
  8. Shin B, Lee E. Comparison of ChromID agar and Clostridium difficile selective agar for effective isolation of C. difficile from stool specimens. Ann Lab Med. 2014;34:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ChromID Clostridium difficile agar (IDCd; bioMérieux SA, France) is a recently developed chromogenic medium for rapid and specific isolation of C. difficile...
  9. Silveira Gomes F, Sarmento D, Espírito Santo E, Souza N, Pinto T, Marques da Silva S. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:457-60 pubmed
    ..Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar...
  10. Bank S, Nielsen H, Mathiasen B, Leth D, Kristensen L, Prag J. Fusobacterium necrophorum- detection and identification on a selective agar. APMIS. 2010;118:994-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In our laboratory, a F. necrophorum selective agar has been developed containing vancomycin and nalidixin, which inhibit the growth of most Gram-positive and many ..
  11. Ferreira L, Vega Castaño S, Sánchez Juanes F, González Cabrero S, Menegotto F, Orduña Domingo A, et al. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Fast and reliable identification from agar plates and blood cultures. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14235 pubmed publisher
    ..canis), and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles. ..
  12. Danial J, Noel M, Templeton K, Cameron F, Mathewson F, Smith M, et al. Real-time evaluation of an optimized real-time PCR assay versus Brilliance chromogenic MRSA agar for the detection of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from clinical specimens. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that implementation of a molecular test can be achieved with limited resources in a standard microbiology laboratory. ..
  13. Veenemans J, Verhulst C, Punselie R, van Keulen P, Kluytmans J. Evaluation of brilliance MRSA 2 agar for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1026-7 pubmed publisher
    We compared 2 chromogenic media (Oxoid Brilliance MRSA 2 agar [Thermo Fisher Scientific] and MRSA-ID [bioMérieux]) for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1,368 hospital samples...
  14. Kalchayanand N, Arthur T, Bosilevac J, Wells J, Wheeler T. Chromogenic agar medium for detection and isolation of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 from fresh beef and cattle feces. J Food Prot. 2013;76:192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli strains growing on plating media. In this study, a chromogenic agar medium was developed in order to differentiate among non-O157 STEC strains of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121,..
  15. Ramnani P, Chitarrari R, Tuohy K, Grant J, Hotchkiss S, Philp K, et al. In vitro fermentation and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides derived from agar and alginate seaweeds. Anaerobe. 2012;18:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Fermentation properties and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (LMWPs) derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds was investigated...
  16. Huff K, Aroonnual A, Littlejohn A, Rajwa B, Bae E, Banada P, et al. Light-scattering sensor for real-time identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae colonies on solid agar plate. Microb Biotechnol. 2012;5:607-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Vibrio colonies grown on agar plates were illuminated by a 635?nm laser beam and scatter-image signatures were acquired using a CCD (charge-..
  17. Shiraishi R, Nishiguchi A, Tsukamoto K, Muramatsu M. Comparison of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits with agar gel precipitation and hemagglutination-inhibition tests for detecting antibodies to avian influenza viruses. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:1217-20 pubmed
    ..The sensitivities and specificities of the ELISA kits were compared with those of the agar gel precipitation (AGP) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests...
  18. Gouali M, Ruckly C, Carle I, Lejay Collin M, Weill F. Evaluation of CHROMagar STEC and STEC O104 chromogenic agar media for detection of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli in stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:894-900 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) Shiga toxin-positive stool specimens, whereas the standard procedure involving Drigalski agar allowed the recovery of only three additional STEC strains...
  19. Renaud N, Lecci L, Courcol R, Simonet M, Gaillot O. CHROMagar Yersinia, a new chromogenic agar for screening of potentially pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates in stools. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1184-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hospitalized patients, CAY was found to be just as sensitive as the reference medium (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar) but was significantly more specific and had a very low false-positive rate...
