fungal fruiting bodies


Summary: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.

Top Publications

  1. Nowrousian M, Piotrowski M, Kück U. Multiple layers of temporal and spatial control regulate accumulation of the fruiting body-specific protein APP in Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet Biol. 2007;44:602-14 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight multiple layers of temporal and spatial control of gene expression during fungal development...
  2. Kück U. A Sordaria macrospora mutant lacking the leu1 gene shows a developmental arrest during fruiting body formation. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;274:307-15 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data show that pro4 represents a novel mutant type in S. macrospora, in which amino acid starvation acts as a signal that interrupts the development of the fruiting body...
  3. Nolting N, Pöggeler S. A MADS box protein interacts with a mating-type protein and is required for fruiting body development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1043-56 pubmed
    ..macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development...
  4. Engh I, Würtz C, Witzel Schlömp K, Zhang H, Hoff B, Nowrousian M, et al. The WW domain protein PRO40 is required for fungal fertility and associates with Woronin bodies. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:831-43 pubmed
    ..macrospora and Neurospora crassa, as shown by fluorescence microscopy, sedimentation, and immunoblot analyses. We discuss the function of PRO40 in fruiting body formation...
  5. Li Y, Liu Q, Wang H, Ng T. A novel lectin with potent antitumor, mitogenic and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from the edible mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:51-7 pubmed
    ..The lectin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 0.93 microM. It was devoid of antifungal activity...
  6. Kamerewerd J, Jansson M, Nowrousian M, Pöggeler S, Kück U. Three alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and an adenylyl cyclase have distinct roles in fruiting body development in the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora. Genetics. 2008;180:191-206 pubmed publisher
    ..From the sum of all our data, we propose a model for how different Galpha-subunits interact with pheromone receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and STE12 and thus cooperatively regulate sexual development in S. macrospora...
  7. Poma A, Limongi T, Pacioni G. Current state and perspectives of truffle genetics and sustainable biotechnology. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:437-41 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been successfully established for T. borchii. ..
  8. Gao J, Leung K, Wang Y, Lai C, Li S, Hu L, et al. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of nucleosides and nucleobases in Ganoderma spp. by HPLC-DAD-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;44:807-11 pubmed
    ..spp. The established method might apply as an alternative approach for the quality assessment of Lingzhi...
  9. Hawksworth D, Lagreca S. New bottles for old wine: fruit body types, phylogeny, and classification. Mycol Res. 2007;111:999-1000 pubmed
    ..The nine papers included address this issue in relation to its impact on classification, and also draw attention to the over-emphasis in fungal classification of ascus types and, in the case of lichen fungi, thallus form. ..

More Information

Publications152 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kuratani M, Tanaka K, Terashima K, Muraguchi H, Nakazawa T, Nakahori K, et al. The dst2 gene essential for photomorphogenesis of Coprinopsis cinerea encodes a protein with a putative FAD-binding-4 domain. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The two blind phenotypes, together with the existence of an FAD-binding domain in Dst2, suggest that Dst2 may play a role in perceiving blue light...
  2. Sabotič J, Ohm R, Künzler M. Entomotoxic and nematotoxic lectins and protease inhibitors from fungal fruiting bodies. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:91-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present an outlook for future research directions in this field and their potential applications in medicine and crop protection. ..
  3. Chakraborty I, Mondal S, Rout D, Chandra K, Islam S. Structural investigation of a heteroglycan isolated from the fruit bodies of an ectomycorrhizal fungus Astraeus hygrometricus. Carbohydr Res. 2007;342:982-7 pubmed
  4. Zhang R, Zhang G, Hu D, Wang H, Ng T. A novel ribonuclease with antiproliferative activity from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lyophyllum shimeiji. Biochem Genet. 2010;48:658-68 pubmed publisher
    ..It suppressed proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC(50) of 10 and 6.2 microM, respectively. It inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7.2 microM. ..
  5. Rodenburg S, Terhem R, Veloso J, Stassen J, van Kan J. Functional Analysis of Mating Type Genes and Transcriptome Analysis during Fruiting Body Development of Botrytis cinerea. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..b>IMPORTANCE Fungal fruiting bodies are formed by sexual reproduction...
