mycelium

Summary

Summary: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.

Top Publications

  1. Neumann E, Schmid B, Romheld V, George E. Extraradical development and contribution to plant performance of an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis exposed to complete or partial rootzone drying. Mycorrhiza. 2009;20:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Controls remained well watered. Low soil moisture generally had a negative effect on the amount of extraradical mycelium of G. intraradices extracted from the fungal tubes...
  2. Janousková M, Rydlová J, Püschel D, Szakova J, Vosatka M. Extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi radiating from large plants depresses the growth of nearby seedlings in a nutrient deficient substrate. Mycorrhiza. 2011;21:641-650 pubmed publisher
    ..inodorum, were planted in lateral compartments, which were colonised by the extraradical mycelium (ERM) of the pre-cultivated T. inodorum in the inoculated treatments...
  3. Bravo D, Cailleau G, Bindschedler S, Simon A, Job D, Verrecchia E, et al. Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelium. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;348:157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight the importance of fungus-driven bacterial dispersal to understand the functional role of oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi in soils. ..
  4. Dong J, Liu M, Lei C, Zheng X, Wang Y. Effects of selenium and light wavelengths on liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris Link. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;166:2030-6 pubmed publisher
    ..by selenium except for 20 ppm; there were significant differences in cordycepin contents, adenosine contents, and mycelium growth caused by light wavelengths: cordycepin, blue light > pink light > daylight, darkness, red light; ..
  5. Zizić M, Zivić M, Spasojevic I, Bogdanović Pristov J, Stanić M, Cvetić Antić T, et al. The interactions of vanadium with Phycomyces blakesleeanus mycelium: enzymatic reduction, transport and metabolic effects. Res Microbiol. 2013;164:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the interactions of vanadium in physiologically-relevant redox states: vanadate (+5) and vanadyl (+4), with mycelium of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus using EPR and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and biochemical assays...
  6. Huang Y, Wu H, Wu K, Liu T, Liou R, Tsai S, et al. Generation and analysis of the expressed sequence tags from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61127 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci...
  7. Chen L, Zhu S, Lu X, Pang Z, Cai M, Liu X. Assessing the risk that Phytophthora melonis can develop a point mutation (V1109L) in CesA3 conferring resistance to carboxylic acid amide fungicides. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42069 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this mutation, an efficient allelic-specific PCR (AS-PCR) method was developed for rapid detection of CAA-resistance in P. melonis populations...
  8. Huang T, Chong K, Ojcius D, Wu Y, Ko Y, Wu C, et al. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium suppresses interleukin-1? and interleukin-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1374 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process has remained unclear. In addition, whether H. sinensis mycelium (HSM) extracts also inhibit the production of IL-1? has not been investigated...
  9. Shankar J, Wu T, Clemons K, Monteiro J, Mirels L, Stevens D. Influence of 17?-estradiol on gene expression of Paracoccidioides during mycelia-to-yeast transition. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28402 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have profiled transcript expression to understand the molecular mechanism of how E(2) inhibits M-to-Y transition...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Xing Y, Zhang L, Liang H, Lv J, Song C, Guo S, et al. Sclerotial formation of Polyporus umbellatus by low temperature treatment under artificial conditions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56190 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia have been used as a diuretic agent in China for over two thousand years. A shortage of the natural P. umbellatus has prompted researchers to induce sclerotial formation in the laboratory...
  2. Zhou Q, Wang Z, Zhang J, Meng H, Huang B. Genome-wide identification and profiling of microRNA-like RNAs from Metarhizium anisopliae during development. Fungal Biol. 2012;116:1156-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to identify potential milRNAs in M. anisopliae that may regulate the processes of mycelium growth and conidiogenesis (CO)...
  3. Vamanu E. In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of lyophilized mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus PQMZ91109. Molecules. 2012;17:3653-71 pubmed publisher
    The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus PQMZ91109 mycelium was determined based on inorganic and organic nitrogen sources in the culture medium...
