chewing gum


Summary: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.

Top Publications

  1. Ly K, Milgrom P, Rothen M. The potential of dental-protective chewing gum in oral health interventions. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:553-63 pubmed
    The authors provide an overview of chewing gum as a delivery vehicle for dental-protective agents, highlighting xylitol and its potential application in caries-prevention programs for children...
  2. Paton C, Lowe T, Irvine A. Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;110:1243-50 pubmed publisher
    This investigation reports the effects of caffeinated chewing gum on fatigue and hormone response during repeated sprint performance with competitive cyclists. Nine male cyclists (mean ± SD, age 24 ± 7 years, VO(2max) 62.5 ± 5...
  3. Johnson A, Jenks R, Miles C, Albert M, Cox M. Chewing gum moderates multi-task induced shifts in stress, mood, and alertness. A re-examination. Appetite. 2011;56:408-11 pubmed publisher
    The finding that chewing gum can moderate stress and mood changes following a multi-task cognitive stressor (Scholey et al., 2009) was re-examined...
  4. Torney L, Johnson A, Miles C. Chewing gum and impasse-induced self-reported stress. Appetite. 2009;53:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiology and Behaviour, 87, 789-793] was used to investigate the proposition that chewing gum reduces self-rated stress [Scholey, A., Haskell, C., Robertson, B., Kennedy, D., Milne, A., & Wetherell, M...
  5. Thaweboon S, Nakornchai S, Miyake Y, Yanagisawa T, Thaweboon B, Soo Ampon S, et al. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by xylitol chewing gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:345-53 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to determine the remineralization effects of xylitol chewing gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate on enamel subsurface lesions in humans...
  6. Noble E, Harris R, Hosie K, Thomas S, Lewis S. Gum chewing reduces postoperative ileus? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2009;7:100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An adequately powered, methodologically rigorous trial of gum chewing is required to confirm if there are any benefits and if these result in differences in clinical outcomes such as infection. ..
  7. Kolahi J, Soolari A, Ghalayani P, Varshosaz J, Fazilaty M. Newly formulated chlorhexidine gluconate chewing gum that gives both anti-plaque effectiveness and an acceptable taste: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2008;10:38-44 pubmed
    ..5879). CHX can be successfully incorporated in a chewing gum-based delivery system for use as an adjunct to or even short-term replacement for mechanical plaque control...
  8. Schimmel M, Christou P, Herrmann F, Muller F. A two-colour chewing gum test for masticatory efficiency: development of different assessment methods. J Oral Rehabil. 2007;34:671-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate different assessment methods of a two-colour chewing gum test for masticatory efficiency to determine its validity for research and clinical purposes...
  9. Ishikawa Y, Watanabe I, Hayakawa I, Minakuchi S, Uchida T. Evaluations of masticatory performance of complete denture wearers using color-changeable chewing gum and other evaluating methods. J Med Dent Sci. 2007;54:65-70 pubmed
    We have been investigating and developing a color-changeable chewing gum, that tends not to adhere to dentures...

More Information


  1. Shang H, Yang Y, Tong X, Zhang L, Fang A, Hong L. Gum chewing slightly enhances early recovery from postoperative ileus after cesarean section: results of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Perinatol. 2010;27:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Gum chewing is an inexpensive, convenient, and physiological method in enhancing the recovery of bowel function. But this may not facilitate early hospital discharge, lactation, or defecation. ..
  2. Sketchley Kaye K, Jenks R, Miles C, Johnson A. Chewing gum modifies state anxiety and alertness under conditions of social stress. Nutr Neurosci. 2011;14:237-42 pubmed publisher
    The finding that chewing gum can moderate state anxiety under conditions of acute stress has proved difficult to replicate...
  3. Imfeld T. Chlorhexidine-containing chewing gum. Clinical documentation. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2006;116:476-83 pubmed
    A clinical documentation on chlorhexidine containing chewing gum is presented on the occasion of the launch of CHewX, a chewing gum containing 5 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate in Switzerland...
  4. Gandemer V, Le Deley M, Dollfus C, Auvrignon A, Bonnaure Mallet M, Duval M, et al. Multicenter randomized trial of chewing gum for preventing oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;29:86-94 pubmed
    ..We conducted a multicenter randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum in preventing oral mucositis in 145 children receiving chemotherapy regimens expected to induce WHO grade 3-4 ..
  5. Ryan E, Kim C, Muller M, Bellar D, Barkley J, Bliss M, et al. Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:844-50 pubmed publisher
    Low-dose caffeine administered in chewing gum does not enhance cycling to exhaustion...
