hyphae

Summary

Summary: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.

Top Publications

  1. van der Weerden N, Hancock R, Anderson M. Permeabilization of fungal hyphae by the plant defensin NaD1 occurs through a cell wall-dependent process. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this, the permeabilization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum hyphae by NaD1 was investigated and compared with that by other antimicrobial peptides, including the cecropin-melittin ..
  2. Sudbery P. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..understanding of the network of signal transduction pathways that monitors environmental cues to activate a programme of hypha-specific gene transcription, and the molecular processes that drive the highly polarized growth of hyphae.
  3. Moyes D, Murciano C, Runglall M, Islam A, Thavaraj S, Naglik J. Candida albicans yeast and hyphae are discriminated by MAPK signaling in vaginal epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26580 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that this MAPK-based signaling pathway is a common mechanism enabling different human epithelial tissues to orchestrate innate immune responses specifically against C. albicans hyphae.
  4. Lee S, Phadke S, Sun S, Heitman J. Pseudohyphal growth of Cryptococcus neoformans is a reversible dimorphic transition in response to ammonium that requires Amt1 and Amt2 ammonium permeases. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:1391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..C. neoformans grows as a budding yeast during vegetative growth or as hyphae during sexual reproduction. Pseudohyphal growth of C...
  5. Zhang J, Silao F, Bigol U, Bungay A, Nicolas M, Heitman J, et al. Calcineurin is required for pseudohyphal growth, virulence, and drug resistance in Candida lusitaniae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44192 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that pseudohyphal growth is controlled by the calcineurin signaling cascade, and highlight the potential use of calcineurin inhibitors and caspofungin for emerging drug-resistant C. lusitaniae infections...
  6. Vernay A, Schaub S, Guillas I, Bassilana M, Arkowitz R. A steep phosphoinositide bis-phosphate gradient forms during fungal filamentous growth. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:711-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we propose that slow membrane diffusion of PI(4,5)P(2) contributes to the maintenance of such a gradient...
  7. Magditch D, Liu T, Xue C, Idnurm A. DNA mutations mediate microevolution between host-adapted forms of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002936 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a key role of mutation events in microevolution to modulate the ability of a fungal pathogen to cause disease...
  8. Jedd G, Pieuchot L. Multiple modes for gatekeeping at fungal cell-to-cell channels. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:1291-4 pubmed publisher
    ..by growing in an exploratory and invasive manner, and this ability depends on multicellular filaments known as hyphae. These cells grow by tip extension and can be divided into compartments by cell walls that typically retain a ..
  9. Puri S, Kumar R, Chadha S, Tati S, Conti H, Hube B, et al. Secreted aspartic protease cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 activates Cek1 MAPK signaling affecting biofilm formation and oropharyngeal candidiasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46020 pubmed publisher
    ..A msb2?/? strain formed normal hyphae but had biofilm defects. Cek1 (but not Mkc1) phosphorylation was absent in the msb2?/? mutant...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Banerjee M, Uppuluri P, Zhao X, Carlisle P, Vipulanandan G, Villar C, et al. Expression of UME6, a key regulator of Candida albicans hyphal development, enhances biofilm formation via Hgc1- and Sun41-dependent mechanisms. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As UME6 levels rise, C. albicans cells are known to transition from yeast to hyphae, and we also observed a corresponding increase in the level of biofilm formation in vitro...
  2. Cleary I, Lazzell A, Monteagudo C, Thomas D, Saville S. BRG1 and NRG1 form a novel feedback circuit regulating Candida albicans hypha formation and virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:557-73 pubmed publisher
    ..overexpression is sufficient to overcome Nrg1p-mediated repression and drive the morphogenetic shift from yeast to hyphae even in the absence of environmental stimuli...
  3. Ariyachet C, Solis N, Liu Y, Prasadarao N, Filler S, McBride A. SR-like RNA-binding protein Slr1 affects Candida albicans filamentation and virulence. Infect Immun. 2013;81:1267-76 pubmed publisher
    Candida albicans causes both mucosal and disseminated infections, and its capacity to grow as both yeast and hyphae is a key virulence factor...
