Summary: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.

Top Publications

  1. Morvan Bertrand A, Boucaud J, Le Saos J, Prud homme M. Roles of the fructans from leaf sheaths and from the elongating leaf bases in the regrowth following defoliation of Lolium perenne L. Planta. 2001;213:109-20 pubmed Bravo) during the first 48 h of regrowth showed that fructans from elongating leaf bases were hydrolysed first whereas fructans in mature leaf sheaths were degraded only after ..
  2. Abrams S, Griffin I, Hawthorne K, Liang L, Gunn S, Darlington G, et al. A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:471-6 pubmed
    Short-term studies in adolescents have generally shown an enhancement of calcium absorption by inulin-type fructans (prebiotics)...
  3. Amiard V, Morvan Bertrand A, Billard J, Huault C, Keller F, Prud homme M. Fructans, but not the sucrosyl-galactosides, raffinose and loliose, are affected by drought stress in perennial ryegrass. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:2218-29 pubmed
    ..1,6) alpha-D-Glc (1,2) beta-D-Fru], in drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass and to compare it with that of fructans. To that end, the loliose biosynthetic pathway was first established and shown to operate by a UDP-Gal: sucrose (..
  4. del Viso F, Puebla A, Fusari C, Casabuono A, Couto A, Pontis H, et al. Molecular characterization of a putative sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) of the cold-resistant Patagonian grass Bromus pictus associated with fructan accumulation under low temperatures. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:489-503 pubmed publisher
    b>Fructans are fructose polymers synthesized from sucrose in the plant vacuole. They represent short- and long-term carbohydrate reserves and have been associated with abiotic stress tolerance in graminean species...
  5. Vereyken I, van Kuik J, Evers T, Rijken P, de Kruijff B. Structural requirements of the fructan-lipid interaction. Biophys J. 2003;84:3147-54 pubmed
    b>Fructans are a group of fructose-based oligo- and polysaccharides. They are proposed to be involved in membrane protection of plants during dehydration...
  6. Catchpole G, Beckmann M, Enot D, Mondhe M, Zywicki B, Taylor J, et al. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14458-62 pubmed
    ..We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. ..
  7. Shih I, Yu Y, Shieh C, Hsieh C. selective production and characterization of levan by Bacillus subtilis (Natto) Takahashi. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:8211-5 pubmed
    ..subtilis strains tested and, as previously reported, it produced the highest yield of levan in the least time (21 h) under the common cultivation condition. ..
  8. Ritsema T, Verhaar A, Vijin I, Smeekens S. Fructosyltransferase mutants specify a function for the beta-fructosidase motif of the sucrose-binding box in specifying the fructan type synthesized. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;54:853-63 pubmed
    The onion fructosyltransferase fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) synthesizes fructans of the inulin neo-series using 1-kestose as a substrate...
  9. Van den Ende W, De Coninck B, Van Laere A. Plant fructan exohydrolases: a role in signaling and defense?. Trends Plant Sci. 2004;9:523-8 pubmed
    b>Fructans are fructose oligomers and polymers synthesized by a small number of plant and bacterial species and mainly function as reserve carbohydrates...

More Information


  1. Kuryl T, Krejpcio Z, Wójciak R, Lipko M, Debski B, Staniek H. Chromium(III) propionate and dietary fructans supplementation stimulate erythrocyte glucose uptake and beta-oxidation in lymphocytes of rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006;114:237-48 pubmed
    The study describes the effects of 10-wk dietary supplementation with fructans (inulin and oligofructose, 5% and 10%, respectively) as well as the biomimetic Cr(III) propionate complex (0...
  2. Chiang C, Wang J, Chen P, Chao Y. Enhanced levan production using chitin-binding domain fused levansucrase immobilized on chitin beads. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It is apparent that this approach offers a promising way for levan production by Z. mobilis levansucrase immobilized on chitin beads. ..
  3. Tamura K, Kawakami A, Sanada Y, Tase K, Komatsu T, Yoshida M. Cloning and functional analysis of a fructosyltransferase cDNA for synthesis of highly polymerized levans in timothy (Phleum pratense L.). J Exp Bot. 2009;60:893-905 pubmed publisher
    Variation in the structures of plant fructans and their degree of polymerization (DP) can be explained as the result of diverse combinations of fructosyltransferases (FTs) with different properties...