  20. Saegeman V, Verhaegen J, Simon J. Screening femoral heads from living donors: a prospective study comparing swab-agar versus bone fragment-broth culture. Acta Orthop Belg. 2011;77:381-5 pubmed
    ..transport medium taken intraoperatively, subsequently transported to the microbiology laboratory and inoculated on agar and in broth was compared with the recovery from a bone fragment also taken intraoperatively but immediately ..
  21. Vogt S, Green C, Stevens K, Day B, Erickson D, Woods D, et al. The stringent response is essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence in the rat lung agar bead and Drosophila melanogaster feeding models of infection. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4094-104 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster and was also avirulent in the rat lung agar bead model of infection, a model in which the relA mutant is fully virulent...
  22. Guo L, Fan D, Zhang F, Price J, Lee J, Marchetti D, et al. Selection of brain metastasis-initiating breast cancer cells determined by growth on hard agar. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that plating GI-101A human breast cancer cells on hard (0.9%) agar selects for the subpopulation of metastasis-initiating cells...
  23. Seah C, Low D, Patel S, Melano R. Comparative evaluation of a chromogenic agar medium, the modified Hodge test, and a battery of meropenem-inhibitor discs for detection of carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1965-9 pubmed publisher
    Three phenotypic methods (modified Hodge test, chromogenic agar, and meropenem discs combined with specific inhibitors) used for the detection of carbapenemase activity were tested on a panel of characterized Enterobacteriaceae expressing ..
  24. Fusco V, Riccardi M, Quero G. Thin agar layer- versus most probable number-PCR to enumerate viable and stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 and application in a traditional raw milk pasta filata cheese. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;159:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlighted: i) the incapability of the selective medium, ii) the effectiveness of the thin agar layer-PCR method, and iii) the effectiveness of the most probable number (MPN)-PCR method (in comparison with both ..
  25. Passone M, Girardi N, Etcheverry M. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;159:198-206 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and ..
  26. Foster N, Riley T. Improved recovery of Clostridium difficile spores with the incorporation of synthetic taurocholate in cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA). Pathology. 2012;44:354-6 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile. The recovery on cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA) with and without taurocholate, of spore, vegetative, and total cell fractions of broth cultures of eight C...
  27. Chi W, Chang Y, Hong S. Agar degradation by microorganisms and agar-degrading enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:917-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Agar is a mixture of heterogeneous galactans, mainly composed of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses (or L-galactose-6-sulfates) D-galactoses and L-galactoses (routinely in the forms of 3,6-anhydro-L-galactoses or L-galactose-6-sulfates) alternately ..
  28. Osaili T, Al Nabulsi A, Shaker R, Al Holy M, Al Haddaq M, Olaimat A, et al. Efficacy of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of stressed Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii). J Food Prot. 2010;73:1913-8 pubmed
    ..This study evaluated the efficacy of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of Cronobacter cells that had been exposed to various stress conditions...
  29. Saito R, Koyano S, Nagai R, Okamura N, Moriya K, Koike K. Evaluation of a chromogenic agar medium for the detection of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010;51:704-6 pubmed
    To compare the performance of a new chromogenic agar medium CHROMagar ESBL (KC-ESBL) to chromID ESBL (SB-ESBL) for the detection and presumptive identification of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae directly ..
  30. Yan S, Yu M, Wang Y, Shen C, Zhang X. Catenovulum agarivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a peritrichously flagellated, chain-forming, agar-hydrolysing gammaproteobacterium from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:2866-73 pubmed publisher
    A novel Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, agar-hydrolysing bacterium, designated YM01(T), was isolated from seawater samples collected from the Yellow Sea (coastal region of Qingdao, PR China)...
  31. Sanders L, Andermann T, Ottemann K. A supplemented soft agar chemotaxis assay demonstrates the Helicobacter pylori chemotactic response to zinc and nickel. Microbiology. 2013;159:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..this conclusion, we employed both a temporal chemotaxis assay based on bacterial reversals and a supplemented soft agar spatial assay. We refined the temporal assay using a previously described chemorepellent, acid, and found that H...