  4. Lu Y, Su C, Liu H. A GATA transcription factor recruits Hda1 in response to reduced Tor1 signaling to establish a hyphal chromatin state in Candida albicans. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002663 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, ectopic expression of Brg1 cannot induce hyphae, but can sustain hyphal development...
  5. Moazeni M, Khoramizadeh M, Kordbacheh P, Sepehrizadeh Z, Zeraati H, Noorbakhsh F, et al. RNA-mediated gene silencing in Candida albicans: inhibition of hyphae formation by use of RNAi technology. Mycopathologia. 2012;174:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the positive control, true hyphae formation was significantly reduced by siRNA at concentrations of 1 ?M, 500 nM, and 100 nM (P < 0.05)...
  6. Vialás V, Perumal P, Gutiérrez D, Ximénez Embún P, Nombela C, Gil C, et al. Cell surface shaving of Candida albicans biofilms, hyphae, and yeast form cells. Proteomics. 2012;12:2331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the surface proteins on live Candida albicans organisms growing in biofilms and planktonic yeast cells and hyphae. One hundred thirty-one proteins were present in at least two of the three replicates of one condition and ..
  7. Li L, Zhang C, Konopka J. A Candida albicans temperature-sensitive cdc12-6 mutant identifies roles for septins in selection of sites of germ tube formation and hyphal morphogenesis. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:1210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant cells also failed to form the diffuse band of septins at the base of germ tubes and hyphae, indicating that this septin band plays a role in preventing proximal formation of germ tubes in a manner ..
  8. Foster H, Cui M, Naveenathayalan A, Unden H, Schwanbeck R, Höfken T. The zinc cluster protein Sut1 contributes to filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Filamentation-inducing conditions relieve this repression by Sut1, and the increased expression of Sut1 targets triggers filamentous growth...
  9. Zhou X, Zhang H, Li G, Shaw B, Xu J. The Cyclase-associated protein Cap1 is important for proper regulation of infection-related morphogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002911 pubmed publisher
    ..Cap1-GFP had an actin-like localization pattern, localizing to the apical regions in vegetative hyphae, at the periphery of developing appressoria, and in circular structures at the base of mature appressoria...
  10. Martin R, Albrecht Eckardt D, Brunke S, Hube B, Hünniger K, Kurzai O. A core filamentation response network in Candida albicans is restricted to eight genes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58613 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the set of core filamentation response genes was quite small, several transcriptional regulators are involved in the control of their expression, depending on the environmental condition...
  11. Münchberg U, Wagner L, Spielberg E, Voigt K, Rosch P, Popp J. Spatially resolved investigation of the oil composition in single intact hyphae of Mortierella spp. with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1831:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..micro-Raman spectroscopy to investigate the spatial distribution and composition of lipid vesicles inside intact hyphae. For Mortierella alpina and Mortierella elongata distinct differences in the degree of unsaturation and even the ..
  12. Lowman D, Greene R, Bearden D, Kruppa M, Pottier M, Monteiro M, et al. Novel structural features in Candida albicans hyphal glucan provide a basis for differential innate immune recognition of hyphae versus yeast. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:3432-43 pubmed publisher
    The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans...
  13. Abenza J, Galindo A, Pinar M, Pantazopoulou A, de los Ríos V, Peñalva M. Endosomal maturation by Rab conversion in Aspergillus nidulans is coupled to dynein-mediated basipetal movement. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1889-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies establish that endosomal maturation is essential, whereas homotypic vacuolar fusion is not. ..
  14. Prusinkiewicz M, Farazkhorasani F, Dynes J, Wang J, Gough K, Kaminskyj S. Proof-of-principle for SERS imaging of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Analyst. 2012;137:4934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex...
  15. Hu J, Chen Y, Urban P. On-target labeling of intracellular metabolites combined with chemical mapping of individual hyphae revealing cytoplasmic relocation of isotopologues. Anal Chem. 2012;84:5110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..islands are used as medium reservoirs, while the hydrophobic area constitutes the support for the growing aerial hyphae, which do not have direct contact with the medium...
