bread

Summary

Summary: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.

Top Publications

  1. Montonen J, Boeing H, Fritsche A, Schleicher E, Joost H, Schulze M, et al. Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:337-45 pubmed publisher
    To examine the association of red meat and whole-grain bread consumption with plasma levels of biomarkers related to glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation and obesity...
  2. Adimpong D, Sørensen K, Thorsen L, Stuer Lauridsen B, Abdelgadir W, Nielsen D, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus strains isolated from primary starters for African traditional bread production and characterization of the bacitracin operon and bacitracin biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:7903-14 pubmed publisher
    ..licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline (8.0 mg/liter), vancomycin (4...
  3. Hobbs D, Goulding M, Nguyen A, Malaver T, Walker C, George T, et al. Acute ingestion of beetroot bread increases endothelium-independent vasodilation and lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy men: a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. 2013;143:1399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, beetroot is consumed by only 4.5% of the UK population, whereas bread is a staple component of the diet...
  4. Madsen K, Rasmussen L, Andersen R, Mølgaard C, Jakobsen J, Bjerrum P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin D–fortified milk and bread on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in families in Denmark during winter: the VitmaD study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:374-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin D intakes are lower than dietary recommendations in most populations, and thus, a low vitamin D status is widespread, especially during winter...
  5. Torfadottir J, Valdimarsdottir U, Mucci L, Stampfer M, Kasperzyk J, Fall K, et al. Rye bread consumption in early life and reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23:941-50 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether consumption of whole-grain rye bread, oatmeal, and whole-wheat bread, during different periods of life, is associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa)...
  6. Mario Sanz Penella J, Laparra J, Sanz Y, Haros M. Bread supplemented with amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus): effect of phytates on in vitro iron absorption. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012;67:50-6 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the bread supplemented with whole amaranth flour (0, 20 and 40%) on iron bioavailability using Caco-2 cells model...
  7. Gil Humanes J, Piston F, Giménez M, Martin A, Barro F. The introgression of RNAi silencing of ?-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45937 pubmed publisher
    ..present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of ?-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated...
  8. Moazzami A, Bondia Pons I, Hanhineva K, Juntunen K, Antl N, Poutanen K, et al. Metabolomics reveals the metabolic shifts following an intervention with rye bread in postmenopausal women--a randomized control trial. Nutr J. 2012;11:88 pubmed publisher
    ..0-8.5 mmol/L) and BMI of 20-33 kg/m² consumed a minimum of 20% of their daily energy intake as high fiber WG rye bread (RB) or refined wheat bread (WB) in a randomized, controlled, crossover design with two 8-wk intervention periods ..
  9. Li Y, Wang Q, Li X, Xiao X, Sun F, Wang C, et al. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50057 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum wheat.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ye C, Zhang X, Gao Y, Wang Y, Pan S, Li X. Multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction after matrix modification for avoiding matrix effect in the determination of ethyl carbamate in bread. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;710:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A method based on multiple HS-SPME for the determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in bread samples has been developed and validated, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector...
  2. Zhang X, Jin H, Zhang Y, Liu D, Li G, Xia X, et al. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:243 pubmed publisher
    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat...
  3. Fernandes T, Oliveira M, Mafra I. Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa. Food Chem. 2013;138:687-92 pubmed publisher
    Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye...
  4. Gil A, Ortega R, Maldonado J. Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:2316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of the present work is to review the fundamental studies that support the consumption of wholegrain cereals and bread to prevent chronic diseases. Descriptive review considering human studies...
  5. Lappi J, Salojärvi J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K, de Vos W, et al. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2013;143:648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber...
  6. Sanz Penella J, Laparra J, Sanz Y, Haros M. Assessment of iron bioavailability in whole wheat bread by addition of phytase-producing bifidobacteria. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of phytase-producing Bifidobacterium strains during the breadmaking process (direct or indirect) on final bread Fe dialyzability and ferritin formation in Caco-2 cell as a measure of cell Fe uptake was assessed...
  7. Abe S, Inoue M, Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Ishihara J, Sasazuki S, et al. Rice, bread, noodle and cereal intake and colorectal cancer in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study). Br J Cancer. 2014;110:1316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association between rice intake and CRC risk in comparison with bread, noodles and cereal among Japanese adults enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study...