  6. Savica V, Calo L, Monardo P, Davis P, Granata A, Santoro D, et al. Salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum reduces hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:639-44 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mg/dl despite treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride chewed 20 mg of chitosan-loaded chewing gum twice daily for 2 wk at fast in addition to their prescribed phosphate-binding regimen...
  7. Tandeter H. Hypothesis: hexitols in chewing gum may play a role in reducing postoperative ileus. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72:39-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients chewing gum pass flatus, and have bowel movement, earlier than those having ordinary postoperative treatment, and have a ..
  8. Nagata H, Inagaki Y, Tanaka M, Ojima M, Kataoka K, Kuboniwa M, et al. Effect of eucalyptus extract chewing gum on periodontal health: a double-masked, randomized trial. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1378-85 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chewing gum containing eucalyptus extract on periodontal health in a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial...
  9. de Castro S, van den Esschert J, van Heek N, Dalhuisen S, Koelemay M, Busch O, et al. A systematic review of the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus. Dig Surg. 2008;25:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..3 days shorter, 95% CI of 3.2 days shorter to 0.6 days longer). This meta-analysis shows a favorable effect of gum chewing on time to flatus and defecation but no significant effect on the hospital stay. ..
  10. Komagamine Y, Kanazawa M, Minakuchi S, Uchida T, Sasaki Y. Association between masticatory performance using a colour-changeable chewing gum and jaw movement. J Oral Rehabil. 2011;38:555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..was to investigate the relationship between masticatory performance as determined using a colour-changeable chewing gum and mandibular movements. Subjects comprised 45 fully dentate adults (23 men, 22 women; mean age, 28·1 years)...
  11. Calo L, Savica V, Piccoli A, Fusaro M, D Angelo A, Davis P. Reduction of hyperphosphatemia is related with the reduction of C-reactive protein in dialysis patients. Study in sevelamer-resistant dialysis patients treated with chitosan chewing gum as salivary phosphate binder. Ren Fail. 2011;33:11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with sevelamer-"resistant" hyperphosphatemia, who were treated with a chitosan-loaded chewing gum, as salivary phosphate binder, in addition to sevelamer, reduced serum PO(4) to normal, to retrospectively ..
  12. Etter J, Stapleton J. Nicotine replacement therapy for long-term smoking cessation: a meta-analysis. Tob Control. 2006;15:280-5 pubmed
    ..Because the long-term benefit of NRT is modest, tobacco dependence treatment might be better viewed as a chronic disorder, requiring repeated episodes of treatment. ..
  13. Campus G, Cagetti M, Sacco G, Solinas G, Mastroberardino S, Lingstrom P. Six months of daily high-dose xylitol in high-risk schoolchildren: a randomized clinical trial on plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococci. Caries Res. 2009;43:455-61 pubmed publisher
    A randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of daily high-dose xylitol chewing gum on plaque pH and salivary mutans streptococci (MS) in a sample of schoolchildren at high risk of caries...
  14. Holgerson P, Sjöström I, Stecksen Blicks C, Twetman S. Dental plaque formation and salivary mutans streptococci in schoolchildren after use of xylitol-containing chewing gum. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2007;17:79-85 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that chewing gum with xylitol or sorbitol/maltitol can reduce the amount of dental plaque and acid production in saliva in ..
  15. Kouba E, Wallen E, Pruthi R. Gum chewing stimulates bowel motility in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Urology. 2007;70:1053-6 pubmed
    ..The second cohort underwent surgery during September 2005 to July 2006. These patients were given chewing gum to begin on postoperative day 1...
  16. Çavuşoğlu Y, Azili M, Karaman A, Aslan M, Karaman I, Erdogan D, et al. Does gum chewing reduce postoperative ileus after intestinal resection in children? A prospective randomized controlled trial. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2009;19:171-3 pubmed publisher
  17. Smith A. Effects of chewing gum on stress and health: a replication and investigation of dose-response. Stress Health. 2013;29:172-4 pubmed publisher
    Research suggests that chewing gum may be associated with reduced stress, depression and a reduced likelihood of having high cholesterol and blood pressure...
  18. Tanimoto Y, Watanabe M, Kono R, Hirota C, Takasaki K, Kono K. [Utility of color-changeable chewing gum to evaluate masticatory ability in community-dwelling elderly persons]. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2009;56:383-90 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of color-changeable chewing gum to evaluate masticatory ability in community-dwelling elderly persons...
  19. Zhu M, Carvalho R, Scher A, Wu C. Short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on salivary anaerobes associated with halitosis. J Clin Dent. 2011;22:23-6 pubmed
    The present study investigated the short-term germ-killing effect of sugar-sweetened cinnamon chewing gum on total and H2S-producing salivary anaerobes.