  6. Lee J, Lee S, Choi Y, Chung K, Jeong Y, Choi B. Effects of mycelial culture of Phellinus linteus on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Phytother Res. 2006;20:396-402 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that pretreatment with MCPL provided protection of the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury by maintaining the mucus barrier in rats. ..
  7. Falandysz J, Frankowska A, Mazur A. Mercury and its bioconcentration factors in King Bolete (Boletus edulis) Bull. Fr. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2007;42:2089-95 pubmed
  8. Elleuche S, Pöggeler S. Carbonic anhydrases in fungi. Microbiology. 2010;156:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on CA functions in S. cerevisiae, the fungal pathogens C. albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. ..
  9. Sanchez C. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1321-37 pubmed publisher
    ..All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms...
  10. Kim B, Choi J, Hong H, Lee S, Hong S, Park E, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of mushroom Phellinus linteus in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106:364-71 pubmed
    ..ZnPP prevented PL from down-regulating ROS generation and JNK activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, PL shows its anti-inflammatory activity via mediation of HO-1 in an in vitro inflammation model. ..
  11. Li L, Ng T, Song M, Yuan F, Liu Z, Wang C, et al. A polysaccharide-peptide complex from abalone mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus) fruiting bodies increases activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduces lipid peroxidation in senescence-accelerated mice. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;75:863-9 pubmed
    ..The maximal lifespan of the mice was prolonged. ..
  12. Kojima K, Ohno T, Inoue M, Mizukami H, Nagatsu A. Phellifuropyranone A: a new furopyranone compound isolated from fruit bodies of wild Phellinus linteus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008;56:173-5 pubmed
    ..Phellifuropyranone A together with meshimakobnol A and meshimakobnol B showed antiproliferative activity against mouse melanoma cells and human lung cancer cells in vitro. ..
  13. Tong H, Xia F, Feng K, Sun G, Gao X, Sun L, et al. Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of a novel polysaccharide isolated from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:1682-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest POPS-1 may be considered as a potential candidate for developing a novel low toxicity antitumor agent...
  14. Muszynska B, Sułkowska Ziaja K, Ekiert H. Indole compounds in fruiting bodies of some selected Macromycetes species and in their mycelia cultured in vitro. Pharmazie. 2009;64:479-80 pubmed
    ..Contents of the compounds investigated varied widely, from 0.182 to 2.851 mg/100g d.w. in fruiting bodies and from 0.322 to 2.096 mg/100g d.w. in biomass from in vitro cultures, respectively. ..
  15. Mazurkiewicz W, Rydel K, Pogocki D, Lemieszek M, Langner E, Rzeski W. Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Acta Pol Pharm. 2010;67:397-406 pubmed
  16. Jeong S, Yang B, Kim G, Jeong H, Wilson M, Cho Y, et al. Macrophage-stimulating activity of polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail Mushroom). J Med Food. 2006;9:175-81 pubmed
    ..However, CV-S2-Fr.I had no effect on nitric oxide production by itself. The proportion of C3-positive macrophages in the CV-S2-Fr.I group increased by 7.2-fold compared with the control group. ..
  17. Luo D, Gao Y, Yang X, Tang J, Liu J. Highly oxidized humulane sesquiterpenes from the basidiomycete Lactarius mitissimus. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2007;60:162-5 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. ..
  18. Pestaña Nieto M, Santolamazza Carbone S. Characterization of juvenile maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) ectomycorrhizal fungal community using morphotyping, direct sequencing and fruitbodies sampling. Mycorrhiza. 2009;19:91-98 pubmed publisher
  19. Saba M, Falandysz J, Nnorom I. Mercury bioaccumulation by Suillus bovinus mushroom and probable dietary intake with the mushroom meal. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:14549-59 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fungal fruiting bodies and soil materials were collected from 13 background areas in the northern part of Poland between 1993 and ..
  20. Yoshikawa K, Kouso K, Takahashi J, Matsuda A, Okazoe M, Umeyama A, et al. Cytotoxic constituents of the fruit body of Daedalea dickisii. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:911-4 pubmed
    ..Compounds 3-6 induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic cell death in the HL-60 cell line...