  8. Coda R, di Cagno R, Rizzello C, Nionelli L, Edema M, Gobbetti M. Utilization of African grains for sourdough bread making. J Food Sci. 2011;76:M329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Acha and Iburu sourdough breads were compared to wheat sourdough bread started with the same strains and to breads made with the same formula but using baker's yeast alone...
  9. Bautista Castaño I, Serra Majem L. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies. Nutr Rev. 2012;70:218-33 pubmed publisher
    A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet...
  10. Damen B, Cloetens L, Broekaert W, Francois I, Lescroart O, Trogh I, et al. Consumption of breads containing in situ-produced arabinoxylan oligosaccharides alters gastrointestinal effects in healthy volunteers. J Nutr. 2012;142:470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-seven healthy volunteers consumed 180 g of wheat/rye bread with or without in situ-produced AXOS (WR(+) and WR(-), respectively) daily for 3 wk...
  11. Pont C, Murat F, Confolent C, Balzergue S, Salse J. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genome Biol. 2011;12:R119 pubmed publisher
    Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes...
  12. Bennett D, Izanloo A, Reynolds M, Kuchel H, Langridge P, Schnurbusch T. Genetic dissection of grain yield and physical grain quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-limited environments. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;125:255-71 pubmed publisher
    In the water-limited bread wheat production environment of southern Australia, large advances in grain yield have previously been achieved through the introduction and improved understanding of agronomic traits controlled by major genes, ..
  13. Hobbs D, Kaffa N, George T, Methven L, Lovegrove J. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:2066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14)...
  14. Bolhuis D, Temme E, Koeman F, Noort M, Kremer S, Janssen A. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings. J Nutr. 2011;141:2249-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake...
  15. Bondia Pons I, Nordlund E, Mattila I, Katina K, Aura A, Kolehmainen M, et al. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread. Nutr J. 2011;10:116 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown...
  16. Bennett D, Reynolds M, Mullan D, Izanloo A, Kuchel H, Langridge P, et al. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;125:1473-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. ..
  17. Cyran M, Ceglinska A, Kolasińska I. Depolymerization degree of water-extractable arabinoxylans in rye bread: characteristics of inbred lines used for breeding of bread cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:8720-30 pubmed publisher
    The water-extractable arabinoxylans (WE AXs) present in rye bread govern its viscous properties, which may be related to reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes...
  18. Brenchley R, Spannagl M, Pfeifer M, Barker G, D Amore R, Allen A, et al. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Nature. 2012;491:705-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20 per cent of the calories consumed by humans...
  19. Bautista Castaño I, Sanchez Villegas A, Estruch R, Martinez Gonzalez M, Corella D, Salas Salvado J, et al. Changes in bread consumption and 4-year changes in adiposity in Spanish subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:337-46 pubmed publisher
    The effects of bread consumption change over time on anthropometric measures have been scarcely studied...
  20. Berkman P, Visendi P, Lee H, Stiller J, Manoli S, Lorenc M, et al. Dispersion and domestication shaped the genome of bread wheat. Plant Biotechnol J. 2013;11:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate the genome-wide application of this reduced-complexity syntenic assembly approach will accelerate crop improvement efforts not only in wheat, but also in other polyploid crops of significance. ..
  21. Elhakim N, Laillou A, El Nakeeb A, Yacoub R, Shehata M. Fortifying baladi bread in Egypt: reaching more than 50 million people through the subsidy program. Food Nutr Bull. 2012;33:S260-71 pubmed
    ..of a 5-year national program to fortify with iron and folic acid the wheat flour used in baking subsidized baladi bread, the staple food consumed by a majority of low- income groups...
  22. Wilhelm E, Boulton M, Al Kaff N, Balfourier F, Bordes J, Greenland A, et al. Rht-1 and Ppd-D1 associations with height, GA sensitivity, and days to heading in a worldwide bread wheat collection. Theor Appl Genet. 2013;126:2233-43 pubmed publisher
    Reduced height (Rht)-1 and Photoperiod (Ppd) have major effects on the adaptability of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) to specific environments. Ppd-D1a is a photoperiod insensitive allele that reduces time to flowering...
  23. Aslankoohi E, Zhu B, Rezaei M, Voordeckers K, De Maeyer D, Marchal K, et al. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:7325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited...