  16. Gibeaux R, Lang C, Politi A, Jaspersen S, Philippsen P, Antony C. Electron tomography of the microtubule cytoskeleton in multinucleated hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5830-9 pubmed publisher
    We report the mechanistic basis guiding the migration pattern of multiple nuclei in hyphae of Ashbya gossypii...
  17. Schmidt S, Tramsen L, Perkhofer S, Lass Florl C, Hanisch M, Röger F, et al. Rhizopus oryzae hyphae are damaged by human natural killer (NK) cells, but suppress NK cell mediated immunity. Immunobiology. 2013;218:939-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that both unstimulated and IL-2 prestimulated human NK cells damage Rhizopus oryzae hyphae, but do not affect resting conidia. The damage of the fungus is mediated, at least in part, by perforin. R...
  18. Heintz Buschart A, Eickhoff H, Hohn E, Bilitewski U. Identification of inhibitors of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Candida albicans by a reporter screening assay. J Biotechnol. 2013;164:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast–hyphae-dimorphism of C...
  19. Morales Vargas A, Dominguez A, Ruiz Herrera J. Identification of dimorphism-involved genes of Yarrowia lipolytica by means of microarray analysis. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these genes were identified by homology with Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, and found to play a role during the dimorphic transition in both systems...
  20. Yoshimi A, Sano M, Inaba A, Kokubun Y, Fujioka T, Mizutani O, et al. Functional analysis of the ?-1,3-glucan synthase genes agsA and agsB in Aspergillus nidulans: agsB is the major ?-1,3-glucan synthase in this fungus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54893 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that the two AGS genes are dispensable in A. nidulans, but that AgsB is required for normal growth characteristics under liquid culture conditions and is the major AGS in this species...
  21. Echauri Espinosa R, Callejas Negrete O, Roberson R, Bartnicki Garcia S, Mouriño Pérez R. Coronin is a component of the endocytic collar of hyphae of Neurospora crassa and is necessary for normal growth and morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38237 pubmed publisher
  22. Fu J, Morris I, Wickes B. The production of monokaryotic hyphae by Cryptococcus neoformans can be induced by high temperature arrest of the cell cycle and is independent of same-sex mating. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003335 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the fungus grows primarily as a yeast, hyphae are produced during the sexual phase and during a process called monokaryotic fruiting, which is also believed to ..
  23. Kleemann J, Rincon Rivera L, Takahara H, Neumann U, Ver Loren van Themaat E, van Themaat E, et al. Sequential delivery of host-induced virulence effectors by appressoria and intracellular hyphae of the phytopathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002643 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results we conclude that hemibiotrophy in Colletotrichum is orchestrated through the coordinated expression of antagonistic effectors supporting either cell viability or cell death...
  24. Zeng G, Wang Y, Wang Y. Cdc28-Cln3 phosphorylation of Sla1 regulates actin patch dynamics in different modes of fungal growth. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings establish a molecular link between CDK and a key component of the endocytic machinery, revealing a novel mechanism by which endocytosis contributes to cell morphogenesis...
  25. Wang G, Wang C, Hou R, Zhou X, Li G, Zhang S, et al. The AMT1 arginine methyltransferase gene is important for plant infection and normal hyphal growth in Fusarium graminearum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38324 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, data from this systematic analysis of PRMT genes suggest that AMT1, like its ortholog in yeast, is the predominant PRMT gene in F. graminearum and plays a role in hyphal growth, stress responses, and plant infection...
  26. Lu Y, Su C, Wang A, Liu H. Hyphal development in Candida albicans requires two temporally linked changes in promoter chromatin for initiation and maintenance. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001105 pubmed publisher
    ..Such temporally linked regulation of promoter chromatin by different signaling pathways provides a unique mechanism for integrating multiple signals during development and cell fate specification. ..
  27. Heilmann C, Sorgo A, Siliakus A, Dekker H, Brul S, de Koster C, et al. Hyphal induction in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans reveals a characteristic wall protein profile. Microbiology. 2011;157:2297-2307 pubmed publisher
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic, quantitative analysis of the changes in the wall proteome of C. albicans upon hyphal induction. Finally, we propose new wall-protein-derived candidates for vaccine development. ..