  4. Wang M, Gu B, Huang J, Jiang S, Chen Y, Yin Y, et al. Transcriptome and proteome exploration to provide a resource for the study of Agrocybe aegerita. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56686 pubmed publisher
    ..Several bioactive extracts from A. aegerita have been found to exhibit antitumor and antioxidant activities. However, limited genetic resources for A. aegerita have hindered exploration of this species...
  5. Muhammed M, Fuchs B, Wu M, Breger J, Coleman J, Mylonakis E. The role of mycelium production and a MAPK-mediated immune response in the C. elegans-Fusarium model system. Med Mycol. 2012;50:488-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, mycelium production appears to be a major contributor in nematode killing in this model system, and C...
  6. Jin Q, Li C, Li Y, Shang J, Li D, Chen B, et al. Complexity of roles and regulation of the PMK1-MAPK pathway in mycelium development, conidiation and appressorium formation in Magnaporthe oryzae. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..very complex and likely involved in other signaling networks; (3) glucose metabolism and signals are required in mycelium development; and (4) appressorium formation likely shares the mechanisms responsible for sexual conjugation and ..
  7. van Munster J, Nitsche B, Krijgsheld P, van Wijk A, Dijkhuizen L, W sten H, et al. Chitinases CtcB and CfcI modify the cell wall in sporulating aerial mycelium of Aspergillus niger. Microbiology. 2013;159:1853-67 pubmed publisher
    ..the fungal cell wall, as demonstrated by the differences in carbohydrate composition of cell walls of vegetative mycelium and spores. Glycoside hydrolases that are involved in this process have so far remained unidentified...
  8. Krijgsheld P, Altelaar A, Post H, Ringrose J, Müller W, Heck A, et al. Spatially resolving the secretome within the mycelium of the cell factory Aspergillus niger. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:2807-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, protein release was increased by cycloheximide in the intermediate and central zones of the mycelium when compared to nontreated colonies...
  9. Parladé J, de la Varga H, De Miguel A, Sáez R, Pera J. Quantification of extraradical mycelium of Tuber melanosporum in soils from truffle orchards in northern Spain. Mycorrhiza. 2013;23:99-106 pubmed publisher
    Quantification of extraradical mycelium of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has been carried out in a natural truffle ground and in seven truffle orchards (around 20 years old) established in Tierra Estella and Valdorba sites, within ..
  10. Gryndler M, Trilčová J, Hršelová H, Streiblová E, Gryndlerová H, Jansa J. Tuber aestivum Vittad. mycelium quantified: advantages and limitations of a qPCR approach. Mycorrhiza. 2013;23:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, has been developed for quantification of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) mycelium. Gene copy concentrations determined by the qPCR were calibrated against pure culture mycelium of T...
  11. Inglis D, Voorhies M, Hocking Murray D, Sil A. Comparative transcriptomics of infectious spores from the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum reveals a core set of transcripts that specify infectious and pathogenic states. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:828-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of the resultant data defined sets of transcripts that reflect the unique molecular states of H. capsulatum conidia, yeast, and mycelia...
  12. Reczyński W, Muszyńska B, Opoka W, Smalec A, Sułkowska Ziaja K, Malec M. Comparative study of metals accumulation in cultured in vitro mycelium and naturally grown fruiting bodies of Boletus badius and Cantharellus cibarius. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;153:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of the chosen elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, and Cd) in mycelium samples were measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry...
  13. Hwang J, Kwon H, Kim J, Rho J, Im S. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:159 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidated its action mechanism...
  14. de la Varga H, Agueda B, Agreda T, Martínez Peña F, Parladé J, Pera J. Seasonal dynamics of Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus extraradical mycelium in pine forests of central Spain. Mycorrhiza. 2013;23:391-402 pubmed publisher
    The annual belowground dynamics of extraradical soil mycelium and sporocarp production of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Boletus edulis and Lactarius deliciosus, have been studied in two different pine forests (Pinar Grande and Pinares Llanos,..