  24. Rizzello C, Calasso M, Campanella D, de Angelis M, Gobbetti M. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread. Int J Food Microbiol. 2014;180:78-87 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, ..
  25. Marcussen T, Sandve S, Heier L, Spannagl M, Pfeifer M, Jakobsen K, et al. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat. Science. 2014;345:1250092 pubmed publisher
    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking...
  26. Marciani L, Pritchard S, Hellier Woods C, Costigan C, Hoad C, Gowland P, et al. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:754-8 pubmed publisher
    Postprandial bloating is a common symptom in patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Whole meal bread (WMB) often aggravates such symptoms though the mechanisms are unclear...
  27. Hill C, Taylor J, Edwards J, Mather D, Bacic A, Langridge P, et al. Whole-genome mapping of agronomic and metabolic traits to identify novel quantitative trait Loci in bread wheat grown in a water-limited environment. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1266-81 pubmed publisher
    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world...
  28. Choulet F, Alberti A, Theil S, Glover N, Barbe V, Daron J, et al. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B. Science. 2014;345:1249721 pubmed publisher
    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat...
  29. Galle S, Schwab C, Dal Bello F, Coffey A, Ganzle M, Arendt E. Influence of in-situ synthesized exopolysaccharides on the quality of gluten-free sorghum sourdough bread. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;155:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the influence of in situ formed EPS on dough rheology and quality of gluten-free sorghum bread was investigated...
  30. Rizzello C, Cassone A, Di Cagno R, Gobbetti M. Synthesis of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during sourdough fermentation by selected lactic acid bacteria. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:6936-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthesis of GABA increased when the dough yield was decreased to 160. The highest synthesis of GABA (258.71 mg/kg) was found in wholemeal wheat sourdough. ..
  31. Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:983-8 pubmed
    To investigate the potential of acetic acid supplementation as a means of lowering the glycaemic index (GI) of a bread meal, and to evaluate the possible dose-response effect on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety...
  32. Mustafa A, Andersson R, Rosen J, Kamal Eldin A, Aman P. Factors influencing acrylamide content and color in rye crisp bread. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:5985-9 pubmed
    An industrial baking procedure for yeast-leavened whole-grain rye crisp bread was adapted to local laboratory conditions to study the effect of time and temperature of baking and the addition of fructose, asparagine, and oat-bran ..
  33. Selinheimo E, Autio K, Kruus K, Buchert J. Elucidating the mechanism of laccase and tyrosinase in wheat bread making. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6357-65 pubmed
    ..These enzymes are interesting tools for tailoring dough and bread structures, as the characteristics of the biopolymers significantly determine the viscoelastic and fracture ..
  34. Justo M, Alfaro A, Aguilar E, Wrobel K, Wrobel K, Guzmán G, et al. [Integral bread development with soybean, chia, linseed, and folic acid as a functional food for women]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2007;57:78-84 pubmed
    Six bread formulations were developed, using different proportions of whole-wheat flour, chia seeds and flaxseed flour. All of our formulations were added with folic acid...
  35. Charlton K, MacGregor E, Vorster N, Levitt N, Steyn K. Partial replacement of NaCl can be achieved with potassium, magnesium and calcium salts in brown bread. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007;58:508-21 pubmed
    To develop a reduced-sodium bread in which salt (NaCl) is partially replaced with potassium, magnesium and calcium salts...
  36. Haseneyer G, Ravel C, Dardevet M, Balfourier F, Sourdille P, Charmet G, et al. High level of conservation between genes coding for the GAMYB transcription factor in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) collections. Theor Appl Genet. 2008;117:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This confirms the close relationship between these species and also highlights the functional importance of this transcription factor. ..
  37. Najjar A, Parsons P, Duncan A, Robinson L, Yada R, Graham T. The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..favourable effect on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis after first and second meals, compared with those for white bread. Ten overweight volunteers consumed 50 g available carbohydrate of each of the four breads (white, whole wheat, ..
  38. Winkels R, Brouwer I, Clarke R, Katan M, Verhoef P. Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B-12 improves the folate and vitamin B-12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:348-55 pubmed
    ..The objective was to estimate the effect of the consumption of bread fortified with modest amounts of folic acid and vitamin B-12 on folate and vitamin B-12 status in healthy older ..