  20. Deshpande A, Jadad A. The impact of polyol-containing chewing gums on dental caries: a systematic review of original randomized controlled trials and observational studies. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:1602-14 pubmed
    ..conducted a systematic review of original studies that was designed to assess the impact of polyol-containing chewing gum on dental caries compared with the effect with no chewing gum...
  21. Smith A. Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers. Nutr Neurosci. 2010;13:7-16 pubmed publisher
    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress...
  22. Kamiyama M, Kanazawa M, Fujinami Y, Minakuchi S. Validity and reliability of a Self-Implementable method to evaluate masticatory performance: use of color-changeable chewing gum and a color scale. J Prosthodont Res. 2010;54:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..method to evaluate masticatory performance using a newly developed color scale and color-changeable chewing gum. We developed a dedicated color scale that enables anyone to easily check the color of the chewing gum instead ..
  23. Fitzgerald J, Ahmed I. Systematic review and meta-analysis of chewing-gum therapy in the reduction of postoperative paralytic ileus following gastrointestinal surgery. World J Surg. 2009;33:2557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These outcomes are not significant for laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery. ..
  24. Porciani P, Perra C, Grandini S. Effect on dental stain occurrence by chewing gum containing sodium tripolyphosphate--a double-blind six-week trial. J Clin Dent. 2010;21:4-7 pubmed
    ..controlled double-blind clinical study was conducted to assess and to measure the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing sodium tripolyphosphate (1%) on dental stain occurrence versus a placebo sugar-free chewing gum...
  25. Ribelles Llop M, Guinot Jimeno F, Mayné Acién R, Bellet Dalmau L. Effects of xylitol chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and presence of Streptococcus mutans in saliva. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2010;11:9-14 pubmed
    The first studies on the use of chewing gum in dentistry were done in the 1970s. The Turku Sugar Studies, carried out between 1970 and 1973, showed the excellent anticaries properties of xylitol chewing gums...
  26. Choi H, Kang S, Yoon D, Kang S, Ko H, Moon D, et al. Chewing gum has a stimulatory effect on bowel motility in patients after open or robotic radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a prospective randomized comparative study. Urology. 2011;77:884-90 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether chewing gum during the postoperative period facilitates the recovery of bowel function and has different efficacy according to operative method used in patients with radical cystectomy...
  27. Abd El Maeboud K, Ibrahim M, Shalaby D, Fikry M. Gum chewing stimulates early return of bowel motility after caesarean section. BJOG. 2009;116:1334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Gum chewing after CS is safe, well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal motility and shorter hospital stay; with potential impact on reducing the overall healthcare costs in case of routine implementation. ..
  28. Smith A. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic...
  29. Scholey A, Haskell C, Robertson B, Kennedy D, Milne A, Wetherell M. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:304-12 pubmed publisher
    The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory...
  30. Lee Y, Choi Y, Jeong S, Kim H, Lee S, Song K. Morphological changes in Streptococcus mutans after chewing gum containing xylitol for twelve months. Curr Microbiol. 2009;58:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mutans, which could reduce the size and growth of S. mutans colonies and change their morphology as a result. ..
  31. Mäkinen K, Alanen P, Isokangas P, Isotupa K, Söderling E, Mäkinen P, et al. Thirty-nine-month xylitol chewing-gum programme in initially 8-year-old school children: a feasibility study focusing on mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Int Dent J. 2008;58:41-50 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a close biochemical relationship between xylitol and mutans streptococci, and suggest that a similar relationship may exist regarding aerobically cultured aciduric bacteria present in saliva. ..
  32. Chan M, Law W. Use of chewing gum in reducing postoperative ileus after elective colorectal resection: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007;50:2149-57 pubmed
    Published studies comparing the addition of chewing gum to standardized postoperative care to shorten postoperative ileus showed controversial results...
  33. Kouwen H, Dejonckere P. Prevalence of OME is reduced in young children using chewing gum. Ear Hear. 2007;28:451-5 pubmed
    The present study investigates a possible relationship between use of chewing gum and otitis media with effusion (OME) in children...
  34. Onyper S, Carr T, Farrar J, Floyd B. Cognitive advantages of chewing gum. Now you see them, now you don't. Appetite. 2011;57:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chewing gum was associated with performance advantages on multiple measures when gum was chewed for 5 min before, but not ..
  35. Schirrmeister J, Seger R, Altenburger M, Lussi A, Hellwig E. Effects of various forms of calcium added to chewing gum on initial enamel carious lesions in situ. Caries Res. 2007;41:108-14 pubmed
    ..9%), calcium gluconate (1.8%) and calcium lactate (0.45%), 1 chewing gum contained casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (0...
  36. Hetherington M, Regan M. Effects of chewing gum on short-term appetite regulation in moderately restrained eaters. Appetite. 2011;57:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A small but significant reduction in snack intake was observed, chewing gum reduced weight of snack consumed by 10% compared to no gum (p<0.05)...