  4. Delzenne N, Kok N. Effects of fructans-type prebiotics on lipid metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:456S-458S pubmed publisher
    ..Oligofructose, which is a mixture of nondigestible and fermentable fructans, can decrease triacylglycerol in VLDL when given to rats...
  5. Harrison S, Xue H, Lane G, Villas Boas S, Rasmussen S. Linear ion trap MS(n) of enzymatically synthesized 13C-labeled fructans revealing differentiating fragmentation patterns of ? (1-2) and ? (1-6) fructans and providing a tool for oligosaccharide identification in complex mixtures. Anal Chem. 2012;84:1540-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Fructans are polymeric carbohydrates, which play important roles as plant reserve carbohydrates and stress protectants, and are beneficial for human health and animal production...
  6. Vijn I, van Dijken A, Luscher M, Bos A, Smeets E, Weisbeek P, et al. Cloning of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase from onion and synthesis of structurally defined fructan molecules from sucrose. Plant Physiol. 1998;117:1507-13 pubmed
  7. Hernot D, Boileau T, Bauer L, Middelbos I, Murphy M, Swanson K, et al. In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:1354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Mixing short- and long-chain oligosaccharides attenuated short-chain oligosaccharide fermentation rate and extent. This study provides new information on the fermentation characteristics of some oligosaccharides used in human nutrition. ..
  8. Roberfroid M, Delzenne N. Dietary fructans. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998;18:117-43 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the fate of inulin-type fructans (namely native chicory inulin, oligofructose produced by the partial enzymatic hydrolysis of chicory inulin, and ..
  9. Shepherd S, Parker F, Muir J, Gibson P. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:765-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The 25 patients who had responded to dietary change were provided all food, low in free fructose and fructans, for the duration of the study...
  10. Guarner F. Studies with inulin-type fructans on intestinal infections, permeability, and inflammation. J Nutr. 2007;137:2568S-2571S pubmed publisher
    Symbiosis between host and gut bacteria can be optimized by prebiotics. Inulin-type fructans have been shown to improve the microbial balance of the intestinal ecosystem by stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli...
  11. Forcheron F, Beylot M. Long-term administration of inulin-type fructans has no significant lipid-lowering effect in normolipidemic humans. Metabolism. 2007;56:1093-8 pubmed
    Short-term studies have shown that the addition to diet of inulin-type fructans, a nondigestible carbohydrate, may have a plasma lipid-lowering effect in humans...
  12. Lothier J, Lasseur B, Le Roy K, Van Laere A, Prud homme M, Barre P, et al. Cloning, gene mapping, and functional analysis of a fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) from Lolium perenne implicated in fructan synthesis rather than in fructan mobilization. J Exp Bot. 2007;58:1969-83 pubmed
    b>Fructans, which are beta-(2,1) and/or beta-(2,6) linked polymers of fructose, are important storage carbohydrates in many plants. They are mobilized via fructan exohydrolases (FEHs)...
  13. Wu T, Yang Y, Zhang L, Han J. [Systematic review of the effects of inulin-type fructans on blood lipid profiles: a meta-analysis]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2010;39:172-6 pubmed
    To conduct a systematic review on the efficacy of inulin-type fructans on lowering blood lipids, randomized controlled intervention trials on the analysis of plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol resulted from the treatment of ..
  14. Bonsu N, Johnson C, McLeod K. Can dietary fructans lower serum glucose?. J Diabetes. 2011;3:58-66 pubmed publisher
    Convincing evidence indicates that the consumption of inulin-type fructans, inulin, and oligofructose has beneficial effects on blood glucose changes in animal models, although data in humans have been considered equivocal...
  15. Dewulf E, Cani P, Neyrinck A, Possemiers S, Van Holle A, Muccioli G, et al. Inulin-type fructans with prebiotic properties counteract GPR43 overexpression and PPAR?-related adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:712-22 pubmed publisher
    Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are nondigestible/fermentable carbohydrates which are able - through the modification of the gut microbiota - to counteract high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, endotoxemia and related-metabolic alterations...
  16. Demel R, Dorrepaal E, Ebskamp M, Smeekens J, De Kruijff B. Fructans interact strongly with model membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1375:36-42 pubmed
    Bacterial fructans with a high degree of polymerisation cause a very large increase in surface pressure of lipid monolayers at the air-water interface with a broad range of lipids, including phosphatidylethanolamine and several types of ..