  15. Lopes M, Gomes D, Koblitz M, Pirovani C, Cascardo J, Goes Neto A, et al. Use of response surface methodology to examine chitinase regulation in the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Mycol Res. 2008;112:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..perniciosa non-secreted (detected in mycelium, i.e. in symplasm and cell wall) and secreted (detected in the culture medium) chitinase activities...
  16. Colin V, Baigori M, Pera L. Mycelium-bound lipase production from Aspergillus niger MYA 135, and its potential applications for the transesterification of ethanol. J Basic Microbiol. 2011;51:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, the effect of environmental conditions on mycelium-bound lipase production from this strain was studied, when cultured either in the absence or presence of 2% olive ..
  17. Manteca A, Alvarez R, Salazar N, Yagüe P, Sanchez J. Mycelium differentiation and antibiotic production in submerged cultures of Streptomyces coelicolor. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3877-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Spores germinate as a compartmentalized mycelium (first mycelium). These young compartmentalized hyphae start to form pellets which grow in a radial pattern...
  18. Hortal S, Pera J, Parladé J. Tracking mycorrhizas and extraradical mycelium of the edible fungus Lactarius deliciosus under field competition with Rhizopogon spp. Mycorrhiza. 2008;18:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..luteolus, and control-control. Eight months after transplantation, root colonization and extraradical soil mycelium for each fungal species were quantified...
  19. Saparrat M, Balatti P, Martínez M, Jurado M. Differential regulation of laccase gene expression in Coriolopsis rigida LPSC No. 232. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:999-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible reasons for why laccase genes from C. rigida are differentially regulated at the transcriptional level are discussed...
  20. Finlay R. Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal symbiosis: with special emphasis on the functional diversity of interactions involving the extraradical mycelium. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:1115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to increasing the nutrient absorptive surface area of their host plant root systems, the extraradical mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi provides a direct pathway for translocation of photosynthetically derived carbon to ..
  21. Pacioni G, Leonardi M, Aimola P, Ragnelli A, Rubini A, Paolocci F. Isolation and characterization of some mycelia inhabiting Tuber ascomata. Mycol Res. 2007;111:1450-60 pubmed
    ..truffle-hosted mycelia grew stuck to the hyphal wall of their partner when co-cultivated with the Tuber borchii mycelium, but not when co-cultivated with the test species Agaricus macrosporus...
  22. Peintner U, Iotti M, Klotz P, Bonuso E, Zambonelli A. Soil fungal communities in a Castanea sativa (chestnut) forest producing large quantities of Boletus edulis sensu lato (porcini): where is the mycelium of porcini?. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:880-9 pubmed
    ..No specific fungus-fungus association was found. Factors triggering formation of mycorrhizae and fructification of porcini appear to be too complex to be simply explained on the basis of the amount of fungal mycelia in the soil. ..
  23. Liu Y, Guo S. Nutritional factors determining sclerotial formation of Polyporus umbellatus. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The categories of vitamin and mineral element do not have relationship with the sclerotial formation. This study provides the preparatory knowledge for the completely artificial culture of Polyporus umbellatus for its sclerotium. ..
  24. Muller J, Melchinger W. [Ultrastructural characters defining the terms 'yeast cell', 'pseudomycelium' and 'true mycelium' in Candida albicans]. Mycoses. 2006;49 Suppl 2:24-30 pubmed
    The discrimination of the morphological elements, 'yeast cell', 'pseudomycelium' and 'true mycelium' is indispensable in the mycological and histopathological diagnostics of fungal infections caused by Candida albicans...
  25. Wang S, Yang W, Liu Y, Chiu Y, Chen C, Kao P, et al. A potent sphingomyelinase inhibitor from Cordyceps mycelia contributes its cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress in macrophages. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cells. Results suggest that CME-1 protects RAW264.7 cells against oxidative stress through inhibition of SMase activity and reduction of C16- and C18-ceramide levels. ..