  39. Genc Y, Oldach K, Verbyla A, Lott G, Hassan M, Tester M, et al. Sodium exclusion QTL associated with improved seedling growth in bread wheat under salinity stress. Theor Appl Genet. 2010;121:877-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, a doubled-haploid bread wheat population (Berkut/Krichauff) was grown in supported hydroponics to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) ..
  40. Stromeck A, Hu Y, Chen L, Ganzle M. Proteolysis and bioconversion of cereal proteins to glutamate and ?-Aminobutyrate (GABA) in Rye malt sourdoughs. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:1392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamate and GABA accumulated to concentrations up to 63 and 90 mmol kg(-1) DM, respectively. Glutamate levels obtained through bioconversion of cereal proteins enable the use of hydrolyzed cereal protein as condiment. ..
  41. Mackerras D, Singh G, Eastman C. Iodine status of Aboriginal teenagers in the Darwin region before mandatory iodine fortification of bread. Med J Aust. 2011;194:126-30 pubmed
    ..iodine status of participants in the Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study who resided in the Darwin Health Region (DHR) in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory prior to the introduction of mandatory iodine fortification of bread.
  42. Vogelmann S, Hertel C. Impact of ecological factors on the stability of microbial associations in sourdough fermentation. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the two associations were remarkably stable under most of the investigated process conditions. ..
  43. Heick J, Fischer M, Kerbach S, Tamm U, Popping B. Application of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous detection of seven allergenic foods in flour and bread and comparison of the method with commercially available ELISA test kits. J AOAC Int. 2011;94:1060-8 pubmed
    ..b>Bread was chosen as a model matrix...
  44. Ohrvik V, Ohrvik H, Tallkvist J, Witthöft C. Folates in bread: retention during bread-making and in vitro bioaccessibility. Eur J Nutr. 2010;49:365-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Bread is an important folate source in several countries. However, bread-making was reported to cause losses of endogenous bread folates (approximately 40%) as well as added synthetic folic acid (approximately 30%)...
  45. Rosén L, Silva L, Andersson U, Holm C, Ostman E, Björck I. Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile. Nutr J. 2009;8:42 pubmed publisher
    ..White wheat bread (WWB) was used as a reference...
  46. Borrelli R, Fogliano V. Bread crust melanoidins as potential prebiotic ingredients. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005;49:673-8 pubmed
    ..This problem was recently overcome for bread melanoidins using an enzymatic digestion procedure...
  47. Samapundo S, Deschuyffeleer N, van Laere D, De Leyn I, Devlieghere F. Effect of NaCl reduction and replacement on the growth of fungi important to the spoilage of bread. Food Microbiol. 2010;27:749-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, challenge tests were performed on white bread to determine the consequences of NaCl reduction with or without partial replacement on the growth of P. roqueforti...
  48. Vermeulen N, Gänzle M, Vogel R. Glutamine deamidation by cereal-associated lactic acid bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;103:1197-205 pubmed
    ..The addition of 47 mmol kg(-1) glutamate to chemically acidified doughs significantly changed the bread flavour...
  49. Tosi P, Gritsch C, He J, Shewry P. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. Ann Bot. 2011;108:23-35 pubmed publisher
  50. Granfeldt Y, Nyberg L, Björck I. Muesli with 4 g oat beta-glucans lowers glucose and insulin responses after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62:600-7 pubmed
    ..This was served together with white wheat bread in the morning after an overnight fast. The compositions were standardized to contain 50 g available carbohydrates...
  51. Hosler A, Varadarajulu D, Ronsani A, Fredrick B, Fisher B. Low-fat milk and high-fiber bread availability in food stores in urban and rural communities. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2006;12:556-62 pubmed
    ..counties (N=177) in New York State were visited and surveyed for their availability of low-fat milk and high-fiber bread. Stores in the rural community were significantly (P < ...
  52. Wieser H. Chemistry of gluten proteins. Food Microbiol. 2007;24:115-9 pubmed
    ..Non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophobic bonds are important for the aggregation of gliadins and glutenins and implicate structure and physical properties of dough. ..
  53. Piston F, Gil Humanes J, Rodriguez Quijano M, Barro F. Down-regulating ?-gliadins in bread wheat leads to non-specific increases in other gluten proteins and has no major effect on dough gluten strength. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24754 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic lines of bread wheat with ?-gliadins suppressed by RNAi are reported...