  17. Muller J, Aeschbacher R, Sprenger N, Boller T, Wiemken A. Disaccharide-mediated regulation of sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyltransferase, a key enzyme of fructan synthesis in barley leaves. Plant Physiol. 2000;123:265-74 pubmed
  18. Parvanova D, Ivanov S, Konstantinova T, Karanov E, Atanassov A, Tsvetkov T, et al. Transgenic tobacco plants accumulating osmolytes show reduced oxidative damage under freezing stress. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2004;42:57-63 pubmed
    ..Our lines and model system could serve as a good prerequisite for additional studies to gain further insights into the complex role of osmoprotectants in freezing tolerance. ..
  19. Coudray C, Tressol J, Gueux E, Rayssiguier Y. Effects of inulin-type fructans of different chain length and type of branching on intestinal absorption and balance of calcium and magnesium in rats. Eur J Nutr. 2003;42:91-8 pubmed
    Inulin-type fructans or chains with mainly beta[2-1] linked fructose molecules escape the ingestion procedure in the small intestine and are fermented by the microflora, and are known to increase colonic absorption of minerals in animals...
  20. Peshev D, Vergauwen R, Moglia A, Hideg E, Van den Ende W. Towards understanding vacuolar antioxidant mechanisms: a role for fructans?. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:1025-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these and previous findings, a working model is proposed describing the putative radical reactions involving fructans and secondary metabolites at the inner side of the tonoplast and in the vacuolar lumen.
  21. Kawakami A, Yoshida M, Van den Ende W. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a novel 6&1-FEH from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) preferentially degrading small graminans like bifurcose. Gene. 2005;358:93-101 pubmed publisher
    Like barley and other cereals, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulates branched graminan-type fructans containing both beta-(2,1) and beta-(2,6) fructosyl linkages, mainly with a quite low degree of polymerization (DP)...
  22. Biesiekierski J, Rosella O, Rose R, Liels K, Barrett J, Shepherd S, et al. Quantification of fructans, galacto-oligosacharides and other short-chain carbohydrates in processed grains and cereals. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2011;24:154-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The prebiotics best studied are fructans [fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin] and galactooligosaccharides (GOS)...
  23. Chandrashekar P, Prashanth K, Venkatesh Y. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic...
  24. Koczan J, McGrath M, Zhao Y, Sundin G. Contribution of Erwinia amylovora exopolysaccharides amylovoran and levan to biofilm formation: implications in pathogenicity. Phytopathology. 2009;99:1237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that biofilm formation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of E. amylovora...
  25. Valluru R, Van den Ende W. Plant fructans in stress environments: emerging concepts and future prospects. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Fructans are fructose-based polymers synthesized from sucrose by fructosyltransferases (FTs)...
  26. Muir J, Shepherd S, Rosella O, Rose R, Barrett J, Gibson P. Fructan and free fructose content of common Australian vegetables and fruit. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6619-27 pubmed
    b>Fructans are not digested in the small intestines of humans. While many health benefits have been attributed to these carbohydrates, they can cause gastrointestinal symptoms in some individuals...
  27. Martínez Noël G, Tognetti J, Nagaraj V, Wiemken A, Pontis H. Calcium is essential for fructan synthesis induction mediated by sucrose in wheat. Planta. 2006;225:183-91 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that calcium is a component of the sucrose signaling pathway that leads to the induction of fructan synthesis. ..
  28. Laue H, Schenk A, Li H, Lambertsen L, Neu T, Molin S, et al. Contribution of alginate and levan production to biofilm formation by Pseudomonas syringae. Microbiology. 2006;152:2909-18 pubmed
    ..syringae derivatives. Production of the as yet uncharacterized additional EPS might be more important for biofilm formation than the syntheses of levan and alginate. ..
  29. Gadegaard G, Didion T, Folling M, Storgaard M, Andersen C, Nielsen K. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:1214-25 pubmed
    ..Further, the high fructan content was stable during the growth period, whereas the fructan content in an elite variety, marketed as a high sugar variety, dropped rapidly after reaching its maximum and subsequently remained low. ..