  28. Lassak T, Schneider E, Bussmann M, Kurtz D, Manak J, Srikantha T, et al. Target specificity of the Candida albicans Efg1 regulator. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:602-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest different binding specificities of Efg1 in yeast growth and in hyphal induction and suggest a brief time window following hyphal induction, in which Efg1 exerts its repressive effect on target promoters. ..
  29. Vinck A, de Bekker C, Ossin A, Ohm R, de Vries R, Wosten H. Heterogenic expression of genes encoding secreted proteins at the periphery of Aspergillus niger colonies. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:216-225 pubmed publisher
    Colonization of a substrate by fungi starts with the invasion of exploring hyphae. These hyphae secrete enzymes that degrade the organic material into small molecules that can be taken up by the fungus to serve as nutrients...
  30. Strudwick N, Brown M, Parmar V, Schroder M. Ime1 and Ime2 are required for pseudohyphal growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nonfermentable carbon sources. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:5514-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose to include exit from pseudohyphal growth and entry into meiosis in the life cycle of S. cerevisiae. ..
  31. Schmitz H, Philippsen P. Evolution of multinucleated Ashbya gossypii hyphae from a budding yeast-like ancestor. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:557-68 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve the much higher rates of sustained polar surface expansion of hyphae compared to mainly non-polarly growing yeast buds five important alterations had to evolve...
  32. Kimura S, Maruyama J, Watanabe T, Ito Y, Arioka M, Kitamoto K. In vivo imaging of endoplasmic reticulum and distribution of mutant ?-amylase in Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:1044-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we conclude that A. oryzae accumulates aberrant proteins toward basal hyphae while maintaining polarized tER sites for secretion of properly folded proteins at the hyphal tip.
  33. Marshall R, Kombrink A, Motteram J, Loza Reyes E, Lucas J, Hammond Kosack K, et al. Analysis of two in planta expressed LysM effector homologs from the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals novel functional properties and varying contributions to virulence on wheat. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:756-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to C. fulvum Ecp6, both Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM also protected fungal hyphae against plant-derived hydrolytic enzymes, and both genes show significantly more nucleotide polymorphism giving ..
  34. Ruiz Roldan M, Köhli M, Roncero M, Philippsen P, Di Pietro A, Espeso E. Nuclear dynamics during germination, conidiation, and hyphal fusion of Fusarium oxysporum. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1216-24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hyphae of F...
  35. Roca M, Weichert M, Siegmund U, Tudzynski P, Fleissner A. Germling fusion via conidial anastomosis tubes in the grey mould Botrytis cinerea requires NADPH oxidase activity. Fungal Biol. 2012;116:379-87 pubmed publisher
  36. Hernández Rodríguez Y, Hastings S, Momany M. The septin AspB in Aspergillus nidulans forms bars and filaments and plays roles in growth emergence and conidiation. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and collars at septa, branches, and emerging layers of the conidiophore and as bars and filaments in conidia and hyphae. Bars are found in dormant and isotropically expanding conidia and in subapical nongrowing regions of hyphae and ..
  37. Koebsch I, Overbeck J, Piepmeyer S, Meschke H, Schrempf H. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS. Microb Biotechnol. 2009;2:343-60 pubmed publisher
    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role...
  38. de Bekker C, Bruning O, Jonker M, Breit T, Wosten H. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R71 pubmed publisher
    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof...
  39. Larson T, Kendra D, Busman M, Brown D. Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity. Curr Genet. 2011;57:177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g...
  40. Nagahashi G, Douds D. The effects of hydroxy fatty acids on the hyphal branching of germinated spores of AM fungi. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..regularly apart, along the primary germ tubes as well as some lateral branch formation off the major secondary hyphae. This growth response was identical to that observed when germinated spores were allowed to grow towards cultured ..
  41. El Ganiny A, Sheoran I, Sanders D, Kaminskyj S. Aspergillus nidulans UDP-glucose-4-epimerase UgeA has multiple roles in wall architecture, hyphal morphogenesis, and asexual development. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The A. nidulans ugeA Delta strain is viable, and has defects including wide, slow growing, highly branched hyphae and reduced conidiation that resemble the ugmA Delta strain...