  21. Palmer G, Horton J. Mushrooms by magic: making connections between signal transduction and fruiting body development in the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;262:1-8 pubmed
    ..The molecular connections between nutrient sensing and mushroom development are now beginning to be examined...
  22. Miyazaki Y, Kaneko S, Sunagawa M, Shishido K, Yamazaki T, Nakamura M, et al. The fruiting-specific Le.flp1 gene, encoding a novel fungal fasciclin-like protein, of the basidiomycetous mushroom Lentinula edodes. Curr Genet. 2007;51:367-75 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the hypothesis that Le.flp1 plays a role in cellular differentiation and development in ubiquitous tissues during fruiting body formation in L. edodes, possibly through cell adhesion. ..
  23. Chen J, Lin W, Liao C, Shieh P. Anti-inflammatory benzenoids from Antrodia camphorata. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:989-92 pubmed
    ..Among the isolates, antrocamphin A (1), antcin A (10), and antcin B (11) exhibited potent inhibition against fMLP-induced superoxide production with IC50 values less than 10 microM. ..
  24. Sun Y, Liang H, Zhang X, Tong H, Liu J. Structural elucidation and immunological activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Armillaria mellea. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:1860-3 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a possible potential immunopotentiating agent for use in health-care food or medicine. ..
  25. Lee J, Park B, Ko Y, Choi M, Choi H, Yong C, et al. Grifola frondosa (maitake mushroom) water extract inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. J Med Food. 2008;11:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that GFW effectively inhibit angiogenesis by blocking VEGF signaling and suggest that G. frondosa fruiting body may be a valuable medicinal food for treatment of angiogenesis-associated human diseases...
  26. Sato T, Kanda K, Okawa K, Takahashi M, Watanabe H, Hirano T, et al. The tyrosinase-encoding gene of Lentinula edodes, Letyr, is abundantly expressed in the gills of the fruit-body during post-harvest preservation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:1042-7 pubmed
    ..This correlation between Letyr expression and fruit-body preservation suggests that tyrosinase gene expression contributes to gill browning. ..
  27. Wang H, Ng T. Purification of a laccase from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;69:521-5 pubmed
    ..2 microM. Its N-terminal sequence was dissimilar to those of laccase isoenzymes previously isolated from cultured mycelia of the same species. ..
  28. Kranabetter J, Friesen J, Gamiet S, Kroeger P. Epigeous fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi as indicators of soil fertility and associated nitrogen status of boreal forests. Mycorrhiza. 2009;19:535-548 pubmed publisher
    ..Epigeous fruiting bodies provided a disparate yet complementary view to the belowground assessment of EMF communities that was valuable in identifying indicators for ecosystem monitoring. ..
  29. Shiono Y, Motoki S, Koseki T, Murayama T, Tojima M, Kimura K. Isopimarane diterpene glycosides, apoptosis inducers, obtained from fruiting bodies of the ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha. Phytochemistry. 2009;70:935-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies on the cytotoxicity of these compounds against HL60 cells demonstrated that they induced apoptosis along with typical DNA fragmentation. It was observed that 2 was less active than 1 and 3. ..
  30. Santana Nunes J, Rocha de Brito M, Cunha Zied D, Aparecida das Graças Leite E, Souza Dias E, Alves E. Evaluation of the infection process by Lecanicillium fungicola in Agaricus bisporus by scanning electron microscopy. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2017;34:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..fungicola. The formation of calcium oxalate crystals by the pathogen was also visible using the X-ray microanalysis, both at the hyphae in the Petri plate and at basidiocarp infection site. ..
  31. Isikhuemhen O, Mikiashvili N, Kelkar V. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization. Biodegradation. 2009;20:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms. ..