  30. Garcia Soto M, Jimenez Islas H, Navarrete Bolaños J, Rico Martinez R, Miranda López R, Botello Alvarez J. Kinetic study of the thermal hydrolysis of Agave salmiana for mezcal production. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7333-40 pubmed publisher
    The kinetics of the thermal hydrolysis of the fructans of Agave salmiana were determined during the cooking step of mezcal production in a pilot autoclave...
  31. Vereyken I, Chupin V, Hoekstra F, Smeekens S, de Kruijff B. The effect of fructan on membrane lipid organization and dynamics in the dry state. Biophys J. 2003;84:3759-66 pubmed
    b>Fructans are a group of fructose-based oligo- and polysaccharides, which appear to be involved in membrane preservation during dehydration by interacting with the membrane lipids...
  32. Pool Zobel B, Sauer J. Overview of experimental data on reduction of colorectal cancer risk by inulin-type fructans. J Nutr. 2007;137:2580S-2584S pubmed publisher
    ..The responsible carcinogens cause mutations or enhance cell growth. Inulin-type fructans may counteract the effects via their gut flora-mediated fermentation products in vitro and in vivo...
  33. Demigne C, Jacobs H, Moundras C, Davicco M, Horcajada M, Bernalier A, et al. Comparison of native or reformulated chicory fructans, or non-purified chicory, on rat cecal fermentation and mineral metabolism. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..inulin ((NAT)Inulin) or a reformulated inulin ((REF)Inulin, based on a combination of short- and long chain fructans) or dehydrated chicory...
  34. Ritsema T, Smeekens S. Engineering fructan metabolism in plants. J Plant Physiol. 2003;160:811-20 pubmed
    b>Fructans, or polyfructosylsucroses, are storage carbohydrates present in many higher plants. They are also considered healthy food ingredients...
  35. Lasseur B, Lothier J, Wiemken A, Van Laere A, Morvan Bertrand A, Van den Ende W, et al. Towards a better understanding of the generation of fructan structure diversity in plants: molecular and functional characterization of a sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) cDNA from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). J Exp Bot. 2011;62:1871-85 pubmed publisher
    The main storage compounds in Lolium perenne are fructans with prevailing ?(2-6) linkages. A cDNA library of L. perenne was screened using Poa secunda sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) as a probe...
  36. Cairns A. Fructan biosynthesis in transgenic plants. J Exp Bot. 2003;54:549-67 pubmed
    ..This implies a direct influence of the intracellular environment on the capacity for polymerization of fructosyltransferases and may have implications for the mechanism of natural fructan polymerization in vivo. ..
  37. Leach J, Sobolik K. High dietary intake of prebiotic inulin-type fructans in the prehistoric Chihuahuan Desert. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:1558-61 pubmed publisher the northern Chihuahuan Desert reveal intensive utilisation of desert plants that store prebiotic inulin-type fructans as the primary carbohydrate...
  38. Ritsema T, Brodmann D, Diks S, Bos C, Nagaraj V, Pieterse C, et al. Are small GTPases signal hubs in sugar-mediated induction of fructan biosynthesis?. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6605 pubmed publisher
    ..The results lead us to infer a central role for small GTPases in sugar signaling. ..
  39. Xu Q, Yajima T, Li W, Saito K, Ohshima Y, Yoshikai Y. Levan (beta-2, 6-fructan), a major fraction of fermented soybean mucilage, displays immunostimulating properties via Toll-like receptor 4 signalling: induction of interleukin-12 production and suppression of T-helper type 2 response and immunoglobuli. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:94-101 pubmed
    ..Levan is an immunostimulatory moiety in products from the fermentation process of B. subtilis (natto) and may be useful for prevention of allergic disorders with IgE production. ..
  40. Tamura K, Sanada Y, Tase K, Komatsu T, Yoshida M. Pp6-FEH1 encodes an enzyme for degradation of highly polymerized levan and is transcriptionally induced by defoliation in timothy (Phleum pratense L.). J Exp Bot. 2011;62:3421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In temperate grass species accumulating fructans, defoliation induces the activity of a fructan exohydrolase (FEH) that degrades fructans to serve as a carbon ..
  41. Hincha D, Hellwege E, Heyer A, Crowe J. Plant fructans stabilize phosphatidylcholine liposomes during freeze-drying. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:535-40 pubmed
    b>Fructans have been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing tolerance of many plant species. A direct proof of their ability to stabilize biological structures under stress conditions, however, is still lacking...