  42. Takeshita N, Diallinas G, Fischer R. The role of flotillin FloA and stomatin StoA in the maintenance of apical sterol-rich membrane domains and polarity in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 2012;83:1136-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of floA reduced the growth rate, often resulted in irregularly shaped hyphae and impaired SRDs...
  43. Harris S. Cdc42/Rho GTPases in fungi: variations on a common theme. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the partitioning of these roles between Cdc42 and Rac1 seems to vary even among related fungi. These observations highlight the variable use of a common signalling module in filamentous fungi. ..
  44. Noble S, French S, Kohn L, Chen V, Johnson A. Systematic screens of a Candida albicans homozygous deletion library decouple morphogenetic switching and pathogenicity. Nat Genet. 2010;42:590-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of such mutants revealed that virulence requires the glycolipid glucosylceramide. To our knowledge, this is the first C. albicans small molecule that has been found to be required specifically for virulence. ..
  45. Liu Y, Shi G, Mao L, Cheng G, Jiang S, Ma X, et al. Direct and indirect influences of 8 yr of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on Glomeromycota in an alpine meadow ecosystem. New Phytol. 2012;194:523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction in the extraradical hyphae of AM fungi was associated with both the changes in soil factors and shifts in the plant community composition ..
  46. Borth N, Walther A, Reijnst P, Jorde S, Schaub Y, Wendland J. Candida albicans Vrp1 is required for polarized morphogenesis and interacts with Wal1 and Myo5. Microbiology. 2010;156:2962-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a Wal1-Vrp1-Myo5 complex plays an important role in endocytosis and the polarized localization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton to promote polarized hyphal growth in C. albicans...
  47. Zacchi L, Schulz W, Davis D. HOS2 and HDA1 encode histone deacetylases with opposing roles in Candida albicans morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12171 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an important role for HDACs on the regulation of yeast-hyphal transitions in the human pathogen C. albicans. ..
  48. Perez Nadales E, Di Pietro A. The membrane mucin Msb2 regulates invasive growth and plant infection in Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1171-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the membrane mucin Msb2 promotes invasive growth and plant infection upstream of Fmk1 while contributing to cell integrity through a distinct pathway. ..
  49. Sánchez León E, Verdin J, Freitag M, Roberson R, Bartnicki Garcia S, Riquelme M. Traffic of chitin synthase 1 (CHS-1) to the Spitzenkörper and developing septa in hyphae of Neurospora crassa: actin dependence and evidence of distinct microvesicle populations. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:683-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Laser scanning confocal microscopy of growing hyphae showed CHS-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized conspicuously in regions of active wall synthesis, namely, ..
  50. Peters B, Jabra Rizk M, Scheper M, Leid J, Costerton J, Shirtliff M. Microbial interactions and differential protein expression in Staphylococcus aureus -Candida albicans dual-species biofilms. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans. This physical interaction may provide staphylococci with an invasion strategy because candidal hyphae can penetrate through epithelial layers...
  51. Zhang H, Wang C, Cheng Y, Wang X, Li F, Han Q, et al. Histological and molecular studies of the non-host interaction between wheat and Uromyces fabae. Planta. 2011;234:979-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study revealed the cytological and molecular bases of NHR in wheat against the non-adapted rust fungus Uf, and highlighted the significance of papilla production in the prehaustorial NHR...
  52. Choi Y, Goodwin S. MVE1, encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola, is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:942-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the MVE1 gene plays crucial roles in multiple key signaling pathways and is associated with light signaling in M. graminicola...
  53. Sudbery P. Fluorescent proteins illuminate the structure and function of the hyphal tip apparatus. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:849-57 pubmed publisher
    Fungal hyphae show extreme polarized growth at the tip. Electron microscope studies have revealed a apical body called the Spitzenkörper that is thought to drive polarized growth. Studies of polarized growth in S...