  32. Carriconde F, Gryta H, Jargeat P, Mouhamadou B, Gardes M. High sexual reproduction and limited contemporary dispersal in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma scalpturatum: new insights from population genetics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:4433-45 pubmed publisher
  33. Lee H, Lee J, Cho J, Cho J, Kim Y, Hong E. Structural characteristics of immunostimulating polysaccharides from lentinus edodes. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:455-61 pubmed
    ..According to FT-IR and GC/MS, the structure of CPFN-G-I, purified from the fruiting body of L. edodes, was found to consist of a beta-1,6-branched-beta-1,4-glucan, whereas CPBN-G and CPBA-G, purified from the liquid. ..
  34. Gao J, Qin J, Pescitelli G, Di Pietro S, Ma Y, Zhang A. Structure and absolute configuration of toxic polyketide pigments from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Cortinarius rufo-olivaceus. Org Biomol Chem. 2010;8:3543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds and were found to be unusual natural products incorporating an ortho-anthraquinone chromophore. All the metabolites were shown to be toxic toward the brine shrimp. ..
  35. Suehiro M, Katoh N, Kishimoto S. Cheilitis due to Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom extract. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;56:293-4 pubmed
  36. Ma B, Ruan Y, Liu J. [Chemical constituents study on the fruiting bodies of Lactarius rufus]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008;31:233-4 pubmed
    ..Compound 5 is the main sesquiterpenoid of Lactarius rufus and has the potential for the further investigation. ..
  37. Hashimoto T, Tashiro T, Kitahara T, Mori K, Sasaki M, Takikawa H. First synthesis of (+/-)-basidifferquinone C, an inducer for fruiting-body formation in Polyporus arcularius. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:2299-302 pubmed
    ..are potent inducers of fruiting-body formation in the basidiomycete, Polyporus arcularius. The first synthesis of (+/-)-basidifferquinone C was accomplished by starting from 3,5-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. ..
  38. Zhao S, Zhao Y, Li S, Zhang G, Wang H, Ng T. An antiproliferative ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the wild mushroom Russula delica. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:693-9 pubmed
    ..It could inhibit proliferation of HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells with an IC50 value of 8.6 microM and 7.2 microM, respectively. It was devoid of antifungal and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. ..
  39. Bernardo D, Pérez Cabo A, Novaes Ledieu M, PARDO J, García Mendoza C. Comparative effect of the fungicide Prochloraz-Mn on Agaricus bisporus vegetative-mycelium and fruit-body cell walls. Int Microbiol. 2004;7:277-81 pubmed
    ..fungicola infection depended on the dose of the fungicide employed, whereas fruit-body morphology was only slightly affected at the highest Prochloraz-Mn concentration used. ..
  40. Cui L, Liu Q, Wang H, Ng T. An alkaline protease from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;75:81-5 pubmed
    ..It manifested a K (m) of 3.44 mg/ml and a V (max) of 0.139 mg ml(-1) min(-1). It was devoid of ribonuclease and antifungal activities. ..
  41. Splivallo R, Novero M, Bertea C, Bossi S, Bonfante P. Truffle volatiles inhibit growth and induce an oxidative burst in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2007;175:417-24 pubmed
    ..thaliana and modify its oxidative metabolism. Even though limited to laboratory observations, these results indicate the presence of a hitherto unknown function of fungal volatiles as molecules that mediate fungal-plant interactions. ..
  42. Jiang Z, Weng B, Lei J, Wang Y, Tang X, Xiao S. [Effect of exogenous zinc addition on cell protective enzyme activities in the fruit bodies of Lentinus giganteus]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2009;49:1121-5 pubmed
    ..Appropriate Zn concentration improved the protective enzyme activities, and lightened the harm of membrane from lipid peroxidation. ..
  43. Chu Y, Yang R, Chang T, Chou J. Fructification of Antrodia cinnamomea was strain dependent in malt extract media and involved specific gene expression. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:257-61 pubmed publisher
    ..66- and 2.75-fold in fruiting body compared with mycelium, respectively, and perxoiredoxin and manganese superoxide dismutase were found with similar expressions in both fruiting body and mycelium. ..
  44. Song S, Jia X, Chen Y, Chen B, Wang L, Zhao C. [Extraction of triterpenoids from fruiting [corrected] bodies of Ganoderma lucidum by supercritical fluid extraction]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:2104-7 pubmed
    ..5 hour, and the ethanol was employed as modifier carrier at the volume of 3 mL x g(-1). SFE is superior and it is feasible to extract triterpenoids from fruits of Ganoderma lucidum. ..