  26. Olsson P, Hammer E, Wallander H, Pallon J. Phosphorus availability influences elemental uptake in the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, as revealed by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is demonstrated that PIXE analysis is a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of elemental accumulation in fungal mycelia. ..
  27. Wen C, Chang C, Huang S, Kuo C, Hsu S, Deng J, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia both in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:575-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that MEMAC has the anti-inflammatory property both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that it may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. ..
  28. Zhou Z, Li G, Lin C, He C. Conidiophore stalk-less1 encodes a putative zinc-finger protein involved in the early stage of conidiation and mycelial infection in Magnaporthe oryzae. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009;22:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..oryzae. ..
  29. Bidard F, Aït Benkhali J, Coppin E, Imbeaud S, Grognet P, Delacroix H, et al. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of fertilization competent mycelium in opposite mating types in the heterothallic fungus Podospora anserina. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21476 pubmed publisher
    ..FMR1 and FPR1 are the major regulators of fertilization, and this study presents a genome-wide view of their target genes and analyzes their target gene regulation...
  30. de la Varga H, Agueda B, Martínez Peña F, Parladé J, Pera J. Quantification of extraradical soil mycelium and ectomycorrhizas of Boletus edulis in a Scots pine forest with variable sporocarp productivity. Mycorrhiza. 2012;22:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA extractions were performed with the PowerSoil(TM) DNA Isolation Kit and quantification of extraradical soil mycelium by real-time polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and a TaqMan® probe...
  31. Li X, Ji M, Qi Z, Li X, Shen Y, Gu Z, et al. Synthesis of 2-amino-6-oxocyclohexenylsulfonamides and their activity against Botrytis cinerea. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:986-92 pubmed publisher
    ..were evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
  32. Hammer E, Pallon J, Wallander H, Olsson P. Tit for tat? A mycorrhizal fungus accumulates phosphorus under low plant carbon availability. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011;76:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Other elements such as potassium and chorine were also accumulated, but to a lesser extent, while no accumulation of iron or manganese was found. Our results suggest a functional linkage between C and P exchange. ..
  33. Martins V, Dinamarco T, Soriani F, Tudella V, Oliveira S, Goldman G, et al. Involvement of an alternative oxidase in oxidative stress and mycelium-to-yeast differentiation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:237-48 pubmed publisher
    ..brasiliensis. ..
  34. Xie C, Gu Z, Fan G, Gu F, Han Y, Chen Z. Production of cordycepin and mycelia by submerged fermentation of Cordyceps militaris in mixture natural culture. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;158:483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..militaris in shaking flasks. The effects of the ratio of three natural materials on dry mycelium weight (DMW) and on cordycepin yield (CY) were analyzed...
  35. Teutschbein J, Albrecht D, Pötsch M, Guthke R, Aimanianda V, Clavaud C, et al. Proteome profiling and functional classification of intracellular proteins from conidia of the human-pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:3427-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that 57 proteins of our map are over-represented in resting conidia compared to mycelium. Enzymes involved in reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) detoxification, pigment biosynthesis, and conidial ..
  36. Chen J, Chen Y, Yang S, Ko Y, Chen S. Immunological alterations in lupus-prone autoimmune (NZB/NZW) F1 mice by mycelia Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis-induced redistributions of peripheral mononuclear T lymphocytes. Clin Exp Med. 2009;9:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our purpose was to investigate the immunological effects of an orally administered hot-water extract cultured mycelium of C. sinensis in lupus-prone (NZB/NZW) F1 hybrids...
  37. Tisserant E, da Silva C, Kohler A, Morin E, Wincker P, Martin F. Deep RNA sequencing improved the structural annotation of the Tuber melanosporum transcriptome. New Phytol. 2011;189:883-91 pubmed publisher
    ..melanosporum at different major developmental stages, that is free-living mycelium, fruiting body and ectomycorrhiza. • Sequencing of cDNA libraries generated a total of c...