  54. Chapa y Lazo B, Lee S, Regan H, Sudbery P. The mating projections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans show key characteristics of hyphal growth. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:547-56 pubmed publisher
    Fungi can grow in a variety of growth forms: yeast, pseudohyphae and hyphae. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in all three of these forms...
  55. Gutiérrez Escribano P, Gonzalez Novo A, Suarez M, Li C, Wang Y, de Aldana C, et al. CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Mob2 is essential for hyphal development in Candida albicans. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2458-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant cells produced short hyphae with enlarged tips that displayed an illicit activation of cell separation...
  56. Verwer P, van Duijn M, Tavakol M, Bakker Woudenberg I, van de Sande W. Reshuffling of Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall components chitin and ?-glucan under the influence of caspofungin or nikkomycin Z alone or in combination. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1595-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This could explain the synergistic activity of this combination of drugs. ..
  57. Shareck J, Nantel A, Belhumeur P. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits hyphal growth in Candida albicans by modulating Ras1p cellular levels and downregulating TEC1 expression. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:565-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, these effects should prevent the induction of the Ras1p signaling pathway. This study provides the biological and molecular explanations that underlie CLA's ability to inhibit hyphal growth in C. albicans. ..
  58. Ganguly S, Bishop A, Xu W, Ghosh S, Nickerson K, Lanni F, et al. Zap1 control of cell-cell signaling in Candida albicans biofilms. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1448-54 pubmed publisher
    Biofilms of Candida albicans include both yeast cells and hyphae. Prior studies indicated that a zap1?/? mutant, defective in zinc regulator Zap1, has increased accumulation of yeast cells in biofilms...
  59. Delgado Alvarez D, Callejas Negrete O, Gómez N, Freitag M, Roberson R, Smith L, et al. Visualization of F-actin localization and dynamics with live cell markers in Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:573-86 pubmed publisher
    ..visualized F-actin organization and dynamics in living Neurospora crassa cells via confocal microscopy of growing hyphae expressing GFP fusions with homologues of the actin-binding proteins fimbrin (FIM) and tropomyosin (TPM-1), a ..
  60. Jacobsen I, Wilson D, Wächtler B, Brunke S, Naglik J, Hube B. Candida albicans dimorphism as a therapeutic target. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will provide an overview of the known and potential roles of C. albicans dimorphism and will discuss the potential benefit of drugs that can inhibit the morphological transition...
  61. Martin R, Moran G, Jacobsen I, Heyken A, Domey J, Sullivan D, et al. The Candida albicans-specific gene EED1 encodes a key regulator of hyphal extension. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18394 pubmed publisher
    The extension of germ tubes into elongated hyphae by Candida albicans is essential for damage of host cells. The C. albicans-specific gene EED1 plays a crucial role in this extension and maintenance of filamentous growth...
  62. Riquelme M, Yarden O, Bartnicki Garcia S, BOWMAN B, Castro Longoria E, Free S, et al. Architecture and development of the Neurospora crassa hypha -- a model cell for polarized growth. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:446-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability and continuous development of various molecular and microscopic tools, as utilized by an active and co-supportive research community, promises to yield additional important new discoveries on the biology of fungi...
  63. Afroz S, El Ganiny A, Sanders D, Kaminskyj S. Roles of the Aspergillus nidulans UDP-galactofuranose transporter, UgtA in hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall architecture, conidiation, and drug sensitivity. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48:896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus GlfB. The ugtA? phenotype resembled that of ugmA?, which had compact colonies, wide, highly branched hyphae, and reduced sporulation...
  64. Schuster M, Kilaru S, Fink G, Collemare J, Roger Y, Steinberg G. Kinesin-3 and dynein cooperate in long-range retrograde endosome motility along a nonuniform microtubule array. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:3645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The cooperation of both motors mediates EE movements over the length of the entire cell...
  65. Du H, Guan G, Xie J, Sun Y, Tong Y, Zhang L, et al. Roles of Candida albicans Gat2, a GATA-type zinc finger transcription factor, in biofilm formation, filamentous growth and virulence. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29707 pubmed publisher
    ..C. albicans can grow in several morphological forms including unicellular yeast-form, elongated hyphae and pseudohyphae. In certain natural environments, C...