  45. Napoli C, Mello A, Borra A, Vizzini A, Sourzat P, Bonfante P. Tuber melanosporum, when dominant, affects fungal dynamics in truffle grounds. New Phytol. 2010;185:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The Basidiomycota ECM fungi decreased within the brulé, indicating a competitive effect of T. melanosporum on the other ECM fungi. Among other factors, the dynamics of fungal populations seems to be correlated to brulé formation. ..
  46. Sakamoto Y, Ando A, Tamai Y, Yajima T. Pileus differentiation and pileus-specific protein expression in Flammulina velutipes. Fungal Genet Biol. 2007;44:14-24 pubmed
    ..Transcription was also low in pinhead fruiting bodies, but increased after light treatment. These results indicate that psh is specifically expressed during pileus differentiation induced by light stimulation. ..
  47. Nowrousian M, Frank S, Koers S, Strauch P, Weitner T, Ringelberg C, et al. The novel ER membrane protein PRO41 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:923-37 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data show that PRO41 is a novel ER membrane protein essential for fruiting body formation in filamentous fungi...
  48. Liu D, Liang H, Chen C, Su C, Lee T, Huang C, et al. Comparative anti-inflammatory characterization of wild fruiting body, liquid-state fermentation, and solid-state culture of Taiwanofungus camphoratus in microglia and the mechanism of its action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113:45-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Taiwanofungus camphoratus exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity that might contribute to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  49. Curtis P, Taylor R, Welch R, Shimkets L. Spatial organization of Myxococcus xanthus during fruiting body formation. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:9126-30 pubmed
    ..A csgA (MXAN_1294) mutant exhibited no quiescent phase, aberrant aggregation in phase 2, and disintegration of the fruiting bodies in the third phase. ..
  50. Wong J, Wang H, Ng T. A haemagglutinin from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. Biosci Rep. 2009;29:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is revealed in this study that C. militaris HA differs from other ascomycete mushroom HAs in a variety of biochemical characteristics. ..
  51. Wang H, Wang Y, Shi Y, Li X, Long C. Chemical constituents in roots of Osbeckia opipara. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:414-8 pubmed
    ..Compounds 1-12 were isolated from O. opipara for the first time. ..
  52. Kodama N, Mizuno S, Nanba H, Saito N. Potential antitumor activity of a low-molecular-weight protein fraction from Grifola frondosa through enhancement of cytokine production. J Med Food. 2010;13:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This fraction enhanced the production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma by splenocytes in tumor-bearing mice and clearly showed an inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth...
  53. Moreau P, Mleczko P, Ronikier M, Ronikier A. Rediscovery of Alnicola cholea (Cortinariaceae): taxonomic revision and description of its mycorrhiza with Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae). Mycologia. 2006;98:468-78 pubmed
    ..cholea with an arcticalpine plant Polygonum viviparum was observed in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). A description of these mycorrhizae is given, providing first detailed data on an identified herbaceous plant mycorrhiza...
  54. Cieniecka Rosłonkiewicz A, Sas A, Przybysz E, Morytz B, Syguda A, Pernak J. Ionic liquids for the production of insecticidal and microbicidal extracts of the fungus Cantharellus cibarius. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:2218-24 pubmed
    ..Notably, the cidal activities against plant-pathogenic bacteria were stronger than against human bacterial strains. ..
  55. Lv Z, Jiang Y, Wu L, Liu K. [Chemical constituents from dried sorophore of cultured Cordyceps militaris]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:2914-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the chemical constituents of the dried sorophore of cultured Cordyceps militaris...
  56. Shintani A, Yamazaki H, Yamamoto Y, Ahmed F, Ishibashi M. Cribrarione C, a naphthoquinone pigment from the myxomycete Cribraria meylanii. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009;57:894-5 pubmed
    ..This compound (1) had been synthesized previously, while it was isolated here for the first time as a natural product, and its NMR and MS data are described in this study...