  38. Lee T, Lee C, Tsou W, Liu S, Kuo M, Wen W. A new cytotoxic agent from solid-state fermented mycelium of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Med. 2007;73:1412-5 pubmed
    Antroquinonol ( 1), an ubiquinone derivative, was isolated from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Antrodia camphorata (Polyporaceae, Aphyllophorales), a parasitic fungus indigenous to Taiwan...
  39. Schafer M, Kohn L. An optimized method for mycelial compatibility testing in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mycologia. 2006;98:593-7 pubmed
    ..Workers are advised to optimize conditions before screening a new population sample. ..
  40. Chen D, Janganan T, Chen G, Marques E, Kress M, Goldman G, et al. The cAMP pathway is important for controlling the morphological switch to the pathogenic yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:761-79 pubmed
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogenic fungus that switches from a saprobic mycelium to a pathogenic yeast...
  41. Hu L, Shi Z, Zhang T, Yang Z. Fengycin antibiotics isolated from B-FS01 culture inhibit the growth of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon ATCC 38932. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;272:91-8 pubmed
    ..Further toxic assay of AAC in vitro against F. moniliforme indicated that AAC could strongly inhibit the growth of both mycelia and spores. In addition, treatment with AAC significantly modified the maize seed infection by ATCC 38932. ..
  42. Berne S, Pohleven J, Vidic I, Rebolj K, Pohleven F, Turk T, et al. Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Mycol Res. 2007;111:1431-6 pubmed
    ..the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus, was applied to nutrient media inoculated with mycelium of P. ostreatus, and its effects on mycelial growth and fructification of the mushroom studied...
  43. Li X, Jiao L, Zhang X, Tian W, Chen S, Zhang L. Anti-tumor and immunomodulating activities of proteoglycans from mycelium of Phellinus nigricans and culture medium. Int Immunopharmacol. 2008;8:909-15 pubmed publisher
    Two proteoglycans, PNW1 and PNM1, were isolated from the mycelium of Phellinus nigricans through submerged fermentation and culture medium, respectively...
  44. Evsenko M, Shashkov A, Avtonomova A, Krasnopolskaya L, Usov A. Polysaccharides of basidiomycetes. alkali-soluble polysaccharides from the mycelium of white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:533-42 pubmed
    Two polysaccharides were isolated from submergedly cultured mycelium of the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum by extraction with alkali followed by fractionation with Fehling reagent...
  45. Monteiro J, Clemons K, Mirels L, Coller J, Wu T, Shankar J, et al. Genomic DNA microarray comparison of gene expression patterns in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelia and yeasts in vitro. Microbiology. 2009;155:2795-808 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand our knowledge of the different morphological forms of P. brasiliensis during growth in culture...
  46. Lee Y, Johnson J, Chien C, Sun C, Cai D, Lou B, et al. Growth promotion of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis by Piriformospora indica is not stimulated by mycelium-synthesized auxin. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that activation of auxin biosynthesis and signaling in the roots might be the cause for the P. indica-mediated growth phenotype in Chinese cabbage...
  47. Friedl M, Schmoll M, Kubicek C, Druzhinina I. Photostimulation of Hypocrea atroviridis growth occurs due to a cross-talk of carbon metabolism, blue light receptors and response to oxidative stress. Microbiology. 2008;154:1229-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We further deduce that this process involves oxidative stress response and the two blue light receptor proteins BLR-1 and BLR-2, the former playing the major role...
  48. Oh J, Baek Y, Kim S, Hwang H, Hwang H, Lee S, et al. Apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and neuroblastoma (SKN-SH) cells induced by polysaccharides-peptide complexes produced by submerged mycelial culture of an entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps sphecocephala. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:512-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PPC has potential as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of both HepG2 and SK-N-SH cancer cells without any cytotoxicity against normal cells...