  66. Ramanujam R, Naqvi N. PdeH, a high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase, is a key regulator of asexual and pathogenic differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000897 pubmed publisher
    ..oryzae. We propose that PdeH-mediated sustenance and dynamic regulation of cAMP signaling during M. oryzae development is crucial for successful establishment and spread of the blast disease in rice...
  67. Fu C, Iyer P, Herkal A, Abdullah J, Stout A, Free S. Identification and characterization of genes required for cell-to-cell fusion in Neurospora crassa. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1100-9 pubmed publisher
  68. Hoff B, Kamerewerd J, Sigl C, Mitterbauer R, Zadra I, Kürnsteiner H, et al. Two components of a velvet-like complex control hyphal morphogenesis, conidiophore development, and penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1236-50 pubmed publisher
    ..While PcvelA deletion leads to light-independent conidial formation, dichotomous branching of hyphae, and pellet formation in shaking cultures, a DeltaPclaeA strain shows a severe impairment in conidiophore ..
  69. Simonin A, Rasmussen C, Yang M, Glass N. Genes encoding a striatin-like protein (ham-3) and a forkhead associated protein (ham-4) are required for hyphal fusion in Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:855-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that, similar to humans, the HAM proteins may form different signaling complexes that are important during both vegetative and sexual development in N. crassa...
  70. Juvvadi P, Fortwendel J, Rogg L, Burns K, Randell S, Steinbach W. Localization and activity of the calcineurin catalytic and regulatory subunit complex at the septum is essential for hyphal elongation and proper septation in Aspergillus fumigatus. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:1235-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirm a cooperative role for the calcineurin complex in regulating hyphal growth and septation...
  71. Cleary I, Mulabagal P, Reinhard S, Yadev N, Murdoch C, Thornhill M, et al. Pseudohyphal regulation by the transcription factor Rfg1p in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementation assays and real-time PCR analysis indicate that, although the morphology of the tet-RFG1 strain resembles that of the mitotic regulator mutants, Rfg1p overexpression does not impact expression of these genes...
  72. Chen Y, Brand A, Morrison E, Silao F, Bigol U, Malbas F, et al. Calcineurin controls drug tolerance, hyphal growth, and virulence in Candida dubliniensis. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:803-19 pubmed publisher
    ..That calcineurin is required for drug tolerance and virulence makes fungus-specific calcineurin inhibitors attractive candidates for combination therapy with azoles or echinocandins against emerging C. dubliniensis infections...
  73. Cuong N, Nicolaisen M, Sørensen J, Olsson S. Hyphae-colonizing Burkholderia sp.--a new source of biological control agents against sheath blight disease (Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA) in rice. Microb Ecol. 2011;62:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the water-surface microcosm assay, floating pathogen mycelium is used as a source for isolation of hyphae-colonizing soil bacteria (HCSB), which are subsequently screened for antagonism...
  74. Aldabbous M, Roca M, Stout A, Huang I, Read N, Free S. The ham-5, rcm-1 and rco-1 genes regulate hyphal fusion in Neurospora crassa. Microbiology. 2010;156:2621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ham-5 deletion mutants had a reduced rate of hyphal extension and altered hyphal morphology, and were unable to produce the conidial anastomosis tubes that are required for hyphal fusion during colony initiation...
  75. Brown N, Urban M, van de Meene A, Hammond Kosack K. The infection biology of Fusarium graminearum: defining the pathways of spikelet to spikelet colonisation in wheat ears. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:555-71 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed microscopic investigation has revealed how wild-type fungal hyphae, of the sequenced strain PH-1, colonised susceptible wheat ears and spread from spikelet to spikelet...
  76. Bloemendal S, Lord K, Rech C, Hoff B, Engh I, Read N, et al. A mutant defective in sexual development produces aseptate ascogonia. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:1856-66 pubmed publisher
    ..close to growing hyphal tips and in ascogonia; it is absent from the large spherical vacuoles in the vegetative hyphae of the subperipheral region of the colony...