  37. Lunell E, Curvall M. Nicotine delivery and subjective effects of Swedish portion snus compared with 4 mg nicotine polacrilex chewing gum. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13:573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..smokers were randomly assigned to 2 types of 1 g Swedish portion snus and 4 mg nicotine polacrilex (NP) chewing gum in open-label, single-dose crossover study...
  38. Keukenmeester R, Slot D, Putt M, van der Weijden G. The effect of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2013;11:2-14 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to systematically review the current literature on the clinical effects of sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation...
  39. Chen X, Cheng B, Yang Y, Cao A, Liu J, Du L, et al. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum. Small. 2013;9:1765-74 pubmed publisher
    ..a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative ..
  40. Block G, Persky M, Shamblin B, Baltazar M, Singh B, Sharma A, et al. Effect of salivary phosphate-binding chewing gum on serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease. Nephron Clin Pract. 2013;123:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Salivary phosphate (Psal) has been proposed as a potential target of therapy with a chitosan-containing chewing gum. We conducted several pilot studies to characterize Psal and its relationship with kidney function and ..
  41. Kafali H, Duvan C, Gözdemir E, Simavli S, Onaran Y, Keskin E. Influence of gum chewing on postoperative bowel activity after cesarean section. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;69:84-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01). On the basis of the tolerability and results on bowel function, gum chewing provides a simple method for early recovery of bowel function after cesarean section. ..
  42. Yeh Y, Klinger E, Reddy P. Pharmacologic options to prevent postoperative ileus. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:1474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..01), while the significance of a reduction in LOS (0.2-1.3 days) was not reported. Gum chewing and alvimopan are effective in preventing POI, but given safety concerns and higher cost with alvimopan, gum chewing may be preferred. ..
  43. Vásquez W, Hernandez A, Garcia Sabrido J. Is gum chewing useful for ileus after elective colorectal surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..There is also a trend to reduce the length of hospital stay. Gum chewing should be added to the standard treatment of these patients. ..
  44. Greenberg M, Urnezis P, Tian M. Compressed mints and chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract are effective against bacteria responsible for oral malodor. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:9465-9 pubmed
    Flavors and natural botanic extracts are often used in chewing gum and compressed mints for breath freshening and relief of oral malodor...
  45. Cai F, Manton D, Shen P, Walker G, Cross K, Yuan Y, et al. Effect of addition of citric acid and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to a sugar-free chewing gum on enamel remineralization in situ. Caries Res. 2007;41:377-83 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPP-ACP in a fruit-flavoured sugar-free chewing gum containing citric acid on enamel remineralization, and acid resistance of the remineralized enamel, using an in ..
  46. Giuca M, Saracino S, Giannotti E, Ceccarini A. Oral clearance of NaF from chewing gum and tablets in children and adults. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2007;8:19-24 pubmed
    ..The clearance of Fluoride is similar for both the administration methods used. Both chewing gum and tablets are valid methods of Fluoride administration and they can be considered useful aids in dental ..
  47. Matros E, Rocha F, Zinner M, Wang J, Ashley S, Breen E, et al. Does gum chewing ameliorate postoperative ileus? Results of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:773-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast to findings of a preliminary study, our clinical trial suggests that gum chewing, although safe, does not reduce duration of postcolectomy ileus. ..
  48. Burt B. The use of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum in caries control. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137:190-6 pubmed
    The author compared the caries-inhibitory action of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum and assessed the role of these products in caries prevention...
  49. Tucha O, Mecklinger L, Maier K, Hammerl M, Lange K. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite. 2004;42:327-9 pubmed
    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined...
  50. Shiffman S, Hughes J, Di Marino M, Sweeney C. Patterns of over-the-counter nicotine gum use: persistent use and concurrent smoking. Addiction. 2003;98:1747-53 pubmed
    ..In both cases, the amount of gum use is small. OTC marketing of nicotine gum does not appear to have increased use contrary to labeling nor resulted in patterns of use that should warrant clinical or public health concerns. ..
  51. Soparkar P, Newman M. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22:25-8 pubmed
    ..Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. ..
  52. Dawes C, Dibdin G. Salivary concentrations of urea released from a chewing gum containing urea and how these affect the urea content of gel-stabilized plaques and their pH after exposure to sucrose. Caries Res. 2001;35:344-53 pubmed
    ..Thus chewing gum is only likely to inhibit caries when it is chewed after consumption of fermentable carbohydrate, rather than ..
  53. Davies A. A comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum in the management of xerostomia in patients with advanced cancer. Palliat Med. 2000;14:197-203 pubmed, crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) with a low-tack, sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent) in the management of xerostomia in patients with advanced cancer...