  57. Wu S, Leu Y, Chen C, Chao C, Shen D, Chan H, et al. Camphoratins A-J, potent cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory triterpenoids from the fruiting body of Taiwanofungus camphoratus. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 6, 10, 11, 14-16, 18, and 21 exhibited anti-inflammatory NO-production inhibition activity with IC(50) values of less than 5 ?M, and were more potent than the nonspecific NOS inhibitor N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. ..
  58. Katsukawa S, Shishido K. Analysis of recQ gene transcript in fruiting bodies of basidiomycetous mushroom Lentinula edodes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:2247-9 pubmed
    ..recQ transcript level within the hymenophore is higher in the hymenium, subhymenium, and the outer region of the trama. Trama cells themselves contain a lower level of the transcript...
  59. Wang H, Ng T. A laccase from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:508-13 pubmed
    ..The enzyme required a pH of 3-5 and a temperature of 70 degrees C to exhibit maximal activity. Minimal activity was detected at pH 6 and 7. Activity was undetectable at pH 8 and 9 and after exposure to 100 degrees C for 10 min...
  60. Chen C, Shiao Y, Lin R, Shao Y, Lai M, Lin C, et al. Neuroprotective diterpenes from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:689-91 pubmed
    ..The in vitro neuroprotective activity of all compounds was evaluated, and compounds 1-5 protected neurons from Abeta damage by 39.2, 35.0, 36.7, 30.6, and 27.0%, respectively, at concentrations between 5 and 20 microM...
  61. Borovicka J, Randa Z, Jelínek E, Kotrba P, Dunn C. Hyperaccumulation of silver by Amanita strobiliformis and related species of the section Lepidella. Mycol Res. 2007;111:1339-44 pubmed
    ..strobiliformis. Silver concentrations in macrofungal fruit bodies were commonly 800-2500 times higher than in underlying soils. A. strobiliformis and A. solitaria are the first eukaryotic organisms known to hyperaccumulate Ag...
  62. Elisashvili V, Kachlishvili E, Penninckx M. Lignocellulolytic enzymes profile during growth and fruiting of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and tree leaves. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2008;55:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..When mushrooms shifted to the vegetative growth, the activity of ligninolytic enzymes again gradually increased, whereas the activity of hydrolases decreased. ..
  63. Seo H, Hung T, Na M, Jung H, Kim J, Choi J, et al. Steroids and triterpenes from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma lucidum and their anti-complement activity. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:1573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggested that in addition to the ketone group at C-3, the delta7(8), delta9(11)-lanostadiene type triterpene also plays an important role in inhibiting the hemolytic activity of human serum against erythrocytes. ..
  64. Gao J, Nakamura N, Min B, Hirakawa A, Zuo F, Hattori M. Quantitative determination of bitter principles in specimens of Ganoderma lucidum using high-performance liquid chromatography and its application to the evaluation of ganoderma products. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004;52:688-95 pubmed
    ..lucidum was used. ..
  65. Seo J, Han K, Yu J. The gprA and gprB genes encode putative G protein-coupled receptors required for self-fertilization in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1611-23 pubmed
    ..Deletion of gprA and/or gprB suppressed growth defects caused by DeltagprD, implying that GprA/B function downstream of GprD-mediated negative control of sexual development. ..
  66. Vidic I, Berne S, Drobne D, Macek P, Frangez R, Turk T, et al. Temporal and spatial expression of ostreolysin during development of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Mycol Res. 2005;109:377-82 pubmed
  67. Chen C, Chyau C, Hseu T. Production of a COX-2 inhibitor, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, with submerged cultured Antrodia camphorata. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;44:387-92 pubmed
    ..camphorata and elucidated this compound derived from digested sawdust of C. kanehirae wood. A feasible method was also developed to produce TMBA containing mycelium by feeding vanillin. ..
  68. Parfitt D, Martyn Ainsworth A, Simpson D, Rogers H, Boddy L. Molecular and morphological discrimination of stipitate hydnoids in the genera Hydnellum and Phellodon. Mycol Res. 2007;111:761-77 pubmed
    ..Specific PCR primers were constructed to discriminate fruit bodies, mycelium, and mycorrhizal roots of P. niger and P. confluens from each other and from other stipitate hydnoids. ..