  49. Lucic E, Fourrey C, Kohler A, Martin F, Chalot M, Brun Jacob A. A gene repertoire for nitrogen transporters in Laccaria bicolor. New Phytol. 2008;180:343-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This work represents a major advance in the establishment of a transportome blueprint at a symbiotic interface, which will guide future experiments...
  50. Rezende T, Borges C, Magalhães A, de Sousa M, Ricart C, Bailão A, et al. A quantitative view of the morphological phases of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis using proteomics. J Proteomics. 2011;75:572-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of the functional categories to which these proteins belong provided an integrated view of the metabolic reorganization during the morphogenesis of P. brasiliensis...
  51. Zhang H, Liu K, Zhang X, Tang W, Wang J, Guo M, et al. Two phosphodiesterase genes, PDEL and PDEH, regulate development and pathogenicity by modulating intracellular cyclic AMP levels in Magnaporthe oryzae. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17241 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, microarray data revealed new insights into the underlying cAMP regulatory mechanisms that may help to identify potential pathogenicity factors for the development of new disease management strategies...
  52. Esquivel Naranjo E, Herrera Estrella A. Enhanced responsiveness and sensitivity to blue light by blr-2 overexpression in Trichoderma atroviride. Microbiology. 2007;153:3909-22 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that blr-2 overexpression caused higher sensitivity to blue light and we therefore propose that the preformation of BLR-1/BLR-2 complexes is key to adequate light perception in T. atroviride...
  53. Frey Klett P, Garbaye J, Tarkka M. The mycorrhiza helper bacteria revisited. New Phytol. 2007;176:22-36 pubmed
    ..The review concludes with discussion of future research priorities regarding the potentially very fruitful concept of MHB...
  54. Hiscox J, Baldrian P, Rogers H, Boddy L. Changes in oxidative enzyme activity during interspecific mycelial interactions involving the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..No relationship was found between extent of enzyme activity increase and interaction outcome. Similarities between patterns of gene expression and enzyme activity are discussed...
  55. Lavi I, Levinson D, Peri I, Tekoah Y, Hadar Y, Schwartz B. Chemical characterization, antiproliferative and antiadhesive properties of polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus pulmonarius mycelium and fruiting bodies. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1977-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study compared polysaccharides extracts produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius from mycelium grown in liquid culture (ME) or fruiting bodies (FBE)...
  56. Levin A, de Vries R, Conesa A, de Bekker C, Talon M, Menke H, et al. Spatial differentiation in the vegetative mycelium of Aspergillus niger. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:2311-22 pubmed
    ..the central part of the colony has been (partly) degraded, whereas it is still unexplored at the periphery of the mycelium. We here assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a main determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of ..
  57. Garcia A, Hernández O, Aristizabal B, De Souza Bernardes L, Puccia R, Naranjo T, et al. Gene expression analysis of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transition from conidium to yeast cell. Med Mycol. 2010;48:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report identifying genes expressed during the C-Y transition process, the initial step required to understand the natural history of P. brasiliensis conidia induced infection...
  58. Choi Y, Goodwin S. MVE1, encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola, is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:942-53 pubmed publisher
    ..to hypersensitivity to shaking, reduced hydrophobicity, and blindness to light-dependent stimulation of aerial mycelium production. However, pathogenicity was not altered in ?mve1 strains...
  59. Okamoto T, Yamada M, Sekiya S, Okuhara T, Taguchi G, Inatomi S, et al. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the vegetative dikaryotic mycelium of the cultivated mushroom Flammulina velutipes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:2327-9 pubmed
    Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to transform the vegetative dikaryotic mycelium of Flammulina velutipes using a hygromycin B resistance gene as selectable marker...