  42. Noël G, Tognetti J, Pontis H. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities are involved in fructan synthesis initiation mediated by sugars. Planta. 2001;213:640-6 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that protein kinase and protein phosphatase activities take part in the chain of events that intervenes in the induction of fructan synthesis by sugars. ..
  43. Coxam V. Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium, targeting bone health in adults. J Nutr. 2007;137:2527S-2533S pubmed
    ..and this process may be susceptible to dietary manipulation by fermentable substrates, especially inulin-type fructans. Inulin-type fructans can modulate calcium absorption because they are resistant to hydrolysis by mammalian ..
  44. Le Blay G, Chassard C, Baltzer S, Lacroix C. Set up of a new in vitro model to study dietary fructans fermentation in formula-fed babies. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..simulating the proximal colon of a formula-fed baby was developed and used to test the effects of known prebiotic fructans. Intestinal fermentation, based on a previously developed colonic fermentation model, using a new feeding medium ..
  45. Ji X, Van den Ende W, Schroeven L, Clerens S, Geuten K, Cheng S, et al. The rice genome encodes two vacuolar invertases with fructan exohydrolase activity but lacks the related fructan biosynthesis genes of the Pooideae. New Phytol. 2007;173:50-62 pubmed
    b>Fructans are believed to contribute to cold and drought tolerance in several plant families (Poaceae, Asparagaceae and Asteraceae), but it is not clear why the ability to accumulate these polymers is found in some genera (e.g...
  46. Urías Silvas J, Cani P, Delmée E, Neyrinck A, Lopez M, Delzenne N. Physiological effects of dietary fructans extracted from Agave tequilana Gto. and Dasylirion spp. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:254-61 pubmed
    Recent data reported that inulin-type fructans extracted from chicory roots regulate appetite and lipid/glucose metabolism, namely, by promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production in the colon...
  47. Banguela A, Arrieta J, Rodriguez R, Trujillo L, Menendez C, Hernández L. High levan accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase gene. J Biotechnol. 2011;154:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of onion sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in tobacco, a crop that does not naturally produce fructans. In the transgenic plants, levan with degree of polymerization above 10(4) fructosyl units was detected in leaves,..
  48. Kawakami A, Yoshida M. Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of graminan oligomers in hardened wheat. Planta. 2005;223:90-104 pubmed publisher
    b>Fructans play important roles not only as a carbon source for survival under persistent snow cover but also as agents that protect against various stresses in overwintering plants...
  49. Verhaest M, Van den Ende W, Yoshida M, Le Roy K, Peeraer Y, Sansen S, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa from Cichorium intybus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:553-4 pubmed
    ..83, b = 139.83, c = 181.94 A. Calculation of the Matthews coefficient indicates there to be two or three molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron radiation was used to collect a complete native data set to a resolution of 2.35 A. ..
  50. Adolphi B, Scholz Ahrens K, de Vrese M, Acil Y, Laue C, Schrezenmeir J. Short-term effect of bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides on bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women. Eur J Nutr. 2009;48:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..supplemented with calcium from milk minerals (f-milk + Ca, n = 28) or calcium from milk minerals, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides (f-milk + Ca + ITF + CPP; n = 29) on calcium and bone metabolism in healthy, ..
  51. Bruhwyler J, Carreer F, Demanet E, Jacobs H. Digestive tolerance of inulin-type fructans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, dose-ranging, randomized study in healthy volunteers. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to other indigestible carbohydrates or dietary fibres, a consumption of too large quantities of inulin-type fructans may cause some digestive problems...
  52. Ritsema T, Smeekens S. Fructans: beneficial for plants and humans. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2003;6:223-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, fructan synthesis and breakdown can be adapted in such a way that tailor-made fructans are produced in plants for use as healthy food ingredients.
  53. van der Meer I, Koops A, Hakkert J, van Tunen A. Cloning of the fructan biosynthesis pathway of Jerusalem artichoke. Plant J. 1998;15:489-500 pubmed
    ..In tubers, the spatial and developmental expression correlates with the accumulation of fructans. Using the 1-sst and 1-fft cDNAs, chimeric genes were constructed driven by the CaMV 35S promoter...