  69. Stchigel A, Guarro J. A reassessment of cleistothecia as a taxonomic character. Mycol Res. 2007;111:1100-15 pubmed
  70. Singh P, Langowski H, Wani A, Saengerlaub S. Recent advances in extending the shelf life of fresh Agaricus mushrooms: a review. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:1393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, first, the major factors involved in postharvest quality deterioration are discussed and then technological advances/methods used to counteract these hurdles are presented. ..
  71. Kunzler M, Bleuler Martinez S, Butschi A, Garbani M, Lüthy P, Hengartner M, et al. Biotoxicity assays for fruiting body lectins and other cytoplasmic proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2010;480:141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..All three assays are based on heterologous expression of the examined proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and feeding of these recombinant bacteria to omnivorous and bacterivorous organisms. ..
  72. Xie Q, Deng J, Deng Y, Shao C, Zhang H, Ke C. Effects of cryptoporus polysaccharide on rat allergic rhinitis associated with inhibiting eotaxin mRNA expression. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107:424-30 pubmed
    ..Its action mechanism may be associated with the decrease of eotaxin mRNA expression...
  73. Xian Li P, Jing Xu N, Meng D, Sha Y. A new perylenequinone from the fruit bodies of Bulgaria inquinans. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2006;8:743-6 pubmed
  74. Han C, Zhang G, Wang H, Ng T. Schizolysin, a hemolysin from the split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;309:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The metal ions Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) significantly, and Pb(2+) to a lesser extent, curtailed the activity of the hemolysin. The hemolysin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 1.8 microM. ..
  75. Ng T, Ngai P, Xia L. An agglutinin with mitogenic and antiproliferative activities from the mushroom Flammulina velutipes. Mycologia. 2006;98:167-71 pubmed
    ..Its N-terminal sequence shows differences from that of FIP-fve. F. velutipes hemagglutinin stimulates [3H-methyl] thymidine uptake by mouse splenocytes. It inhibits proliferation of leukemia L1210 cells with an IC50 of 13 microM. ..
  76. Bystrzejewska Piotrowska G, Bazała M. A study of mechanisms responsible for incorporation of cesium and radiocesium into fruitbodies of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii). J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight distinctiveness of mechanisms responsible for the uptake and incorporation of cesium in mushrooms and plants. ..
  77. Aliferis K, Jabaji S. Metabolite composition and bioactivity of Rhizoctonia solani sclerotial exudates. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7604-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show with certainty that the integration of different analytical platforms is a powerful approach for extracting the maximum and reliable information on the metabolic composition of complex biological samples. ..
  78. Turner E, Jacobson D, Taylor J. Reinforced postmating reproductive isolation barriers in Neurospora, an Ascomycete microfungus. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1642-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that fruitbody abortion is selectively advantageous if it increases the likelihood that maternal Neurospora individuals successfully mate conspecifically after maladaptive hybrid fertilization. ..
  79. Lin X, Huang J, Mitchell T, Heitman J. Virulence attributes and hyphal growth of C. neoformans are quantitative traits and the MATalpha allele enhances filamentation. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e187 pubmed
    ..Further characterization of these QTL regions will reveal additional quantitative trait genes controlling biological processes central to fungal development and pathogenicity. ..
  80. Hsu Y, Kuo P, Cho C, Ni W, Tzeng T, Ng L, et al. Antrodia cinnamomea fruiting bodies extract suppresses the invasive potential of human liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5 through inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB pathway. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1249-57 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that EAC inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB, and may provide a molecular basis for drug development using EAC as an anti-invasive agent in the prevention and treatment of cancer. ..
  81. Porter T, Skillman J, Moncalvo J. Fruiting body and soil rDNA sampling detects complementary assemblage of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) in a hemlock-dominated forest plot in southern Ontario. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3037-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Unless an exhaustive inventory is required, the rapidity and versatility of DNA-based sampling may be sufficient for a first assessment of the dominant taxonomic and ecological groups of fungi in forest soil. ..