  60. Yang S, Wang G, Wang S, Lin Y, Kuo Y, Lee T. New constituents with iNOS inhibitory activity from mycelium of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Med. 2009;75:512-6 pubmed publisher
    In continuing our investigation on the bioactive constituents of mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, antroquinonol B (1), 4-acetyl-antroquinonol B (2), 2,3-(methylenedioxy)-6-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-..
  61. Lo H, Hsu T, Chen C. Submerged culture mycelium and broth of Grifola frondosa improve glycemic responses in diabetic rats. Am J Chin Med. 2008;36:265-85 pubmed
    ..diabetic rats), we investigated the effects of an orally ingested placebo (CON and STZ groups), culture mycelium (CGM and SGM groups), broth (CGB and SGB groups), and mycelium plus broth (CGX and SGX groups) of Grifola ..
  62. Sun Y, Liu J. Adjuvant effect of water-soluble polysaccharide (PAP) from the mycelium of Polyporus albicans on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Vaccine. 2008;26:3932-6 pubmed publisher
    In our previous work, a new water-soluble polysaccharide (PAP) from the mycelium of Polyporus albicans was identified for the first time...
  63. Vincent D, Kohler A, Claverol S, Solier E, Joets J, Gibon J, et al. Secretome of the free-living mycelium from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:157-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the extracellular proteins secreted in growth medium by free-living mycelium of L. bicolor as a proxy for its saprotrophic phase...
  64. Lazar E, Wills R, Ho B, Harris A, Spohr L. Antifungal effect of gaseous nitric oxide on mycelium growth, sporulation and spore germination of the postharvest horticulture pathogens, Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;46:688-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the antifungal activity of nitric oxide (NO) against the growth of the postharvest horticulture pathogens Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum under in vitro conditions...
  65. Gowda M, Venu R, Raghupathy M, Nobuta K, Li H, Wing R, et al. Deep and comparative analysis of the mycelium and appressorium transcriptomes of Magnaporthe grisea using MPSS, RL-SAGE, and oligoarray methods. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:310 pubmed
    ..To identify all the expressed genes encoded in the fungal genome, we have analyzed the mycelium and appressorium transcriptomes using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), robust-long serial analysis ..
  66. Zhang C, Zou X, Leluo G, Xu J, Xiang M. Prevention of type 1 diabetes by immature dendritic cells treated with an ethanol extract of Paecilomyces hepiali Chen mycelium. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2008;30:421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Paecilomyces hepiali Chen (PHC) mycelium, as a substitute for Cordyceps, has been used extensively as an immunomodulator to treat numerous diseases...
  67. Cui J, Zhang B. Comparison of culture methods on exopolysaccharide production in the submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris and process optimization. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;52:123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve exopolysaccharides (EPS) production of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris), effects of different culture method on mycelial biomass and EPS production in the submerged culture of C. militaris were investigated...
  68. Sbrana C, Fortuna P, Giovannetti M. Plugging into the network: belowground connections between germlings and extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia. 2011;103:307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..An in vivo experimental system was used to grow extraradical mycelium produced by Glomus mosseae colonizing three different plant species and germlings of the same isolate...
  69. Ceccaroli P, Buffalini M, Saltarelli R, Barbieri E, Polidori E, Ottonello S, et al. Genomic profiling of carbohydrate metabolism in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum. New Phytol. 2011;189:751-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate a high degree of lifecycle stage specialization for particular branches of carbohydrate metabolism in T. melanosporum...
  70. Campos C, Di Benedette J, Morais F, Ovalle R, Nobrega M. Evidence for the role of calcineurin in morphogenesis and calcium homeostasis during mycelium-to-yeast dimorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1856-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The dimorphic transition from mycelium to yeast (M-Y) is triggered by a temperature shift from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C and is critical for ..
  71. Chum W, Ng K, Shih R, Au C, Kwan H. Gene expression studies of the dikaryotic mycelium and primordium of Lentinula edodes by serial analysis of gene expression. Mycol Res. 2008;112:950-64 pubmed publisher
    ..fruit of the species have been identified, little is known about the process of differentiation from dikaryotic mycelium to primordium...