  77. Schmidt S, Tramsen L, Hanisch M, Latge J, Huenecke S, Koehl U, et al. Human natural killer cells exhibit direct activity against Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae, but not against resting conidia. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that unstimulated and interleukin-2 prestimulated human NK cells kill Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae but do not affect resting conidia...
  78. Mosbach A, Leroch M, Mendgen K, Hahn M. Lack of evidence for a role of hydrophobins in conferring surface hydrophobicity to conidia and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrophobin mutants in a variety of fungi have been described to show 'easily wettable' phenotypes, indicating that hydrophobins play a general role in conferring surface hydrophobicity to aerial hyphae and spores.
  79. Jeeves R, Mason R, Woodacre A, Cashmore A. Ferric reductase genes involved in high-affinity iron uptake are differentially regulated in yeast and hyphae of Candida albicans. Yeast. 2011;28:629-44 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also shown, for the first time, that transcription of FRE10 and FRE7 is lower in hyphae compared to yeast and that this leads to a corresponding decrease in cell surface ferric, but not cupric, ..
  80. Cleary I, Reinhard S, Miller C, Murdoch C, Thornhill M, Lazzell A, et al. Candida albicans adhesin Als3p is dispensable for virulence in the mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Microbiology. 2011;157:1806-15 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans strain. In agreement with previous studies, our als3? null strain formed hyphae normally but was defective in biofilm formation...
  81. Freitag J, Lanver D, Böhmer C, Schink K, Bölker M, Sandrock B. Septation of infectious hyphae is critical for appressoria formation and virulence in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002044 pubmed publisher
    Differentiation of hyphae into specialized infection structures, known as appressoria, is a common feature of plant pathogenic fungi that penetrate the plant cuticle. Appressorium formation in U...
  82. Grava S, Keller M, Voegeli S, Seger S, Lang C, Philippsen P. Clustering of nuclei in multinucleated hyphae is prevented by dynein-driven bidirectional nuclear movements and microtubule growth control in Ashbya gossypii. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:902-15 pubmed publisher
    During filamentous fungus development, multinucleated hyphae employ a system for long-range nuclear migration to maintain an equal nuclear density. A decade ago the microtubule motor dynein was shown to play a central role in this process...
  83. Brooks D, Chan R, Starks E, Grayston S, Jones M. Ectomycorrhizal hyphae structure components of the soil bacterial community for decreased phosphatase production. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011;76:245-55 pubmed publisher
    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) provide nutrients to their hosts by means of hyphae that extend beyond nutrient-depleted rhizosphere soil...
  84. Hayakawa Y, Ishikawa E, Shoji J, Nakano H, Kitamoto K. Septum-directed secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:40-55 pubmed publisher
  85. Grava S, Philippsen P. Dynamics of multiple nuclei in Ashbya gossypii hyphae depend on the control of cytoplasmic microtubules length by Bik1, Kip2, Kip3, and not on a capture/shrinkage mechanism. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3680-92 pubmed publisher
    Ashbya gossypii has a budding yeast-like genome but grows exclusively as multinucleated hyphae. In contrast to budding yeast where positioning of nuclei at the bud neck is a major function of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs), A...
  86. Read N. Exocytosis and growth do not occur only at hyphal tips. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:4-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent research using advanced live-cell imaging techniques (e.g. Hayakawa et al., 2011 in this issue) is providing new insights into the mechanistic basis of many of these processes...
  87. Naseem S, Gunasekera A, Araya E, Konopka J. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) induction of hyphal morphogenesis and transcriptional responses in Candida albicans are not dependent on its metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, both hxk1? and an hxk1? nag1? dac1? triple mutant could be efficiently stimulated by GlcNAc to form hyphae. These mutants could also be stimulated to express GlcNAc-regulated genes...
  88. Chen X, Zhu X, Ding Y, Shen Y. Antifungal activity of tautomycin and related compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2011;64:563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sclerotiorum. The values of EC(50) for these three compounds were 0.31 mM, 0.15 mM and 3.99 mM, respectively. The MIC values obtained for these compounds were 1.11 mM, 0.56 mM and 9.58 mM, respectively...