  32. Ammann T, Bostanci N, Belibasakis G, Thurnheer T. Validation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay and comparison with fluorescence microscopy and selective agar plate counting for species-specific quantification of an in vitro subgingival biofilm model. J Periodontal Res. 2013;48:517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR (qPCR) assay to quantify the bacteria used in our 10-species in vitro 'subgingival' biofilm model and to compare the quantitative outcome with fluorescence microscopy and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts on selective agar plates.
  33. Windham W, Yoon S, Ladely S, Haley J, Heitschmidt J, Lawrence K, et al. Detection by hyperspectral imaging of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 on rainbow agar. J Food Prot. 2013;76:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolate and phenotypic discrimination of non-O157 STEC is problematic due to the lack of suitable agar media...
  34. Ho V, Yeo S, Kunasegaran K, De Silva D, Tarulli G, Voorhoeve P, et al. Expression analysis of rare cellular subsets: direct RT-PCR on limited cell numbers obtained by FACS or soft agar assays. Biotechniques. 2013;54:208-12 pubmed publisher
    ..relevant to the tumorigenic potential of mammalian cells while they are actively growing as colonies in soft agar is also hampered by limited amounts of starting material...
  35. Xie W, Lin B, Zhou Z, Lu G, Lun J, Xia C, et al. Characterization of a novel ?-agarase from an agar-degrading bacterium Catenovulum sp. X3. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:4907-15 pubmed publisher
    An agar-degrading bacterium, Catenovulum sp. X3, was isolated from the seawater of Shantou, China. A novel ?-agarase gene agaXa was cloned from the strain Catenovulum sp. X3...
  36. Tillman G, Wasilenko J, Simmons M, Lauze T, Minicozzi J, Oakley B, et al. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 from ground beef using modified rainbow agar and post-immunomagnetic separation acid treatment. J Food Prot. 2012;75:1548-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, an agar medium with lower supplement concentrations, modified Rainbow agar (mRBA), was evaluated for recovery of STEC ..
  37. Wohlsen T. Comparative evaluation of chromogenic agar CM1046 and mFC agar for detection of E. coli and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from water samples. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;53:155-60 pubmed publisher
    The equivalence of Oxoid (CM 1046) Brilliance((TM)) E. coli/coliform selective agar to mFC agar, as used in the Australian/New Zealand Standard Method to detect thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples, was assessed...
  38. Yang J, Phelan V, Simkovsky R, Watrous J, Trial R, Fleming T, et al. Primer on agar-based microbial imaging mass spectrometry. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) applied directly to microbes on agar-based medium captures global information about microbial molecules, allowing for direct correlation of chemotypes ..
  39. Nayar V, Weiland J, Nelson C, Hodge A. Elastic and viscoelastic characterization of agar. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012;7:60-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Agar is a biological polymer, frequently used in tissue engineering research; due to its consistency, controllable size, and concentration-based properties, it often serves as a representative material for actual biological tissues...
  40. Adler A, Navon Venezia S, Moran Gilad J, Marcos E, Schwartz D, Carmeli Y. Laboratory and clinical evaluation of screening agar plates for detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from surveillance rectal swabs. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2239-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Three agar-based methods for direct CRE detection from rectal swabs were compared: CHROMagar-KPC (Chrom); MacConkey agar with ..
  41. Abu Elhija M, Lunenfeld E, Schlatt S, Huleihel M. Differentiation of murine male germ cells to spermatozoa in a soft agar culture system. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using three-dimensional agar culture system (SACS), which has the capacity to induce testicular germ cells to reach the final stages of ..
  42. Schieven L, Smedts F, Hopman A, van der Wijk J, Nijman R, de Jong I. Fine needle aspiration using improved agar microbiopsy is highly concordant with renal mass final diagnosis and subclassification. J Urol. 2009;182:2590-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the concordance between an improved agar microbiopsy technique and conventional cytology for diagnosing renal tumors...