  82. Lu Y, Luo F, Cen K, Xiao G, Yin Y, Li C, et al. Omics data reveal the unusual asexual-fruiting nature and secondary metabolic potentials of the medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:668 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the confirmed production of oosporein raises health concerns about the frequent consumption of fungal fruiting bodies. The results of this study expand our knowledge of fungal genetics that asexual fruiting can occur ..
  83. Enman J, Rova U, Berglund K. Quantification of the bioactive compound eritadenine in selected strains of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1177-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the potential for delivery of therapeutic amounts of eritadenine from the ingestion of extracts or dried concentrates of shiitake mushroom strains. ..
  84. Wolff E, Wisbeck E, Silveira M, Gern R, Pinho M, Furlan S. Antimicrobial and antineoplasic activity of Pleurotus ostreatus. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2008;151:402-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest tumor inhibition (76%) was achieved for the treatment with ECB. The intragastric treatment did not promote any reduction in tumor cell development, independent of the test substance...
  85. Jacobi V, Dufour J, Bouvet G, Aoun M, Bernier L. Identification of transcripts up-regulated in asexual and sexual fruiting bodies of the Dutch elm disease pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Can J Microbiol. 2010;56:697-705 pubmed publisher
    ..novo-ulmi and should be of interest to researchers concerned with reproduction, mating type, and sexuality of filamentous ascomycete fungi. ..
  86. Lo H, Tsai F, Wasser S, Yang J, Huang B. Effects of ingested fruiting bodies, submerged culture biomass, and acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan of Tremella mesenterica Retz.:Fr. on glycemic responses in normal and diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2006;78:1957-66 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that T. mesenterica might be developed as a potential oral hypoglycemic agent or functional food for diabetic patients and for persons with high risk for diabetes mellitus. ..
  87. Russo A, Piovano M, Clericuzio M, Lombardo L, Tabasso S, Chamy M, et al. Putrescine-1,4-dicinnamide from Pholiota spumosa (Basidiomycetes) inhibits cell growth of human prostate cancer cells. Phytomedicine. 2007;14:185-91 pubmed
  88. Shen C, Shen Y, Wang Y, Lin L, Don M, Liou K, et al. New lanostanes and naphthoquinones isolated from Antrodia salmonea and their antioxidative burst activity in human leukocytes. Planta Med. 2006;72:199-203 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that three (1, 3, and 4) of these four newly identified compounds displayed anti-oxidative effect in human leukocytes with different potency and might confer anti-inflammatory activity to these drugs...
  89. Nakazawa T, Miyazaki Y, Kaneko S, Shishido K. Developmental regulator Le.CDC5 of the mushroom Lentinula edodes: analyses of its amount in each of the stages of fruiting-body formation and its distribution in parts of the fruiting bodies. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;261:60-3 pubmed
    ..CDC5. Within the hymenophore of mature fruiting body, the hymenium (in/on which a large number of basidia and basidiospores are formed) contains the Le.CDC5 most exclusively...
  90. Lv H, Kong Y, Yao Q, Zhang B, Leng F, Bian H, et al. Nebrodeolysin, a novel hemolytic protein from mushroom Pleurotus nebrodensis with apoptosis-inducing and anti-HIV-1 effects. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also found that this hemolysin induced apoptosis in L929 and HeLa cells as evidenced by microscopic observations and DNA ladder, respectively. Moreover, this hemolysin was shown to possess anti-HIV-1 activity in CEM cell culture...
  91. Oyetayo F, Oyetayo V. Assessment of nutritional quality of wild and cultivated Pleurotus sajor-caju. J Med Food. 2009;12:1149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The preceding highlights the importance of cultivated and native P. sajor-caju as sources of high-quality protein that could contribute to nutritional adequacy in human diets...
  92. Collin Hansen C, Andersen R, Steinnes E. Damage to DNA and lipids in Boletus edulis exposed to heavy metals. Mycol Res. 2005;109:1386-96 pubmed
    ..05) suggest that in B. edulis low concentrations of mercury, possibly also of other of the metals determined in the present study, may induce dose-response relationships of a hormetic ('J-shaped') nature...