  72. Nitha B, Janardhanan K. Aqueous-ethanolic extract of morel mushroom mycelium Morchella esculenta, protects cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is an excellently edible and delicious morel mushroom found growing in the temperate forests. The mycelium of this mushroom is widely used as a flavouring agent...
  73. Barros B, da Silva S, dos ReisMarques E, Rosa J, Yatsuda A, Roberts D, et al. A proteomic approach to identifying proteins differentially expressed in conidia and mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:572-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Three proteins (HSP 90, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and allergen Alt a 7) were present in spots in conidial and mycelial gels, but they differed in their locations on the two gels...
  74. Matsuda H, Akaki J, Nakamura S, Okazaki Y, Kojima H, Tamesada M, et al. Apoptosis-inducing effects of sterols from the dried powder of cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009;57:411-4 pubmed
    The methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from the dried powder of cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelium showed cytotoxic effects on promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells...
  75. González Guerrero M, Melville L, Ferrol N, Lott J, Azcón Aguilar C, Peterson R. Ultrastructural localization of heavy metals in the extraradical mycelium and spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the ultrastructural localization of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the extraradical mycelium and spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices grown in monoxenic cultures was investigated...
  76. Zhang Q, Wu J. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract induces human premyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis through mitochondrion pathway. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:52-7 pubmed
    This study was to identify the signaling pathways for the induction of HL-60 cell apoptosis by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium extract (CSME)...
  77. Largeteau M, Latapy C, Minvielle N, Regnault Roger C, Savoie J. Expression of phenol oxidase and heat-shock genes during the development of Agaricus bisporus fruiting bodies, healthy and infected by Lecanicillium fungicola. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..The six strains exhibited a comparable expression in the vegetative mycelium, non-receptive to L. fungicola.
  78. Hortsch R, Stratmann A, Weuster Botz D. New milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;106:443-51 pubmed publisher
    A novel milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was developed for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms on a 10 milliliter-scale...
  79. Liu Z, Li P, Zhao D, Tang H, Guo J. Anti-inflammation effects of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium in focal cerebral ischemic injury rats. Inflammation. 2011;34:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the neuroprotective efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium (CSM) in a rat model of focal cerebral IR, ischemic animals were treated with CSM...
  80. Tomazett P, F lix C, Lenzi H, de Paula Faria F, de Almeida Soares C, Pereira M. 1,3-?-d-Glucan synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: recombinant protein, expression and cytolocalization in the yeast and mycelium phases. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:809-16 pubmed publisher
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic human pathogenic fungus that in the mycelium phase lives at 23°C in environment and in the yeast phase at 37°C in the host tissues. In P...
  81. Bastos K, Bailão A, Borges C, Faria F, Felipe M, Silva M, et al. The transcriptome analysis of early morphogenesis in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelium reveals novel and induced genes potentially associated to the dimorphic process. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:29 pubmed
    ..We describe expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis to assess the expression profile of the mycelium to yeast transition. To identify P...
  82. Fontaine T, Lamarre C, Simenel C, Lambou K, Coddeville B, Delepierre M, et al. Characterization of glucuronic acid containing glycolipid in Aspergillus fumigatus mycelium. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1960-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This acidic glycolipid was extracted from the membrane of mycelium and purified by two successive chromatographic steps on DEAE-Sephadex and Silica columns...
  83. Schroeckh V, Scherlach K, Nützmann H, Shelest E, Schmidt Heck W, Schuemann J, et al. Intimate bacterial-fungal interaction triggers biosynthesis of archetypal polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14558-63 pubmed publisher
  84. Carrillo González R, González Chávez M. Tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium by the mycelium of the fungi Scleroderma citrinum and Pisolithus tinctorius. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;146:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The mycelium of both Pt strains accumulated more Cd than the Sc mycelium...