  43. Mauel M, Ware C, Smith P. Culture of Piscirickettsia salmonis on enriched blood agar. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:213-4 pubmed
    ..This report describes the successful culture of P. salmonis on enriched blood agar.
  44. Solazzo S, Liu Z, Lobo S, Ahmed M, Hines Peralta A, Lenkinski R, et al. Radiofrequency ablation: importance of background tissue electrical conductivity--an agar phantom and computer modeling study. Radiology. 2005;236:495-502 pubmed
    ..tissue electrical conductivity on RF-induced heating was studied in a controlled system of 80 two-compartment agar phantoms (with inner wells of 0.3%, 1.0%, or 36.0% NaCl) with background conductivity that varied from 0.6% to 5...
  45. Niu C, Graves J, Mokuolu F, Gilbert S, Gilbert E. Enhanced swarming of bacteria on agar plates containing the surfactant Tween 80. J Microbiol Methods. 2005;62:129-32 pubmed the motility halo size formed by Escherichia coli or Azospirillum brasilense was measured on Tween 80-containing agar relative to untreated agar. This improvement could benefit the identification of mutants in swarming motility.
  46. Wolk D, Marx J, Dominguez L, Driscoll D, Schifman R. Comparison of MRSASelect Agar, CHROMagar Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Medium, and Xpert MRSA PCR for detection of MRSA in Nares: diagnostic accuracy for surveillance samples with various bacterial densities. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3933-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the performance of common methods, the first comparison of MRSASelect agar (MS) and CHROMagar MRSA (CA), with and without broth enrichment followed by a 24-h subculture to MS, was performed...
  47. Hirata T, Nakamura H, Kinjo N, Hokama A, Kinjo F, Yamane N, et al. Increased detection rate of Strongyloides stercoralis by repeated stool examinations using the agar plate culture method. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:683-4 pubmed
    To clarify the efficacy of repeated stool examinations by the agar plate culture method for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection, 4,071 stool samples collected from 2,406 patients > 50 years of age in Ryukyu University ..
  48. Parkinson J. A "bucket of light" for viewing bacterial colonies in soft agar. Methods Enzymol. 2007;423:432-5 pubmed
    The morphologies of bacterial colonies in soft agar media can provide a wealth of information about a strain's locomotor and chemotactic abilities...
  49. Hosoda A, Sakai M. Isolation of Asticcacaulis sp. SA7, a novel agar-degrading alphaproteobacterium. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:722-5 pubmed
    An agar-degrading bacterium, strain SA7, was isolated from plant roots cultivated in soil. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed that strain SA7 is affiliated with the genus Asticcacaulis...
  50. Fujikawa H, Morozumi S. Modeling surface growth of Escherichia coli on agar plates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:7920-6 pubmed
    Surface growth of Escherichia coli cells on a membrane filter placed on a nutrient agar plate under various conditions was studied with a mathematical model...
  51. Kim W, Surette M. Prevalence of surface swarming behavior in Salmonella. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6580-3 pubmed
    ..Four of the defective strains swarmed on alternate carbon sources, and four harbored general defects in motility or lipopolysaccharide. Thus, swarming may represent an evolutionarily conserved behavior in Salmonella spp. ..
  52. Intapan P, Maleewong W, Wongsaroj T, Singthong S, Morakote N. Comparison of the quantitative formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique and agar plate culture for diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1932-3 pubmed
    The quantitative formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique (QFEC) was compared to agar plate culture (APC) for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae...
  53. Bao L, Yang W, Mao X, Mou S, Tang S. Agar/collagen membrane as skin dressing for wounds. Biomed Mater. 2008;3:044108 pubmed publisher
    b>Agar, a highly hydrophilic polymer, has a special gel property and favorable biocompatibility, but moderate intension strength in an aqueous condition and a low degradation rate...